2WHAT IS DEFORESTATION?Deforestation is clearing Earth's forests on a massive scale, often resulting in damage to the quality of the land.
3SOME FACTS ABOUT THE CAUSES OF DEFORESTATIONThere are many root causes to deforestation which include globalization, urbanization and corruption.The largest direct cause to deforestation is agriculture. (Subsistence farming 48%, commercial agriculture 32% , logging 14%, fuel wood removals 5% )Wild fires and over grazing are some of the more unintentional causes of deforestation.
4ENVIRONMENTAL PROBLEMS FACED BECOUSE OF DEFORASTATION Deforestation is one of the main causes which enhance the greenhouse effect.Tropical deforestation is responsible for approximately 20% of world greenhouse gas emissions.Ground water which is extracted by the trees are cut down, it results to a drier climate.Deforestation increases the amount of soil erosion by increasing the amounts of soil lost and decreasing the amount protected.The destruction of forests also lead to the threat endangering different species of plants and animals.It has been estimated that we are losing 137 plant, animal and insect species every single day due to rainforest deforestation
5ENVIRONMENTAL PROBLEMS HABITAT LOSSGREEN HOUSE EMISSIONSENVIRONMENTAL PROBLEMSSoil erosionsDrier climates
6DEFORESTATION IN SRI LANKA Deforestation is one of the most serious environmental issues in Sri Lanka. In the 1920s, the island had a 49 percent forest cover but by 2005 this had fallen by approximately 20 percent. However with a long history of policy and laws towards environmental protection, deforestation rates of primary cover have actually decreased 35% since the end of the 1990s thanks to a strong history of conservation measures.SSa
7SOME FACTS ABOUT THE CAUSES DEFORESTATION IN SRI LANKA Increase in population.Utilization of resources of man.More industrialization.Direct felling of trees by people.Timber used for industries.Wood used as fuel.For medicinal herbs.Use of forests as a source of income.Clearing forests for slash and burn cultivation.Construction of roads, electricity lines, dwellings, etc.Insect hazards.Natural disasters e.g. forest fires, land slides, storms etc.
8CLEARING FORESTS FOR CONSTUCTIONS INDUSTRIALIZATIONGLOBALIZATIONFOREST FIRESCUTTING DOWN TREES
9STEPS TAKEN IN THE CONSERVATION OF FORESTS IN SRI LANKA Maintenance of national forest reserves to establish the continuation of life of the surface of the earth.Under the participatory forest project, planting is done in 12 districts with government aid. Fruits and timber in private lands jak and cashew are grown under forest cover.Protection of slopes through replanting of forests :- pines, albecia, and eucalyptus in the wet zone; planting teak in the dry zone; forest plantations on the upper mahaweli, uda waluwa and naula hills.Make use of SALT method in cultivation of slopes protection of coastal mangroves and protection of wetlands.Making people aware about the results of destruction of forests.SSa
10MAJOR PROJECTS UNDERTAKEN IN SRI LANKA AGAINST DEFORESTATION. CTCRUK RAKA GANNO
11CTCIn the late 1980’s CTC undertook the initiative to combat deforestation through the planting of Eucalyptus trees. As firewood was once used to cure tobacco leaves, CTC took on the environmental responsibility of maintaining the natural forest cover and biodiversity of the land through this pioneering project.They have launched this variation of life forms within a given ecosystem what is called biodiversity and it is often used as a measure of the health of biological system – in the tobacco growing areas of the Central Province which includes Naula, Galewela, Hewaheta and Walapane.In this manner they are growing around one million trees in over 1,250 acres of land. CTC’s biodiversity project receives technical expertise from International organizations such as Earth watch Europe, Fauna and Flora International, the Royal Botanical Gardens Kew and the Tropical Biology Association.
12RUK RAKAGANNOThe tree Society was formed in 1975 to create environmental Awareness of the value of trees and forests. Today, it is firmly committed to the conservation of forests and biodiversity and an appreciation and conservation of the fauna and flora particularly the trees of this country. They work mainly with rural people who live close the forests.Ruk Rakaganno has been lobbying policy makers since 1975 on Environmental matters and works closely with the Forest Department. he Organization has considerable experience in conducting workshops, Seminars, Tree planting programs in the provinces and has links with rural NGOs. Ruk Rakaganno formed the Women's Environment Centre in 1992 in order to give a voice to the concerns of rural women at the rapid loss natural resources particularly due to deforestation.
13RECYCLINGThe average paper consumption per person in Sri Lanka is about 7 kg per annum out of which only 2 kg is collected for recycling. Most government, commercial and financial institutions presently dispose their confidential documents and paper waste by burning or dumping as garbage. Neptune Papers came forward offering institutions a FREE document shredding service which ensures security of confidential document disposal without the need of destroying documents through burning, thereby reducing pollution & saving the felling of trees and protecting the environment. This endeavor has resulted in wide spread support which has resulted shredding over 2,500,000 kg of confidential documents per annum.
14Elephant dung is a renewable source of raw material, unlike wood pulp, the traditional raw material for paper, which denudes forests. This makes it an environmentally responsible alternative to ordinary paper.Elephant dung is a waste product and is free. Making paper from it makes good business sense.Such paper is made in places like Sri Lanka and Thailand where elephants are often viewed as agricultural pests. Making paper from their dung enables locals to see elephants as assets rather than liabilities. In fact, many elephant reserves in these countries are using the income from elephant dung paper to support their elephant conservation efforts.