Presentation on theme: "Cognitive Behavioral Psychodynamic Humanistic From Racing Horses to Seeing the Elephant Gregg Henriques, Ph.D. James Madison University Behavioral."— Presentation transcript:
Cognitive Behavioral Psychodynamic Humanistic From Racing Horses to Seeing the Elephant Gregg Henriques, Ph.D. James Madison University Behavioral
Unified Approaches are Increasing in Numbers Seymour Epstein Seymour Epstein “Integration of the Cognitive and the Psychodynamic Unconscious” Erica Moses & David Barlow Erica Moses & David Barlow “A New Unified Treatment Approach for Emotional Disorders Based on Emotion Science” Dan McAdams“A New Big Five” Dan McAdams“A New Big Five” Jeffery Magnavita’s Unified Psychotherapy Jeffery Magnavita’s Unified Psychotherapy Jack Mayer’s General Systems approach to Personality Jack Mayer’s General Systems approach to Personality Sternberg’s Unified Psychology Sternberg’s Unified Psychology
What Is the Tree of Knowledge System? The Tree of Knowledge (ToK) System is a new approach to the theoretical unification of psychology in particular and the sciences more generally. The outline of the ToK System was published in Review of General Psychology in 2003, and in that article, the metatheoretical lens provided by the system was used to unite Skinner and Freud. The focus was on these two luminaries because when one simultaneously considers their influence and the divergence of their theoretical positions, it is readily arguable that they represent the two most difficult positions to integrate.
The Justification for the Need for More Integrated Scientific Knowledge Is Offered by Oliver Reiser in 1958 In this time of divisive tendencies within and between the nations, races, religions, sciences and humanities, synthesis must become the great magnet which orients us all…[Yet] scientists have not done what is possible toward integrating bodies of knowledge created by science into a unified interpretation of man, his place in nature, and his potentialities for creating the good society. Instead, they are entombing us in dark and meaningless catacombs of learning. (Reiser, 1958, p. 2-3).
Gallup Poll on Question of Creation for American Public
Three Other Ideas That Complete the ToK System Behavioral Investment Theory Behavioral Investment Theory The Influence Matrix The Influence Matrix The Justification Hypothesis The Justification Hypothesis
Behavioral Investment Theory A Theory of the Evolution of Mind The first theory that is “missing” is called:
BIT is the idea that the nervous system is a computational control system that computes the expenditure of behavioral energy on an investment value system built via evolution and learning. It unifies Skinner’s radical behaviorism with cognitive neuroscience and places it on a solid evolutionary foundation What is Behavioral Investment Theory?
BIT Organizes the Aspects of Psychological Science Most Associated With the Natural Sciences. However, BIT does not provide a full account of human behavior…
Peggy La Cerra Offered an Identical Model in 2003 “Evolutionary processes have crafted intelligence systems that are fundamentally designed to acquire, manage, and direct energetic resources toward the maintenance of life processes and the attainment of life-stage specific goals.” “Scientific psychology is on the cusp of a seismic shift into this energy framework, and in the foreseeable future, the social sciences will be rectified with the physical laws of energy. It is only a matter of time before student of human nature consensually agree that the first law of psychology is the second law of thermodynamics.”
The Two Broad Bio-Behavioral Systems Orients toward approach goals Orients toward approach goals Expend energy to acquire resource Expend energy to acquire resource Focus on “benefit” side of behavioral equation Focus on “benefit” side of behavioral equation Left Prefrontal Left Prefrontal Extraversion Extraversion Positive affect Positive affect Orients toward avoidance goals Conserve acquired resource Focus on cost/loss/threat Right Prefrontal Neuroticism Negative affect Behavioral Activation SystemBehavioral Inhibition
A Useful Heuristic that Emerges Out of BIT: P - M = E P= perception of where you currently are in relation to achieving some need/goal M= motivation/memory, an internal representation of some goal structure based on genetics and prior learning E= emotion, which stems from the discrepancy between where one is and where one desires to be in relation to a particular need/goal.
The Influence Matrix An Integrated Model of Social Motivation and Affect Applying the Principles of BIT and the P – M = E equation to social behavior gives rise to the…
The first basic assumption of the IM is that social influence is a resource all humans are motivated to acquire.
The Second Assumption The second basic assumption is that there are three conceptually distinct dimensions underlying social influence. Specifically, they are: 1) power (competitive influence); 2) love (cooperative influence); and 3) freedom (freedom from influence).
The Fourth Assumption The three dimensions of power, love and freedom are dynamically interrelated in that changes in one dimension lead to changes in another. Consider the old political adage, “It is better to be feared than loved.”
The Fifth Assumption The reasons we give for our behavior are guided in part by the underlying motivational tendencies toward maximizing social influence. The reasons we give for our behavior are guided in part by the underlying motivational tendencies toward maximizing social influence. Indeed, the connection between human reasoning, language and social motivation is more clearly specified in the final piece of the puzzle…the Justification Hypothesis Indeed, the connection between human reasoning, language and social motivation is more clearly specified in the final piece of the puzzle…the Justification Hypothesis
The Justification Hypothesis A New Theory of Human Self- Consciousness and the Evolution of Culture
The Justification Hypothesis Is the Mind-to-culture Joint Point
What Is the Justification Hypothesis? The JH is the notion that humans have an elaborate self-awareness system because the evolution of language created the problem of justification. In brief, humans became the only animal that had to explain why it did what it did. The JH is the notion that humans have an elaborate self-awareness system because the evolution of language created the problem of justification. In brief, humans became the only animal that had to explain why it did what it did.
The Three Claims That Organize the JH 1. Freud’s fundamental observation was that the human consciousness system functions as a justification filter for behavioral investments. 2. This justification filter evolved because language creates the “problem of justification.” 3. The Justification Hypothesis provides the psychological foundation for a unified theory of culture and links the individual level of analysis (human psychology) with the social level (macro social sciences) using the same language of justification systems.
Justification Systems 1) 1) Justifications are the reasons we use to validate our actions. (For example, a parent might justify why she sets the rules by saying: “It is my house, I pay the bills, I tell you what to do—not the reverse.”) 2) 2) Each individual has their own worldview, their own system of justification. 3) 3) Differences in justification systems become apparent in times of conflict. 4) Large scale justification systems organize society
Together, Behavioral Investment Theory and the Justification Hypothesis Suggest a Two Domain Model of the Human Mind (a point made by many theorists)
The Justification Hypothesis Suggests Two Domains of Justification Explaining ourselves to ourselves Explaining ourselves to ourselves Within the context of self-awareness (private) Within the context of self-awareness (private) The “Freudian Filter” The “Freudian Filter” Explaining ourselves to others Explaining ourselves to others Within the social context (public) Within the social context (public) The “Rogerian Filter” The “Rogerian Filter”
Exper Self Private Self Public Self Large Scale Justification Systems Overt Behavioral Investments
In Sum… We must do a better job organizing our field We must do a better job organizing our field The Four Major Pieces of The ToK System— The Diagram, Behavioral Investment Theory, The Influence Matrix, and the Justification Hypothesis offer a new metatheoretical perspective on the field which can help us move more from racing horse to… The Four Major Pieces of The ToK System— The Diagram, Behavioral Investment Theory, The Influence Matrix, and the Justification Hypothesis offer a new metatheoretical perspective on the field which can help us move more from racing horse to…