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Welcome to class of Ecotourism and Medical Tourism in Emerging Markets by Dr. Satyendra Singh University of Winnipeg Canada

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Presentation on theme: "Welcome to class of Ecotourism and Medical Tourism in Emerging Markets by Dr. Satyendra Singh University of Winnipeg Canada"— Presentation transcript:

1 Welcome to class of Ecotourism and Medical Tourism in Emerging Markets by Dr. Satyendra Singh University of Winnipeg Canada


3 Why Study Tourism? Attain peace and prosperity –Freedom to travel, low passport control –EC (WWII), USSR, China (1978), Cuba, S. Africa (2004) Promotes understanding and trust –When travel  get info about personality, beliefs, aspirations, perspective, culture, politics… Economic development  very imp for EMs –Creates jobs, foreign exchange, face-to-face contacts Significant demand and consistent growth –500m int’l travelers, 10% of world’s GDP, $3 Trillion –Low-cost air travel, trading blocks, less barrier

4 Why is Tourism Important now? Need for exchanging ideas and exploration –Environmentalists, developers, economists, movie producers, political leaders, professors…need to travel Need for cutting cost on defense – Cannot spend 15% of GDP on defense (USA used to), and yet meet the need of domestic needs. – USA 1945  40% of world’s Economy. 1990  only 20% Cannot remain in isolation  need to share culture –Isolation breeds distrust, uncompetitive climate Tourism makes it possible to maintain Ecosystem –Set aside land parks, reserve, sanctuary, trees (God)… –Indigenous people/dance/music/artifacts/heritage sites…



7 Other Definitions of Ecotourism Travelling to undisturbed or uncontaminated natural areas to study, admire, enjoy  scenery, animals, Tourism activities in harmony with nature  opposite of mass tourism Benefits to indigenous people Conserves environment, sustains the local people Conserves ecosystem and host communities Foster respect for different culture & human rights

8 UN, EM and Ecotourism Several international agencies promote ecotourism –UN Global Environment Facility (GEF)  funds for environment-related projects, particularly in EMs 500 projects in 120 countries  Worth > $2 billion –USAID (US Agency for International Aids) >100 projects worth > $2 billion In fact, most Structural Adjustment Programs (SAP) for emerging markets contain an ecotourism component Also called Staff Monitored Program


10 Types of Ecotourism Non-consumptive ecotourism –Ecotourism does not consume natural resources Tanzania (Serengeti) to observe Zebra Nepal to climb mountain Belize (Community Baboon sanctuary) to see monkeys Consumptive ecotourism –Ecotourism is based on renewal resources (debatable) Shooting elephants, rhinoceroses and antelope $20,000 to shoot a single elephant in Zimbabwe Leads to substantial revenue, and has minimal adverse impact on local populations


12 Examples of Ecotourism in EM Uganda  Bwindi forest gorilla reserve –$145/person for one hr of viewing gorilla –100% of its capacity  $400,000 annually Nepal  Annapurna conservation area –Ecotourists lodges for trekkers –$12/person  $500,000 annually Bolivia  Chalalan ecolodge  Madidi national park –Accomodates 24 visitors in hatch-roof cabins, local built Costa Rica  Monteverde cloud forest reserve –Located in Tilaran mountains  flora and fauna Cuba  La Moka (UNESCO protected site) –Bioreserve  harmony between people and nature

13 Creative eg UN World heritage status




17 Revenues and Pitfalls Revenues –Ecotourists are from developed countries –Willing to spend large sum of money to view abundant and unique natural resources Kenya (Masai Mara)  $100,000 per month  Entry fee $20 for foreigners and $3 for Kenyans S. Africa (Dukuduku community)  $300,000 annually  By selling traditional Zulu baskets and sleeping mats Cuba (La Moka)  ecotourist resort  $200/day room Pitfalls –Ecotourism can be problematic if not managed properly Ecotourism uproots native people from their normal habits of farming, hunting, mining, and forestry Income does not trickle-down to locals 50% of the income goes to airline, hotels, tour operators

18 Benefits of Ecotourism Economic –Direct revenue from ecotourists! –Direct employment –Ecotourists may patronize for add-ons  culture show Environmental –Incentive to protect environment  commitment ↑ –Ecotourists assist in habitat enhancement Excessive tipping, donations, policing, maintenance Socio-cultural –Good public relations  face-to-face contacts –Aesthetic/spiritual benefits –Fosters environment awareness among ecotourists and local population  slash and burn agriculture  Finland

19 Costs of Ecotourism Economic –Start up expenses Acquisition of land/infrastructure, establishment of protected areas –Ongoing expenses Maintenance of infrastructure, promotion, wages –Revenues  Uncertain due to its nature Environmental –Environmental capacity is limited  Rapid growth –Difficult in indentifying, measuring, monitoring impact of ecotourism Socio-cultural –Intrusion upon local isolated areas –Displacement of local cultures by parks –Erosion of local control  foreign experts!

20 Travel abroad to obtain medical services

21 Why do Countries Participate? Increase GDP Upgrade medical facilities Create jobs Can create more tourism International relations


23 What do Countries get? Revenues can be reinvested to make medicine affordable to citizens Upgraded facilities Different impacts depending upon the country’s policies Need to assure own citizens receive benefits

24 What do patients get? 1 st class service at 3 rd world price Not affordable in home country Desire privacy Avoid long waiting lines Can be more luxurious

25 Medical Tourism Argentina (cosmetic) Brazil (cosmetics/plastic) Cuba (all) Costa Rica (cosmetic) Hungary (surgery) India (all) Malaysia (cardiovascular, dental, eye) Mexico (obesity, dental) Panama (dental, eye) Philippines (all – hospitals at beaches) S. Africa (all) Thailand (obesity, alternative medicine, gender alignment) Singapore (all) China (modern and traditional treatments)

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