Presentation on theme: "6 Biomes and Aquatic Ecosystems CHAPTER. Too Much of a Good Thing? Elephant populations in southern Africa __________ ______________ but have made overwhelming."— Presentation transcript:
6 Biomes and Aquatic Ecosystems CHAPTER
Too Much of a Good Thing? Elephant populations in southern Africa __________ ______________ but have made overwhelming comebacks within nature reserves and parks. Some worry that elephant overpopulation is causing ________________________________________ _________________________________________. Many efforts to control elephant populations are being considered and put into practice. Elephant populations in southern Africa __________ ______________ but have made overwhelming comebacks within nature reserves and parks. Some worry that elephant overpopulation is causing ________________________________________ _________________________________________. Many efforts to control elephant populations are being considered and put into practice. Talk About It Which elephant population control effort— _______________________________________you think has the best chance for long-term, positive effects?
Earth’s Major Biomes Groups of terrestrial ecosystems that share biotic and abiotic conditions (copy p.95) 10 primary biomes: tropical rain forest dry forest savanna desert temperate rain forest temperate forest temperate grassland chaparral boreal forest tundra Groups of terrestrial ecosystems that share biotic and abiotic conditions (copy p.95) 10 primary biomes: tropical rain forest dry forest savanna desert temperate rain forest temperate forest temperate grassland chaparral boreal forest tundra Did You Know?_________________________ _____________________________. Lesson 6.1 Defining Biomes
Climate and Climatographs (copy these definitions p. 95)(copy these definitions p. 95) Climate: Average conditions, including temperature and precipitation, over long periods of time in a given areaClimate: Average conditions, including temperature and precipitation, over long periods of time in a given area Weather: Day-to-day conditions in Earth’s atmosphereWeather: Day-to-day conditions in Earth’s atmosphere Climatographs: Diagrams that summarize an area’s average monthly temperature and precipitationClimatographs: Diagrams that summarize an area’s average monthly temperature and precipitation ________________________________ ________________________________ _____________climate conditions.________________________________ ________________________________ _____________climate conditions. Lesson 6.1 Defining Biomes
Biomes and Net Primary Production Gross primary production:__________________________ ______________________________________________________ Net primary production: The amount of organic matter (biomass) that remains after primary producers use some to carry out cellular respiration Ecosystems vary in their net primary productivity,_______________ ________________________________________________________. Warm, wet biomes generally have _______ net primary productivity than cold, dry biomes. Gross primary production:__________________________ ______________________________________________________ Net primary production: The amount of organic matter (biomass) that remains after primary producers use some to carry out cellular respiration Ecosystems vary in their net primary productivity,_______________ ________________________________________________________. Warm, wet biomes generally have _______ net primary productivity than cold, dry biomes. Lesson 6.1 Defining Biomes
Tropical Rain Forest Lesson 6.2 Biomes Year-round warm temperatures and at least ________________ _______________________ Soil generally ______________ Forest canopy, emergent layer, and understory support _______ __________________________. Plants tend to have __________ leaves and shallow roots. Supports ___________________ ________________; animals tend to be highly specialized. Did You Know? Some tropical plants (epiphytes) grow high on other plants to access sunlight and do not touch the soil.
Tropical Dry Forest Lesson 6.2 Biomes Warm year-round, but _________ _________________________ Most_________________—they lose their leaves and cease photosynthesis part of the year. Plants and animals exhibit __________ (e.g. waxy leaf coating, deep roots, estivation, migration) that enable them to __________________________. Tiger (Panthera tigris)
Savanna Lesson 6.2 Biomes Receives less precipitation than tropical dry forests, but more than deserts; usually has a __________________________ _______ interspersed with groups of trees Tree growth limited by _______________ __________________________________ Plants are adapted to dry conditions; tend to be _______________, thick bark, and _______________________. Many animals ________________, or burrow when water is scarce.
Desert Lesson 6.2 Biomes Receives less than____________ ____________________________ ________________________ from day to night. Plants tend to have ___________ leaves, __________ in their tissues, and________________. Animals get most of their water from the food they eat, and they tend to be ________. Mammals have exaggerated appendages to ___________________________. Did You Know? _______________________________ _______________________________ _______________________________ _______________________________ ____________
Temperate Rain Forest Lesson 6.2 Biomes Year-round _________ temperatures and _____________ Largest extent found in _____________________________ Characterized by _____________________, such as cedars and hemlocks, that don’t lose leaves annually; many are conifers (produce seed-bearing cones) Forest floor is shaded, _______________________. Animals that require moisture, such as _______________________ Olympic Peninsula, Hoh River rain forest
Temperate Forest Lesson 6.2 Biomes Precipitation________________ __________________________ Varied temperatures (____________________________ ___) Plants tend to be ____________. Soil is enriched with nutrients from annual leaf drop. Animals may_________________ ___________________________ ____________________________
Temperate Grassland (Prairie) Lesson 2.2 Biomes Moderate seasonal precipitation and fairly _____________________________________; droughts and fires common Not enough precipitation to support large trees; ___________________________________, thrive despite droughts, fires, animals grazing Animals are _____________________________. Soil tends to be ____________________; most of world’s grasslands have been converted to _________________.
Chaparral Lesson 6.2 Biomes _________________________________ with mild, wet winters and warm, dry summers ______________________; droughts and fires common Plants are drought-resistant; many have thick, waxy leaves or leaves with hairs that trap moisture; succulents are common. Plants may have _______________________________ ___________________; some plants require fire to germinate. Many animals _______ or are __________ to avoid heat. Did You Know? ________ _____________________ _____________________ _____________________ ______ Did You Know? ________ _____________________ _____________________ _____________________ ______
Boreal Forest (Taiga) Lesson 6.2 Biomes ____________ winters; short, cool summers _____________________ ___ species diversity _________________ with waxy needles and conical shape, adapted to harsh, snowy conditions are common. Animals feed, breed, and care for young mostly during ____________ year-round residents tend to have _____ insulation and __________________________________.
Tundra Lesson 6.2 Biomes Extremely ________________ winters; relatively __________ _______________________________________________ Found at very______________________________________ Harsh winds, nutrient-poor soil, and freezing temperatures __________________________________________________ Characterized by permafrost (________________________ ________________________) Birds and caribou migrate to the tundra during the mild summer to feed on insects and lichens;___________________________________________ _____________________________________________.
Polar Ice and Mountains Lesson 6.2 Biomes _________________________ ___________________ in Northern Hemisphere; ice sits atop _____________ in Southern Hemisphere Very few plants; ____________ ________________________ Mountain communities ________________________, similar to how biome communities change with latitude.
Describing Aquatic Ecosystems Lesson 6.3 Aquatic Ecosystems (copy p. 104)Salinity: the amount of dissolved salt present in water. Ecosystems are classified as salt water, fresh water, or brackish depending on salinity. Photosynthesis tends to be _______ ___________________, which is a function of ___________________. Aquatic ecosystems are either_________________. Aquatic ecosystem zones:_______________________ ___________
Freshwater Ecosystems: Ponds, Lakes, Inland Seas Lesson 6.3 Aquatic Ecosystems Salinity is _____________ (parts per thousand) Ponds and lakes are similar, except in size, but _________ contain organisms__________ _________________. Ponds and lakes are divided horizontally into zones:__________ ___________________
Freshwater Ecosystems: Wetlands Lesson 6.3 Aquatic Ecosystems Areas of land flooded with water at least part of the year __________________________________________________ Wetlands prevent___________________________________ ________________________________________________.
Freshwater Ecosystems: Rivers and Streams Lesson 6.3 Aquatic Ecosystems ____________________________ _____________________________ Watershed: The area of land drained by a river and its tributaries ______________, such as dissolved oxygen, temperature, water speed, organisms, and others, _____________________ ___________________________.
Estuaries Lesson 6.3 Aquatic Ecosystems (copy p. 105)Occur where a river flows into the ocean or an inland sea Coastal estuaries are brackish ecosystems; _______________ _________________________ranges. Coastal estuaries are home to salt marshes and mangrove forests. Like wetlands, estuaries help prevent _________________________________ _____________________________. Did You Know? Salt marshes and mangrove forests are two of the most productive ecosystems on Earth. Everglades, Florida, wetlands
Oceans Lesson 6.3 Aquatic Ecosystems __________________________________________________ ______________________________________. Surface winds and heating generate vertical currents that _________________________________________________. Did you Know?___________________________ _________________________________ _________________________________ _________________________________. Horizontal ocean zones: intertidal, neritic, open ocean (#16 p. 107) Vertical ocean zones: photic, aphotic, benthic
Ocean Ecosystems Lesson 6.3 Aquatic Ecosystems Intertidal: Highly diverse; extreme range of temperature, moisture, and salinity Neritic: Productive kelp forests and coral reefs provide habitats and help protect shorelines from erosion.(#17p. 107) Did You Know?____________________ __________________________________ _________________________________. Did You Know?____________________ __________________________________ _________________________________. Open ocean: Low productivity due to low light penetration; ____ __________________; #18) deep sea organisms and hydrothermal vent communities