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Sustaining Biodiversity: The Species Approach Chapter 9.

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Presentation on theme: "Sustaining Biodiversity: The Species Approach Chapter 9."— Presentation transcript:

1 Sustaining Biodiversity: The Species Approach Chapter 9

2 Core Case Study: Declining Bird Species (1)  Decline of 70% of 9,775 known species  Birds around humans benefited, but forest species declined  Long-distance migrants – greatest decline

3 Core Case Study: Declining Bird Species (2)  Reasons Climate change Habitat loss Fragmentation  Birds environmental indicators  Perform economic and ecological services

4 Threatened U.S. Songbirds

5 Fig. 9-1, p. 176 Florida scrub jayHenslow's sparrowBachman's warblerBlack-capped vireoKirtland's warbler

6 Fig. 9-1, p. 176 Florida scrub jay Henslow's sparrow Bachman's warbler Black-capped vireo Kirtland's warbler Stepped Art

7 9-1 What Role Do Humans Play in the Premature Extinction of Species?  Concept 9-1 The current rate of species extinction is at least 100 times the rate that existed before modern humans arrived on earth, and is expected to increase to between 1,000 and 10,000 times the earlier rate during this century.

8 Three Types of Extinction  Local extinction  Ecological extinction  Biological extinction

9 Ecological Smoke Alarms  Endangered species  Threatened species  The first to go large, slow, tasty, or have valuable parts  Some behaviors make species prone to extinction

10 Species Prematurely Extinct

11 Fig. 9-2, p. 178 Aepyornis (Madagascar) Passenger pigeonGreat aukDodoDusky seaside sparrow

12 Calculating Extinction Rates  Extinction takes a long time, difficult to document  Only identified 1.8 million species – most unknown  Know little of ecological role of most species  Average species survive 1–10 million years  Species-area relationship

13 Endangered or Threatened Species (1)

14 Endangered or Threatened Species (2)

15 Fig. 9-3, p. 179

16 Fig. 9-3a, p. 179 Siberian tiger Grizzly bear Kirkland’s warbler Knowlton cactus Florida manatee African elephant Utah prairie dog Swallowtail butterfly Humpback chub Golden lion tamarin

17 Fig. 9-3b, p. 179 Black rhinoceros Giant pandaBlack-footed ferret Whooping crane Northern spotted owl Blue whale Mountain gorillaFlorida panther California condor Hawksbill sea turtle

18 Human Activities and Extinction  Background extinction rate  Current rate is 100 times background extinction  Rate likely to rise 1,000–10,000 times with climate change  Is a mass extinction coming?

19 Characteristics of Species Prone to Extinction

20 Fig. 9-4, p. 180 Large territories Blue whale, giant panda, rhinoceros Blue whale, giant panda, Everglades kite Elephant seal, desert pupfish Bengal tiger, bald eagle, grizzly bear Blue whale, whooping crane, sea turtle African violet, some orchids Snow leopard, tiger, elephant, rhinoceros, rare plants and birds California condor, grizzly bear, Florida panther Examples Characteristic Low reproductive rate (K-strategist) Specialized niche Narrow distribution Feeds at high trophic level Fixed migratory patterns Rare Commercially valuable

21 Percentage of Various Taxa Endangered

22 Fig. 9-5, p % Fish Amphibians Mammals Reptiles Plants Birds 34% (51% of freshwater species) 32% 12% 14% 20%

23 Current Extinction Rate Estimates Are Conservative  Species and biodiversity decrease in next 50– 100 years  Biodiversity hotspot rates higher than global average  Degrading, simplifying, and destroying diverse environments

24 9-2 Why Should We Care about Preventing Species Extinction?  Concept 9-2 We should prevent the premature extinction of wild species because of the economic and ecological services they provide and because they have a right to exist regardless of their usefulness to us.

25 Value of Species  Instrumental value of biodiversity Food crops Genetic information Medicine  Do not know what we lose when species go extinct

26 Nature’s Pharmacy

27 Fig. 9-6, p. 181 Cathranthus roseus, Madagascar Hodgkin's disease, lymphocytic leukemia Rauvolfia Rauvolfia sepentina, Southeast Asia Anxiety, high blood pressure Foxglove Digitalis purpurea, Europe Digitalis for heart failure Pacific yew Taxus brevifolia, Pacific Northwest Ovarian cancer Cinchona Cinchona ledogeriana, South America Quinine for malaria treatment Neem tree Azadirachta indica, India Treatment of many diseases, insecticide, spermicide Rosy periwinkle

28 Values of Species Diversity  Recreational pleasure value  Eco-tourism >$500 billion per year  Ethical obligations – intrinsic (existence) value  Foundation of earth’s ecosystems bacteria and other microorganisms

29 9-3 How Do Humans Accelerate Species Extinction?  Concept 9-3 The greatest threats to any species are (in order) loss or degradation of its habitat, harmful invasive species, human population growth, pollution, climate change, and overexploitation.

30 Underlying and Direct Causes of Depletion Fig. 9-7, p. 183

31 Secondary Causes of Endangerment and Premature Extinction (HIPPCO) (1)  Habitat destruction  Invasive species  Population growth  Pollution

32 Secondary Causes of Endangerment and Premature Extinction (HIPPCO) (2)  Climate change  Overexploitation

33 Habitat Loss  Deforestation of tropical areas greatest eliminator of species  Endemic species  Habitat fragmentation

34 Range Reductions in Four Species

35 Fig. 9-8a, p. 184

36 Fig. 9-8b, p. 184

37 Fig. 9-8c, p. 184

38 Fig. 9-8d, p. 184

39 Species Introductions  Most beneficial – food crops, livestock, pest control  500,000 alien invader species globally  50,000 nonnative species in the U.S.

40 Deliberately Introduced Species

41 Accidentally Introduced Species

42 Fig. 9-9a, p. 185 European wild boar (Feral pig) Deliberately Introduced Species Purple loosestrifeEuropean starling African honeybee (“Killer bee”) Nutria Salt cedar (Tamarisk) Marine toad (Giant toad) Water hyacinth Japanese beetle Hydrilla

43 Fig. 9-9b, p. 185 Gypsy moth larvae Accidentally Introduced Species Sea lamprey (attached to lake trout) Argentina fire ant Brown tree snake Eurasian ruffe Common pigeon (Rock dove) Formosan termite Zebra mussel Asian long- horned beetle Asian tiger mosquito

44 Case Study: The Kudzu Vine  Kudzu introduced to control erosion  Prolific growth  Uses Asians use powdered starch in beverages Source of tree-free paper Japanese kudzu farm in Alabama

45 Invasive Kudzu Vine Fig. 9-10, p. 186

46 Disruptions from Accidentally Introduced Species  Downside of global trade  Argentina fire ant  Burmese python

47 Argentina Fire Ant Fig. 9-11, p. 186

48 Prevention of Nonnative Species (1)  Identify characteristics of successful invaders  Detect and monitor invasions  Inspect imported goods  Identify harmful invasive species and ban transfer

49 Prevention of Nonnative Species (2)  ships discharge ballast waters at sea  introduce natural control organisms of invaders

50 Characteristics of Successful Invaders Fig. 9-12, p. 187

51 What Can You Do? Fig. 9-13, p. 188

52 Human Choices Drive Extinction  Human population growth  Excessive, wasteful consumption  Use of pesticides

53 DDT and Bioaccumulation  1950s–1960s fish-eating bird populations drop  DDT biologically magnified in food webs  Bird’s eggshells thin and fragile  Leads to unsuccessful reproduction

54 Bioaccumulation of DDT Fig. 9-14, p. 188

55 DDT in water ppm, or 3 ppt DDT in fish-eating birds (ospreys) 25 ppm DDT in large fish (needle fish) 2 ppm DDT in small fish (minnows) 0.5 ppm DDT in zooplankton 0.04 ppm

56 Recovery  Bald eagle recovered  Factors leading to recovery Ban on DDT Crackdown on hunting Prevention of habitat destruction

57 Climate Change and Extinction  More rapid compared to the past  Expected to eliminate >25% of land animal and plant species  Polar bears and penguins threatened

58 Illegal Killing and Trading of Wildlife  Poaching endangers many larger animals, rare plants  Over two-thirds die in transit  Illegal trade $6–$10 billion per year  Wild species depleted by pet trade  Exotic plants often illegally gathered

59 White Rhinoceros Poached for Its Horn Fig. 9-15, p. 189

60 The Value of Wild Rare Species  Declining populations increase black market values  Rare species valuable in the wild – eco-tourism  Some ex-poachers turn to eco-tourism

61 Rising Demand for Bush Meat  Traditional use of bush meat  Demand increasing with population growth  Increased road access  Loggers, miners, ranchers add to pressure  Local and biological extinctions

62 Bush Meat on the Rise Fig. 9-16, p. 190

63 9-4 How Can We Protect Wild Species from Premature Extinction?  Concept 9-4A We can use existing environmental laws and treaties and work to enact new laws designed to prevent species extinction and to protect overall biodiversity.  Concept 9-4B We can help prevent species extinction by creating and maintaining wildlife refuges, gene banks, botanical gardens, zoos, and aquariums.

64 International Treaties  Convention on International Trade of Endangered Species (CITES)  Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD)

65 Case Study: Controversy over the U.S. Endangered Species Act (1)  National Marine Fisheries Services – ocean species  U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service – other species  Listings based on biological factors  Forbids federal agency projects that jeopardize listed species or habitats

66 Case Study: Controversy over the U.S. Endangered Species Act (2)  Fines violations on private land – 90% listed species on private land  Illegal to sell or buy listed species  1,180 species listed  USFWS and NMFS supposed to prepare recovery plan – 25% species have a plan

67 Case Study: Controversy over the U.S. Endangered Species Act (3)  Successful recovery plans include American alligator and grey wolf  Lax enforcement  Smugglers not aware of dangerous diseases in exotic species  Amended to give private landowners economic incentive to save species

68 Case Study: Controversy over the U.S. Endangered Species Act (4)  ESA protect endangered marine reptiles and mammals  Challenges to protecting marine species Limited knowledge of species Difficulty in monitoring and enforcing treaties – open oceans

69 Hawaiian Monk Seal with Plastic Debris Fig. 9-17, p. 192

70 Endangered Green Sea Turtle Fig. 9-18, p. 192

71 Opposition to Endangered Species Act  Opponents want: Voluntary protection on private land Government compensation for land owners Bureaucratic obstacles to listing species Elimination of need for critical habitat Exemptions granted by Secretary of Interior  Steps to weaken ESA

72 New Ecosystems Approach  Inventory country’s species and ecosystems  Locate and protect the most endangered ecosystems  Make development biodiversity-friendly through financial incentives and technical help

73 Science Focus: Accomplishments of the Endangered Species Act  Biologists defend limited success  Need more funding  Develop recovery plans more quickly  Core habitat established when listed

74 Establish Wildlife Refuges  National Wildlife Refuge System  Wetland refuges  35 million American visitors  20% of listed species in refuge system

75 Storing Genetic Information  Gene or seed banks  Botanical gardens  Farms – commercial sale of endangered species removes pressure

76 Zoos and Aquariums for Protection  Collect species with long-term goal of returning them into habitat  100–500 captive individuals to avoid extinction  10,000 individuals to maintain capacity for biological evolution

77 9-5 What Is Reconciliation Ecology?  Concept 9-5 We can help protect some species from premature extinction by finding ways to share the places we dominate with them.

78 Reconciliation Ecology  Danger that biodiversity preserve efforts will fail  Develop reconciliation ecology

79 Case Study: The Blackfoot Challenge (1)  Blackfoot River – large Montana watershed  600 plant and 21 large animal species  Seven human communities, 2,500 rural households  Community established Action Team

80 Case Study: The Blackfoot Challenge (2)  Developed Restoration, sustainable grazing, conservation easement plans  Created corridor between undeveloped lands  Restored wetlands, streams

81 Animation: Species Diversity By Latitude PLAY ANIMATION

82 Animation: Area and Distance Effects PLAY ANIMATION

83 Animation: Humans Affect Biodiversity PLAY ANIMATION

84 Animation: Resources Depletion and Degradation PLAY ANIMATION

85 Animation: Biodiversity Hot Spots PLAY ANIMATION

86 Animation: Habitat Loss and Fragmentation PLAY ANIMATION

87 Video: New Species Found PLAY VIDEO

88 Video: Hsing Hsing Dies PLAY VIDEO

89 Video: Penguin Rescue PLAY VIDEO

90 Video: Bachelor Pad at the Zoo PLAY VIDEO

91 Video: Sea Turtle Release PLAY VIDEO

92 Video: Human Zoo PLAY VIDEO


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