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PHRASEOLOGICAL UNITS IN ENGLISH Lecture # 12 Grigoryeva M.

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Presentation on theme: "PHRASEOLOGICAL UNITS IN ENGLISH Lecture # 12 Grigoryeva M."— Presentation transcript:

1 PHRASEOLOGICAL UNITS IN ENGLISH Lecture # 12 Grigoryeva M.

2 PHRASEOLOGICAL UNITS Phraseology as the branch of Linguistics. The problem of terminology Definition of phraseological units. Criteria for phraseologacal units Three approaches towards the study of phraseological units Classification of phraseological units

3 Phraseology is the branch of Linguistics appeared in the 1940s studies phraseological units of the language

4 Object of Phraseology phraseological units, their nature, the way they function in speech

5 Problem of terminology set expression idiom set phrase fixed word-groups word-equivalent phraseological unit

6 Phraseological Units Phraseological units are word-groups that cannot be made in the process of speech, they exist in the language as ready-made units (idioms). They are compiled in special dictionaries.

7 Phraseological Units non-motivated word-groups cannot be freely made up in speech reproduced as ready-made units structurally stable possess stability of lexical components reproduced as single unchangeable collocations

8 Criteria to distinguish free-word groups from phraseological units semantic criterion structural criterion syntactic criterion

9 Semantic criterion free word-roups each meaningful component stands for a separate concept a red flower phraseological units convey a single concept red tape

10 Semantic criterion Phraseological units are characterized by different degrees of semantic change: 1. semantic change may affect the whole word- group (“complete transferred meaning”) to skate on thin ice to have one’s heart in one’s boots

11 Semantic criterion 2. semantic change may affect only one of the components of a word-group (“partially transferred meaning”) to fall in love, small talk

12 Structural Criterion: restriction in substitution free word-groups – components may be changed The cargo ship/vessel is carrying coal to Liverpool/ Manchester phraseological units – no word can be replaced without destroying the sense to carry coals to Newcastle

13 Structural Criterion: introducing additional components free word-groups – change can be made without affecting the general meaning The big ship is carrying a large cargo of coal to the port of Liverpool phraseological units – no additional components can be introduced the white elephant – NOT the big white elephant

14 Structural Criterion: grammatical invariability free word-groups – red flower – red flowers phraseological units to find fault with smb. NOT to find faults with smb.

15 Approaches to the Study of Phraseological Units Semantic functional contextual

16 Semantic Approach phraseological units are non-motivated (idiomacity) phraseological units are opposed to free-word combinations which are completely motivated

17 Functional Approach phraseological units are specific word-groups functioning like word-equivalents like words they possess structural and semantic inseparability

18 Contextual Approach phraseological units are used in specific contexts – non-variable, or “fixed” non-variability is a stability of the lexical components within the semantic structure

19 Phraseological transference Based on Simile (intensification of some feature of an object by bringing it into contact with another object) As pretty as a picture To fight as a lion Based on metaphor (likening of one object to another) Flog a dead horse Join the majority

20 Phraseological transference Based on metonymy (transfer of a name-перенос наименования from one object to another based on the contiguity of their properties, action) A silk stocking –a rich well-dressed man Synecdoche (a variety of metonymy- the replacement of the common by the private) The flesh and blood To hold one’s tongue

21 Classification of phraseological units Phraseological fusions (completely non-motivated) White elephant “expensive but useless thing” Phraseological unities (partially non-motivated) To wash one’s dirty linen in public To discuss or make public one’s quarrels Phraseological unities (are motivated and contain one component in its direct meaning) To meet the necessity

22 Ways of forming phraseological units By A.V. Koonin –the way they are formed Primary ways (when a unit is formed on the basis of a free word-group) Secondary ways (when a unit is formed on the basis of another phraseological unit)

23 Primary ways Transferring the meaning of terminological word-groups To link up b) Transferring the meaning of free word-groups Granny farm As old as the hills c) By means of alliteration sad sack Culture vulture

24 d) By means of rhyming By hook or by crook High and dry By means of expressiveness My aunt! By using synonyms Really and truly By means of distorting (искажение) Odd ends Odds and ends

25 By using a sentence in different sphere of life That cock won’t fight (metaphor) cock fighting sport Using some unreal image To have butterflies in the stomach To have green fingers By using archaism In brown study By using expressions of writers or politicians in everyday life American dream (Alby) The winds of change (Mc Millan)

26 Secondary ways Conversion To vote with one’s feet vote with one’s feet (expressing a protest by going away) Analogy Curiosity killed the cat Care killed the cat Contrast Thin cat (a poor person) Fat cat (a rich person) Shortening of proverbs by clipping the middle You can’t make a silk purse out of a sow’s ear to make a sow’s ear (To make a mistake)

27 Semantic classification V.V. Vinogradov According to the degree of motivation of the meaning Fusions (highly idiomatic – can’t be translated word by word) At sixes and sevens Unities (can be guessed from the meaning of the components but it is transferred - metaphor or metonymy) To play the first fiddle Collocations (words are combined in their original meaning but the combination is different ) Cash and carry

28 Structural classification A.I.Smirnitsky comparing with the words One top unit (comparison with affixed words --have only one root morpheme) Two-top unit (comparison with compound words – usually have two root morpheme)

29 One-top unit verb +post position type “to give up” To art up To nose up To sandwich in Passive type structures “to be tired” To be interested in Prepositional- nominal (the semantic centre is in the nominal part) On the doorstep

30 Two-top units Attributive-nominal A month of Sundays - целая вечность Verb-nominal To read between the lines – понимать скрытый смысл Phraseological repetitions Now and never теперь или никогда Ups and downs (antonyms) взлеты и падения Cakes and ale (alliteration) удовольствия жизни Cool as cucumber (partly or perfectly idiomatic) Хладнокровный

31 Syntactical classification I.V.Arnold based on parts of speech Noun phraseologisms verb phraseologisms adjective phraseologisms adverb phraseologisms preposition phraseologisms interjection phraseologism

32 Noun phraseologisms N+N maiden name N’s +N ladies’ man N+prep+N skeleton in the cupboard N+A knight errant A+N high tea N+subordinate clause Ships that pass in the night ( chance acquaintances)

33 verb phraseologisms V+N To take advantage V+V To pick and choose ( V + one’s +N +prep To pick and choose V+one+N To give one the bird V+subordinate clause To see how the land lies

34 Аdjective phraseologisms A+and +A High and mighty (as)+A+as +A As loose as a goose Adverb phraseologisms Adv+prep +N Once in a blue moon

35 Preposition phraseologisms Prep +N+prep In course of Interjection phraseologism Catch me! Ни за что! Well, I never! Вот уж не ожидал! God bless me!

36 The main sources of native phraseological units Terminological and professional lexics Center of gravity (physics) British literature Green-eyed moster Jelousy W. Shakespeare British traditions and customs Baker’s dozen Superstition and legends Black sheep Historical facts and events To do a Thatcher Facts of everyday life A carry coal to Newcastle

37 The main sources of borrowed phraseological units The Holy Script The kiss of Judas (Matthew XXVI:49) Ancient legends belonging to different culture To cut the Gordian knot Facts and events of the world history To cross the Rubicon From other languages Tilt at windmills (acometer molinos de viente – Spanish)

38 Proverb (пословица) sum up the collective wisdom of the community, a popular truth or a moral lesson in a concise and imaginative way are metaphorical

39 Proverbs moralize Hell is paved with good intentions admonish If you sing before breakfast, you will cry before night criticize Everyone calls his own geese swans give advice Don’t judge a tree by its bark

40 Proverbs lexical components are stable meaning is figurative are ready-made units are easily transformed into phraseological units don’t cast pearls before swine – to cast pearls before swine

41 Saying (поговорка) are non-metaphorical, not figurative grammatically they are finished sentences Where there is a way, there is a will

42 Familiar Quotations (крылатые выражения) come from literature in contrast to proverbs, they do not express finished judgment To err (ошибаться) is human.


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