Presentation on theme: "1 Enhancing Read Alouds for English Language Learners Pacific Institutes for Research University of Oregon."— Presentation transcript:
1 Enhancing Read Alouds for English Language Learners Pacific Institutes for Research University of Oregon
2 Purpose of Pilot Study Build use and knowledge of academic language Learn and practice English Language Development that is challenging in a safe environment Pre-teach content that will be taught in the general classroom
3 Primary Goals Vocabulary knowledge Comprehension of specific texts Generalized knowledge of narrative and expository texts Demonstrate knowledge through retells, interviews, and independent comprehension measures.
5 Main Questions Do read aloud and vocabulary activities increase ELLs students’ expressive vocabulary? Does the processing of common structural elements in narrative and expository texts increase ELLs students’ comprehension skills of complex information? Do ELL students’ ability to retell stories increase through dialogic interactions among students and teachers?
6 Participants 6 first grade ELLs in an elementary school in the Pacific Northwest –Criteria: (a) Spanish was the primary language spoken at home, (b) students received instruction in English only; (c) students received 45 minutes of English Language instruction from the school’s bilingual instructional assistant in a pull-out format, (d) students were eligible for free and reduced lunch, and (e) students did not speak English fluently.
7 Modification to Read Aloud Focus on animals using narrative and expository texts Intervention lasted 14 weeks 30 minute afternoon lessons Multiple exposure to texts –Divided texts into smaller units –Emphasized vocabulary building Behavior management for active engagement
8 Scope and Sequence of Read Aloud Texts
9 UnitContentThemeTopicText 1Text 2 1ScienceMammals Narrative: Bear snores on (Wilson & Chapman). Information: A true book about mammals (Stewart). 2ScienceMammalsBatsInformation: Bats (Gibbons). Narrative: Stellaluna (Cannon). 3ScienceMammalsElephantsInformation: What is an elephant? (Kalman). Narrative: How the elephant got its truck? (Richards). 4ScienceReptiles Narrative: Lizard’s home (Shannon). Information: What is a reptile? (Kalman). 5ScienceReptilesCrocodilesInformation: The crocodile (Tracqui). Narrative: Bill and Pete (de Paola). 6ScienceReptilesSea TurtlesInformation: Sea turtles (Gibbons). Narrative: Albert’s impossible toothache (Williams). 7ScienceInsects Narrative: The buggliest bug (Shields). Information: A true book about insects (Stewart). 8ScienceInsectsButterfliesInformation: Monarch butterflies (Waxman). Narrative: Butterfly boy (Kroll). 9ScienceInsectsLadybugsInformation: Ladybugs (Llewellyn). Narrative: The grouchy ladybug (Carle)
10 Format of Intervention: Narrative Text
11 Format of Intervention: Expository Text
12 TopicVocabulary Tier 1Tier 2 Mammals Narrative: Stellaluna Expository: Bats Wings Nest Birds Flying Mother Owl Homeless Friendship Eat Fruits Hair Organs Lungs Backbone Caves Warm Blooded Bats Sleep Upside Down Reptiles Narrative: Bill and Pete Expository: Crocodiles Toothache Toothbrush Suitcase Store Capture Circus Hiding Chasing Scaly Skin Carnivores Lay Eggs Short Legs Strong Jaws Backbone Molt Cold Blooded Cage Predators Table 3: Example of Tier 1/Tier 2 Read Aloud Intervention Vocabulary Words*
13 Sample Lesson Plan Unit: Crocodiles. Students have learned in previous lessons the words: reptiles, jaw, tail, teeth, scaly skin, lungs. This lesson was introduced in Unit 5. (See Table of Scope and Sequence). 1. Warm Up T: Repeat after me: Reptiles lay eggs. Reptiles lay what? ________ Reptiles are cold-blooded. Reptiles are what? _______-__________. Crocodiles, turtles, and snakes are reptiles. Crocodiles, turtles, and snakes are what? ___________. Some reptiles have a big jaw. Some reptiles have what? __ _______ _______. Reptiles are carnivores or herbivores. Reptiles are carnivores or what? _________________. Reptiles have scaly skin. Reptiles have what? _______ ___________
14 Sample Lesson Plan cont. 2. Activating Prior Knowledge T: Today we are going to read about Crocodiles. This is the book we will read (T. points to book). Do you think this is an information book or a story book? Why? T: From this picture, how can you describe a crocodile? Ss: Big mouth. T. expands and says: Yes, we call this part of the mouth (T. demonstrates) the jaw. Let’s all repeat after me. Big Jaw. Crocodiles have a big jaw. T: What else do crocodiles have? Ss: Crocodiles have lots of teeth. T: Yes, they do have lots of teeth. Let me write this down in our KWL chart. T: There are other things we want to know about crocodiles. For example, I want to know what crocodiles eat. What would you like to know? Ss: Where they live. Ss: Do they have scales?
15 T: Let’s read the book and see if we can find that information. Teacher reads excerpts of the book and asks students if they heard the answer to their questions. Teacher then shows students the pictures AND the words in the book that respond to the question. 3. After reading activity: T: Let’s look at all of these crocodiles carefully and see what they have that is very special. Students use the words they have learned previously to describe the crocodile: Big jaw Lots of teeth Scaly skin Strong tail T (Hands out a picture of a crocodile and says): Let’s color the crocodile and write the words down for the parts you know. Look at the board if you need help spelling the words. T: After you are done drawing and writing the words, I want you to show a teacher your picture and talk to him/her about the words you wrote.
16 Results Table 4: Number of words retold by student Retell plus total words ElíasEmmaKassiaVerónica*EstebanTim Pretest Mammals Bear Snores On Stellaluna Bats How the Elephant Got It’s Trunk Posttest
17 Conclusions Students were highly engaged Plenty of modeling and think alouds showed students what they had to do Students used academic vocabulary to answer questions Students learned the difference between expository and narrative text Students developed their English language skills in a meaningful environment. IA was provided with professional development directly linked to instruction
18 Some Instructional Considerations
19 Vocabulary Focus on functional, high-frequency words –backbone, lungs, protect Look for words that sound “fun” Model and discuss how words work –Compound words: toothbrush, toothache, suitcase Use modeling and repetition to present and practice words Use pictures
20 Modeling and Practice with Repetition “A mammal has a backbone. What does a mammal have?” Start student answers: “You can start your answer with...” Model retells with clear, complete sentences. Practice sentence expansion and talking in complete sentences –Sentences don’t have to be too long, just clear and direct.
21 Start Read Aloud Time with Quick Reviews Repeat and practice vocabulary words Review academic language –A main character is... –What happened first means...
22 During Reading Strategies Focus on the language of the text. For example, during the second or third reading, show the pictures after each page is read. –Why? Not seeing the pictures makes student listen. Emphasize vocabulary during “text-to-self” connections (e.g., tooth, toothache). Shared stories generate language. Use the text to find “what we learned.” –Students can point to words and pictures in text.
23 A Couple More “Big Ideas” Importance of expository text Don’t oversimplify –Don’t modify wording or reduce the complexity of the language...if needed, reduce the content.
24 Prep Time! Look the sample read aloud lessons. What sections or components would be a challenge for English language learners? How will you enhance read alouds for English language learners?
25 Discussion Vocabulary enhancements Academic language Chunking and focusing text Language support Differences between story and informational text Planned readings with expression