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Benchmark I.1.MS.2 Design and conduct scientific investigations. (I.1.MS.2) Design and conduct scientific investigations. (I.1.MS.2) You will need to know.

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Presentation on theme: "Benchmark I.1.MS.2 Design and conduct scientific investigations. (I.1.MS.2) Design and conduct scientific investigations. (I.1.MS.2) You will need to know."— Presentation transcript:

1 Benchmark I.1.MS.2 Design and conduct scientific investigations. (I.1.MS.2) Design and conduct scientific investigations. (I.1.MS.2) You will need to know the steps of the scientific method in order. You will need to know the steps of the scientific method in order.

2 The steps of the Scientific Method are… Purpose Purpose Hypothesis Hypothesis Materials Materials Procedure Procedure Data Data Results Results Conclusions Conclusions Limitations Limitations

3 Scientific Method Lesson Scientific Method link to explanation and online lesson. Authorware program…. Scientific Method link to explanation and online lesson. Authorware program…. Science Guys- Science Guys- Scientific Method Scientific Method Scientific Method Scientific Method

4 Purpose Always a question. (research question) Always a question. (research question) Answers the question, “What are you trying to prove?” Answers the question, “What are you trying to prove?” Relates to observing and inferring. Relates to observing and inferring.

5 Scenario Close your eyes… Close your eyes… Imagine that you are on the lake enjoying a beautiful sunny day in Michigan. You lay near the water listening to the wind and hearing distant laughter of children playing. Your eyes remain closed as the sun pours out its warm rays onto your body. You lay still and smell the aroma of cooking foods. You begin feel a gentle breeze blow across your body and also a sprinkle of sand on your feet. Although your eyes are closed, you are able to sense a shadow cast over your body. You open your eyes and your friend is standing by your feet with a big smile and holding a large bucket. A cold sensation takes over your body. You sit-up immediately, flinch intensively, your eyes and mouth open widely as you feel the cold water blanket your body. You gasp for air as the water drips from your body and your skin begins to pimple from the cold. You can taste the lake water as it drips into your mouth. You stare perplexed at your friend and then begin to put the pieces together. You were soaked with cold lake water. You begin to smile as you hear the cheer of all your friends and family as everyone races into the lake. Imagine that you are on the lake enjoying a beautiful sunny day in Michigan. You lay near the water listening to the wind and hearing distant laughter of children playing. Your eyes remain closed as the sun pours out its warm rays onto your body. You lay still and smell the aroma of cooking foods. You begin feel a gentle breeze blow across your body and also a sprinkle of sand on your feet. Although your eyes are closed, you are able to sense a shadow cast over your body. You open your eyes and your friend is standing by your feet with a big smile and holding a large bucket. A cold sensation takes over your body. You sit-up immediately, flinch intensively, your eyes and mouth open widely as you feel the cold water blanket your body. You gasp for air as the water drips from your body and your skin begins to pimple from the cold. You can taste the lake water as it drips into your mouth. You stare perplexed at your friend and then begin to put the pieces together. You were soaked with cold lake water. You begin to smile as you hear the cheer of all your friends and family as everyone races into the lake.

6 Observation & Measurement The basis of all scientific investigations is observation. The basis of all scientific investigations is observation. Scientists are careful to make their observations accurate. Scientists are careful to make their observations accurate. When possible they use instruments, like microscopes, telescopes, meter sticks, odometers, speedometers, thermometers, etc…to extend their senses. When possible they use instruments, like microscopes, telescopes, meter sticks, odometers, speedometers, thermometers, etc…to extend their senses. Science Guys – Science Guys – Let’s Observe Let’s Observe Let’s Observe Let’s Observe

7 Elephant Observations Long ago in a distant land 6 blind men lived together. All of them had heard of elephants, but none had ever “seen” one. When they heard that an elephant and his trainer would be visiting their village they all wanted an encounter with the beast. They made their way to the site where the elephant was being kept. Each blind man touched the elephant and made his observations.

8 Elephant Observations & Inferences One man touched the elephants side and said, “An elephant is like a wall.” Another man touched the trunk and said, “An elephant is like a snake” Another man touched the tusk and said, “An elephant is like a spear.” Another man touched a leg and said, “An elephant is like a tree.” Another man touched an ear and said, “An elephant is like a fan.” The last man touched the tail and said, “An elephant is like a rope”

9 Qualitative A qualitative observation is an observation that does not involve any measurement or numbers. A qualitative observation is an observation that does not involve any measurement or numbers. Instead of something measurable, it describes a quality of things. Instead of something measurable, it describes a quality of things. "The rose is red" is qualitative. "The rose is red" is qualitative.

10 Quantitative Often scientists will use instrument to make measurements. Often scientists will use instrument to make measurements. When observations involve measurements, they are called quantitative observations. When observations involve measurements, they are called quantitative observations. Because measurements are easy to communicate and provide a concrete means of comparing collected data, scientists use them whenever possible. Because measurements are easy to communicate and provide a concrete means of comparing collected data, scientists use them whenever possible.

11 Inferences Scientists often use their observations to make inferences. Scientists often use their observations to make inferences. An inference is an attempt to explain or interpret observations or to determine what caused what was observed. An inference is an attempt to explain or interpret observations or to determine what caused what was observed. For example, if you observed smoke rising from the roof of a house you may infer that the house is on fire. The only way to be sure your inference is correct is to investigate further. For example, if you observed smoke rising from the roof of a house you may infer that the house is on fire. The only way to be sure your inference is correct is to investigate further.

12 Observations vs. Inferences Don’t confuse observations and inferences. Don’t confuse observations and inferences. ObservationsInferences What you observe ONLY. What you observe ONLY. Example: I observe the sky at noon is darkening. Example: I observe the sky at noon is darkening. What you think may be causing what you are observing. What you think may be causing what you are observing. Example: There is a solar eclipse. Example: There is a solar eclipse.

13 Hypothesis Educated guess Educated guess Predicts Predicts Stated as “If_________, Then ________” Stated as “If_________, Then ________” Must know variables first. Must know variables first. If the (manipulated variable) increases or decreases, Then the (responding variable) will increase or decrease. Example: If the intake of junk food increases, then the student’s weight will increase.

14 Variables Root word…vary (variety) Root word…vary (variety) Things that could possibly change within an experiment. Things that could possibly change within an experiment.

15 3 Types of Variables Manipulated Variable (Independent)- Manipulated Variable (Independent)- Something that is INTENTIONALLY CHANGED. Something that is INTENTIONALLY CHANGED. Responding Variable (Dependent)- Responding Variable (Dependent)- What might be AFFECTED by changing the manipulated variable. What might be AFFECTED by changing the manipulated variable. What you MEASURE. What you MEASURE. Controlled Variable(s)- Controlled Variable(s)- What you intentionally KEEP THE SAME. What you intentionally KEEP THE SAME. Can be more than one. Can be more than one.

16 Validity Only test one manipulated variable at a time. Only test one manipulated variable at a time. If more than one manipulated variable is altered, the results of an experiment cannot be interpreted with any validity. If more than one manipulated variable is altered, the results of an experiment cannot be interpreted with any validity.

17 Validity Example For example… For example… In an experiment on plant growth, if both the amount of water, and amount of sunlight are changed (manipulated variable), then how can one be sure which is causing the change in the responding variable? In an experiment on plant growth, if both the amount of water, and amount of sunlight are changed (manipulated variable), then how can one be sure which is causing the change in the responding variable?

18 Hypothesis Educated guess Educated guess Predicts Predicts Stated as “If_________, Then ________” Stated as “If_________, Then ________” Express a logical explanation that can be tested. Express a logical explanation that can be tested. Focus the experiment. Focus the experiment.

19 Hypothesis Writing Identify the manipulated and responding variables. Identify the manipulated and responding variables. Complete the hypothesis statement according to the following format. Complete the hypothesis statement according to the following format. If the (manipulated variable) increases/decreases, then the (responding variable) will increase/decrease.

20 Materials A list of the ITEMS YOU NEED to complete the experiment. A list of the ITEMS YOU NEED to complete the experiment.

21 Procedure A list of the STEPS YOU TAKE to complete the experiment. A list of the STEPS YOU TAKE to complete the experiment.

22 Data Tables Tables Graphs Graphs Pictures Pictures Diagrams Diagrams

23 Types of Graphs Line Shows trends over time. Shows trends over time. Bar Shows comparisons. Shows comparisons. Pie Shows parts of a whole or percentages. Shows parts of a whole or percentages.

24 Graphing Components Title Title Labels Labels x and y axis x and y axis Scale Scale Must clearly convey information. Must clearly convey information.

25 Results Analyzed data. Analyzed data. What does the data mean? What does the data mean? Generalizations Generalizations

26 Conclusions Factual summary of data. Factual summary of data. Restated hypothesis, showing proof or impossibility. Restated hypothesis, showing proof or impossibility.

27 Conclusion Example If hypothesis states… If hypothesis states… If the temperature of the seed increases, then the number of seeds that sprout will increase. If the temperature of the seed increases, then the number of seeds that sprout will increase. Then the conclusion should state… Then the conclusion should state… In conclusion, if the temperature of the seed increases, then the number of seeds that sprout will increase, was not proven by this experiment. (or proven whichever the case may be) In conclusion, if the temperature of the seed increases, then the number of seeds that sprout will increase, was not proven by this experiment. (or proven whichever the case may be)

28 Limitations A list of errors or inaccuracies possible. A list of errors or inaccuracies possible. Anything that may have been beyond your control, but affected the experiment anyway. Anything that may have been beyond your control, but affected the experiment anyway.

29 Experiment Report..\..\Science Lessons\Process Skills\Plate Faces\Scientific Method.wpd..\..\Science Lessons\Process Skills\Plate Faces\Scientific Method.wpd..\..\Science Lessons\Process Skills\Plate Faces\Scientific Method.wpd..\..\Science Lessons\Process Skills\Plate Faces\Scientific Method.wpd


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