Presentation on theme: "Module 3 of 6 Elementary Literacy for Students with Significant Cognitive Disabilities Recommended citation: Assessing Special Education Students SCASS."— Presentation transcript:
Module 3 of 6 Elementary Literacy for Students with Significant Cognitive Disabilities Recommended citation: Assessing Special Education Students SCASS (AA-AAS Study Group), Elementary literacy for students with significant cognitive disabilities. Washington, D.C., Council of Chief State School Officers
Slide 2 of ___ Modules developed by Special Education Research Consultants under the direction of Lynn Ahlgrim- Delzell, Ph.D. with contributions by: Tracie-Lynn Zakas, M.Ed. Shawnee Wakeman, Ph.D. Pamela Mims, M.Ed. Katherine Trela, ABD Ella Glass and ASES SCASS AA-AAS Study Group Members
Slide 3 of ___ Content of the Modules Module 1 - Introduction to Teaching Literacy to Students with Significant Cognitive Disabilities (SSCD)* Why we teach academics Summary of current research and evidence- based practices National Reading Panel (2000) & Put Reading First (2003) recommendations Theoretical foundation for literacy instruction Universal Design for Learning * Within these modules, SSCD refers to students with significant cognitive disabilities
Slide 4 of ___ Module 2 – Literacy Development and Symbolic Communication Stages of literacy development Phonemic awareness and phonics skills Levels of communication skills used by students with significant disabilities Embedding Alternative and Augmentative Communication (AAC) devices Content of the Modules
Slide 5 of ___ Module 3 - Elementary grade level literature Elements of a story-based lesson (SBL) for elementary students Ideas for adaptation of grade level books & using Alternative and Augmentative Communication (AAC) devices Module 4 - Middle and high school literacy Elements of a story-based lesson (SBL) for middle/ secondary students Adapting grade level books & using Alternative and Augmentative Communication (AAC) devices Content of the Modules
Slide 6 of ___ Module 5 - Literacy in the Individualized Education Plan (IEP) Lesson planning. Standards-based IEPs. Developing literacy lessons that align with general education content standards. Module 6 – Families What is literacy and why it is important. Literacy activities families can do at home. Homework. Content of the Modules
Slide 7 of ___ Purpose of Module 3 Participants will learn: Selection of grade-appropriate books Description of a typical elementary reading activity Current Reading practices for SSCD 10 step for story-based lesson Bloom’s Taxonomy for comprehension Adaptations for vision and hearing impairments Embedding AAC devices
Slide 8 of ___ Why Teach Literacy? Allow students with significant cognitive disabilities (SSCD) access to age and grade appropriate reading materials Systematically engage students in meaningful literacy activities Give students opportunities to experience the same rich reading experiences as their peers LITERACY IS A FUNCTIONAL SKILL! * For brevity SSCD will be used to refer to students with significant intellectual disabilities throughout the modules Browder, Gibbs, Ahlgrim-Delzell, Courtade, Mraz, & Flowers, in press.
Slide 9 of ___ Selecting Grade Appropriate Books What books are typical students reading? Plan with a general education teacher at your school what his/her students are reading Consult the reading curriculum guide that your school district uses to teach reading Ask a librarian Search the Internet -http://www.barnstable.k12.ma.us/curriculum/summerre ading-elem.htmhttp://www.barnstable.k12.ma.us/curriculum/summerre ading-elem.htm -http://www.emints.org/ethemes/resources/S s htmlhttp://www.emints.org/ethemes/resources/S s html -http://childrensbooks.about.com/od/agegradebooksby/http://childrensbooks.about.com/od/agegradebooksby/ -www.lexile.comwww.lexile.com
Slide 10 of ___ Typical Elementary Reading A typical reading lesson consists of a teacher reading a book to a group of students Teacher sits in front with the book facing the students Students take turns interacting with the story under teacher direction Explicit phonics instruction is taught separately (Module 2) Conventions of print are taught both explicitly and implicitly
Slide 11 of ___ Current Reading Practices for SSCD Literacy activities may be passive – Students may listen to their teacher read a story – Students may not have the opportunities to actively engage and participate in the literature Material that has not been adapted, may be too wordy, or the vocabulary may be too difficult Literacy may consist of only sight word recognition
Slide 12 of ___ Story-based Lessons Teach literacy skills with story-based lessons (SBL) Grade-level picture book/adapted chapter book Select key vocabulary from book -Pair pictures with words -Up to 5 vocabulary pictures/words per book Find repeated line or create one using main idea of book/chapter -Can be used for text pointing Browder, Gibbs, Ahlgrim-Delzell, Courtade, & Lee, 2007.
Slide 13 of ___ Story-based Lessons (con’t.) Select at least 3 comprehension questions with answers and distracters Modify book as needed for student access
Slide 14 of ___ Ten Steps of the Story-Based Lesson Elementary Level 1) Anticipatory set 2) Read the title 3) Read the author 4) Prediction 5) Open book 6) Text pointing 7) Identify vocabulary 8) Repeated story line 9) Turn the page 10) Comprehension question/review prediction Browder, Gibbs, Ahlgrim-Delzell, Courtade, & Lee, 2007.
Slide 15 of ___ Step 1: Anticipatory Set Description Presentation of an object or event that can be accessed through any one of the five senses The anticipatory set can include: -Object to be touched (stuffed animal or pair of mittens) -Food that can be experienced through taste or smell (lemon or fortune cookie) -Object that describes a concept (ice cube or cup of warm water) -Recording that represents part of the story (violin piece or mooing cow)
Slide 16 of ___ Step 1: Anticipatory Set Teacher Action Present an object that can be accessed through one of the five senses to represent a major theme and create a sense of anticipation. Example: Elmer by David McKee You can give the students an Elmer doll, show an elephant toy, picture of an elephant, or make mud from berries and water
Slide 17 of ___ Step 2: Read the Title Description When presenting the title page of the book, the teacher should use the word “title” – “I am going to read the title of our book.” The teacher should also sweep their finger under the title to further emphasize their statement For students who are blind or visually impaired, Braille or tactile enhancements can be added.
Slide 18 of ___ Step 2: Read the Title Teacher Action Every student should have an opportunity to touch and/or read the title. Record the title on a voice output device (VOD). The title of the book can be highlighted, underlined with a pipe cleaner, raised with puff paints, or traced over with glue and sand Example: Teacher says “This title of our book is ‘Elmer’. Touch/tell us the title of this book.”
Slide 19 of ___ Step 3: Read the Author’s Name Description Use the word “author” to describe the writer of the story. “I am going to point to the author’s name. The author is the person who wrote this book.” The teacher should also sweep their finger under the author’s name, to further emphasize their statement
Slide 20 of ___ Step 3: Read the Author’s Name Teacher Action Every student should have an opportunity to engage with and/or read the author’s name. Record the title of the book on a VOD Example: Teacher says “This author of our book is David McKee. Touch/tell us the author’s name.”
Slide 21 of ___ Step 4: Ask a Prediction Question Description Students make a prediction about what they think the story will be about. Front cover and pictures in the story can provide context clues that assist the child in making that prediction – Take a “picture walk” through the book. – Point-out pictures that are important in determining what the story is about.
Slide 22 of ___ Step 4: Ask a Prediction Question Description (con’t.) All answers are accepted. The student is simply indicating what they THINK the story will be about. Teachers may offer students the opportunity to make connections to past activities or prior knowledge.
Slide 23 of ___ Step 4: Ask a Prediction Question Teacher Action Show cover page and take a picture-walk through text. Ask the students what they think the story will be about. Responses can be displayed to remind them later of their answer.
Slide 24 of ___ Step 4: Ask a Prediction Question Teacher Action (con’t.) Student may choose from pictures, objects, preprogrammed VOD, or verbal response. – Use typical response mode of student – Vary number of options to select from – Vary difficulty of options by using distractors that are very dissimilar or similar to pictures in the book Example: “What do you think our story will be about? Do you think it will be about an elephant, a steam train, or an apple pie?”
Slide 25 of ___ Step 5: Model Opening the Book Description Understand how to orient the book (front, back, top and bottom of the book) Students should be given the opportunity to position the book so that it can be read Point out the front, back, top and bottom of the book and model how to open it Present the closed book to the student
Slide 26 of ___ Step 5: Model Opening the Book Teacher Action Teacher hands closed book to a student and asks student to get the story started. Avoid directly saying “open the book”. Books can be handed to the student in an upside-down and/or backward fashion to create additional challenge.
Slide 27 of ___ Step 5: Model Opening the Book Teacher Action (con’t.) If the student has physical limitations, present book in a variety of positions, ask student, “Is the book ready to read?” The student can respond by using their primary method of indication (e.g. head nod, AAC device, pointing, eye gaze) Example: “How do we get our story started?” “What should we do to begin reading our book?”
Slide 28 of ___ Step 6: Text Pointing Description Point to text as you read. – Teaches concept that words on the page relate to pictures in the book and spoken words. – Reinforces reading left to right and top to bottom Give students opportunity to text point a sentence from the book Read the words at the same pace as the student points to them Sentences can be highlighted and may become the repeated story-line
Slide 29 of ___ Read and point to the text. Give each student opportunity to point to text and “read” with the teacher Text can be enlarged and displayed on separate piece of paper, clear Plexiglas for eye-gazing, or a VOD Example: “Help me read. Elmer the elephant is bright colored, patchwork all over.” Step 6: Text Pointing Teacher Action
Slide 30 of ___ Step 7: Identify Vocabulary Description Vocabulary: – Words to know to communicate effectively – Words so we can connect to the text Teach word-meaning through specific instruction – Teach specific words prior to reading – Repeated exposure to vocabulary words Select up to 5 words/pictures – Words may be highlighted within the text – Pair picture/object with the printed word
Slide 31 of ___ Step 7: Identify Vocabulary Teacher Action Identify vocabulary words as story is read. – Vocabulary can be highlighted in the text Give students the opportunity to read and point to vocabulary as they appear in the text. Example: Selected vocabulary words for Elmer may be elephant and happy. After reading the line “Elmer the elephant is bright colored, patchwork all over.” Say, “Elephant is one of our vocabulary words. Find the word elephant.”
Slide 32 of ___ Picture books often have a line from the book that is repeated and describes the main idea. If there is no repeated line, create one that emphasizes a theme central in the story. This line can be taped into to the book and/or emphasized by highlighting or underlining. Each child should read the repeated story line or read the line as a choral response Step 8: Read the Repeated Story Line Teacher Action
Slide 33 of ___ Step 8: Read the Repeated Story Line Teacher Action Students have the opportunity to point to and “read” the repeated story line. The repeated story line may also be recorded into a VOD. Leave the VOD near the student so they may show anticipation of the line. Example: “Elmer was not happy”.
Slide 34 of ___ Step 9: Turn the Page Description Indirectly ask the student to turn the page – Make connection between text and reading – Prevents students from following direct command, demonstrates anticipation For students with physical limitations: – Craft sticks glued to the pages to create handles – Pieces of sponge glued to separate the pages – Have a picture or program a VOD to indicate “turn the page”
Slide 35 of ___ Step 9: Turn the Page Teacher Action Give each student opportunity to turn a page Requests are made by asking the student: “How do we keep the story going?” “What do you think happens next? How can we find out?” “What do we need to do to find out what is going to happen in our story?” Example: “How do we keep our story going?”
Slide 36 of ___ Step 10: Comprehension Description Bloom’s Taxonomy; six levels 1.Knowledge 2.Comprehension 3.Application 4.Analysis 5.Synthesis 6.Evaluation
Slide 37 of ___ Sample Comprehension Questions Knowledge- questions that involve basic recall skills – Who was in the story? – Where did the girl visit? Comprehension- questions that identify, clarify, or sequence – What happened at the end of the story? – What happened first, next, last in the story?
Slide 38 of ___ Sample Comprehension Questions Application- making connections to the text – The girl was dancing. What are you doing? – The boy was happy. Tell me about a time when you were happy. Analysis- categorizing/classifying and comparing/contrasting – Jack rode his bike to the store. How else could he have gotten to the store? – How are the two boys alike? How are they different.
Slide 39 of ___ Sample Comprehension Questions Synthesis - main idea; and cause and effect – What was our story about? – When it started to rain, what did the little girl do? Evaluation - real/not real, fact/fiction – Can an elephant really talk, dance, and sing? – Is the book Elmer fact or fiction?
Slide 40 of ___ Step 10: Comprehension Questions Teacher Action Questions can be asked immediately after reading the line or after reading the book. Support student responds by offering choices: – distracter options varying number of options, and types of distracters – VOD, pair pictures with words, eye gaze board, etc. Example: “Who was in our story?” Was it an elephant or a train?
Slide 41 of ___ Modifying Books Books at this level may typically have repeated story lines, picture cues and simple text. Modifications may be needed for access by students with visual or physical disabilities and improve durability. Excellent resource: Strategies & Tools for Adapting Books – y/emmanuel.asp y/emmanuel.asp
Slide 42 of ___ Accessing Books Increasing Durability – Use laminating sheets or clear contact paper to cover pages of the book – Place in book pages in protectors and 3-ring binder Increasing Access to the Book – Page fluffers such as cotton balls, paper clips, pipe cleaners or craft sticks between pages – Place book on an easel or flip chart – Velcro pictures into the book
Laminated, rebound, puff paint Picture Cues Objects to illustrate sequence of story
Unbound and placed in page protectors, objects in sleeve 3-ring binder
Slide 45 of ___ Other Modifications Text Augmentation – Scan book and enlarge or use bold text as appropriate – Use puff paints to underline or outline words or sentences – Use foam or plastic letters to form words – Highlight images, vocabulary words, sentences
Slide 46 of ___ Other Modifications Reduce or Simplify Text – Select the pages that are pertinent to maintaining the integrity of the story. If there is too much text, or if the text is too complicated, rewrite the text to simplify the language. – Laminate pages together (the pages not needed to get main idea). – Add vocabulary symbols to book.
Slide 47 of ___ Adaptations for Visual Impairments Fluffers between pages for easy page turning Place spaghetti under each line of text Braille or Enlarged print Textual changes - foam letters, Letters mounted on surface, glue and glitter, puffy paints Audio version of the book Highlight text Add real objects
Slide 48 of ___ Adaptations for Visual Impairments (con’t.) Tactile Illustrations – Raised line drawings – Embed real objects – Reproduce the tactile sensation of the photo (e.g., for a picture of grass- glue real grass or grass like material on top of the picture)
Slide 49 of ___ Adaptations for Hearing Impairments Pairing words and story line with American Sign Language, generic hand signs, pictures, objects, pantomime Books on computer
Slide 50 of ___ Tactile Experience Books Making a Tactile Experience Book – Collect objects – Affix objects to the page – Large objects can be stored in Zip-Lock bags – Keep the “decorations” simple – Braille text should be in a predictable and consistent place – Visual text should also be included, so the story can be shared with those who do not read Braille
Slide 51 of ___ Embedding Augmentative Communication Devices Record repeated line on a VOD for students to press in anticipation of reading the line Place key vocabulary (text, symbols or pictures) on VOD typically used by student to be used while reading the book VOD can be used for requesting opportunities to turn pages, taking turns or read the repeated story line
Slide 52 of ___ Book Resources Baltimore public schools – r/adapted_library.asp r/adapted_library.asp – Mostly elementary level materials to accompany books that require Boardmaker – Mostly middle/secondary books that require Writing With Symbols
Slide 53 of ___ References Boston Public Schools Access Technology Center. (2003). Strategies & Tools for Adapting Books. Retrieved January 22, 2007 from manue.asp manue.asp Browder, D. M., Gibbs, S., Ahlgrim-Delzell, L., Courtade, G., & Lee, A. Early Literacy Skills Builder. Verona, WI: The Attainment Company. Browder, D. M., & Spooner, F. (Eds.) (2006). Teaching language arts, math & science to students with significant cognitive disabilities. Baltimore, MD: Paul H. Brookes.
Slide 54 of ___ Browder, D. M., Trela, K., & Jimenez, B. (in press). Training teachers to follow a task analysis to engage middle school students with severe and moderate developmental disabilities in grade-appropriate literature. Focus on Autism and Developmental Disabilities. Browder D. M., Wakeman, S. Y., Spooner, F., Ahlgrim- Delzell, L., & Algozzine, B. (2006). Research on reading for individuals with significant cognitive disabilities. Exceptional Children, 72, Chiang, H.M., & Lin, Y. H (2007). Reading comprehension instruction for students with autism spectrum disorder: A review of the literature. Focus on Autism and Other Developmental Disorders, 22, Clay, M. M. (1977). Reading: The patterning of complex behaviors. Auckland: Heinemann. References (con’t.)
Slide 55 of ___ Mirenda, P. (2001). Autism, augmentative communication, and assistive technology: What do we really know? Focus on Autism and Other Developmental Disabilities, 16, Mirenda, P. (2003). Toward functional augmentative and alternative communication for students with autism: Manual signs, graphic symbols, and voice output communication aids. Language, Speech and Hearing Services in Schools, 34, Whitehurst, G. J., & Lonigan, C. J. (1998). Child development and emergent literacy. Child Development, 69, References (con’t.)