Presentation on theme: "Outline Introduction Two quizzes –Are you ready to study psychology? –The “Psychology is common sense” quiz? Themes of Psychological Science –Seven levels."— Presentation transcript:
Outline Introduction Two quizzes –Are you ready to study psychology? –The “Psychology is common sense” quiz? Themes of Psychological Science –Seven levels of analysis Study Questions: I will give a study questions before each lecture. Approximately half of the short answer questions on the two exams will be based on these questions.
The “Are you ready to study Psychology” Quiz. The following short quiz consists of 4 questions and will tell us if you are ready to study Psychology
1) How do you put a giraffe into a refrigerator?
The Correct Answer: 1)Open the refrigerator, 2)Put in the giraffe, 3)Close the door. This question tests whether you tend to do simple things in an overly complicated way.
2) How do you put an elephant into a refrigerator?
Wrong Answer: 1)Open the refrigerator, 2)Put in the elephant, 3)Close the door. This question tests your ability to think through the repercussions of your actions. Correct Answer: 1)Open the refrigerator, 2)Take out the giraffe 3)Put in the elephant, 4)Close the door.
3) The Lion King is hosting an animal conference. All the animals attend except one. Which animal does not attend?
The Correct Answer: The Elephant This question tests your memory The Elephant is in the refrigerator, remember.
4) There is a river you must cross. But it is inhabited by crocodiles. How do you manage it?
The Correct Answer: Swim across This question tests whether you learn quickly from your mistakes All the crocodiles are attending the Animal Conference.
The “Psychology is just common sense” quiz. Question 1: How many senses do we possess? A] Less than 5 B] Just 5 C] More than 5
Question 2: What is the minimum number of personalities that someone must have to be classified as a schizophrenic?
Question 3: True or false. The best way to memorize information for a clear, permanent memory is to repeat the information over and over and over and over...
What percentage of our brain do we actually use? A] Less than 10 % B] About 50 % C] More than 90 % Question 4
Question 5: Giving a child a spanking to stop them from disobeying their parents is known as... A] Negative reinforcement B] Positive reinforcement C] Neither A nor B
Question 6: True or False. The best way to make sure that small details are recalled accurately by an eye witness is to use hypnosis.
Question 7: The best way to implant a subconscious thought is: A] Sub-auditory messages. B] Subliminally presented pictures. C] Backwards speech Study Go to class Read!Think You can do it! Give McCormick $$$$$$$
Question 8: In Festinger & Carlsmith’s experiment who will say they liked the task more? A] Those who received $1. B] Those who received $20.
Answers 1. [C] More than five 2. One 3. False 4. More than 90% (actually it is 100%) 5. [C] Neither 6. False 7. None of these will implant subconscious thoughts 8. $1
Cognitive Dissonance Disparity between a person’s beliefs and behaviour may cause an unpleasant tension that is sometimes alleviated by changing one’s attitude
What is Psychology? Oxford Concise Dictionary: Psychology n. science of the nature, functions, and phenomenon of [the] human mind. psyche n. from the Greek for soul, life, spirit. -logy suf. subject of study.
Psychological Science Your text book definition: –Psychological science is the study of mind, brain, and behaviour. >Mental activity in the mind results from biological processes in the brain. >Psychological Science previously involved only the objective observation of behaviour.
The Themes of Psychological Science 1.Principles are cumulative. 1.Focus on what is known and has been well established over years of experimentation. 1.E.g, The primacy effect 2.The details are evolving 3.Many questions in Psychological Science can be answered in infinitely complex ways
The Themes of Psychological Science A biological revolution is in progress. –Brain Chemistry >Neurotransmitters. Chemical substances which modulate the activity of neurons (brain cells). ~Serotonin and depression ~Discovery of endorphins –The Human Genome –Watching the working brain
The Themes of Psychological Science
The mind is adaptive. –Evolutionary theory: emphasizes the inherited, adaptive value of behaviour through the entire history of a species. –Sociobiology > The human mind has adapted for social living –Modern minds in stone-age skulls >The calendar of evolution
The Themes of Psychological Science The Calendar of Evolution –First living cells appeared 3.5 billion years ago – Condense evolution into one calendar year ~Living cells3.5 billion-->Jan 1 ~Multicelled animals570 million --> Nov. 2 ~Vertibrates400 million --> Nov. 20 ~Mammals200 million --> Dec. 11 ~First Birds 65 million --> Dec. 25 ~Bipedalism 10 million --> Dec. 30 ~Homo sapiens 40,000 --> Dec. 31, 11:54 PM
The Themes of Psychological Science There are multiple levels of analysis. –Psychologists work on the same problem but ask different questions at different levels of analysis –We will emphasize seven levels: >Genetic >Neurochemical >Brain systems >Behavioural >Perceptual and cognitive >Individual >Sociocultural