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Biomes and Aquatic Ecosystems

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Presentation on theme: "Biomes and Aquatic Ecosystems"— Presentation transcript:

1 Biomes and Aquatic Ecosystems
6 CHAPTER Placeholder opening page, but maybe we can duplicate the look of the SE chapter opener page by using the same fonts and colors (and maybe that Ch 14 icon?)

2 Too Much of a Good Thing? Elephant populations in southern Africa __________ ______________ but have made overwhelming comebacks within nature reserves and parks. Some worry that elephant overpopulation is causing ________________________________________ _________________________________________. Many efforts to control elephant populations are being considered and put into practice. Talk About It Which elephant population control effort—_______________________________________you think has the best chance for long-term, positive effects?

3 Lesson 6.1 Defining Biomes

4 Lesson 6.1 Defining Biomes
Earth’s Major Biomes Groups of terrestrial ecosystems that share biotic and abiotic conditions (copy p.95) 10 primary biomes: tropical rain forest dry forest savanna desert temperate rain forest temperate forest temperate grassland chaparral boreal forest tundra Did You Know?______________________________________________________.

5 Climate and Climatographs
Lesson 6.1 Defining Biomes Climate and Climatographs (copy these definitions p. 95) Climate: Average conditions, including temperature and precipitation, over long periods of time in a given area Weather: Day-to-day conditions in Earth’s atmosphere Climatographs: Diagrams that summarize an area’s average monthly temperature and precipitation _____________________________________________________________________________climate conditions.

6 Biomes and Net Primary Production
Lesson 6.1 Defining Biomes Biomes and Net Primary Production Gross primary production:__________________________ ______________________________________________________ Net primary production: The amount of organic matter (biomass) that remains after primary producers use some to carry out cellular respiration Ecosystems vary in their net primary productivity,_______________ ________________________________________________________. Warm, wet biomes generally have _______ net primary productivity than cold, dry biomes.

7 ____________________________________________________________
Lesson 6.2 Biomes ____________________________________________________________

8 Lesson 6.2 Biomes Tropical Rain Forest Year-round warm temperatures and at least ________________ _______________________ Soil generally ______________ Forest canopy, emergent layer, and understory support _______ __________________________. Plants tend to have __________ leaves and shallow roots. Supports ___________________ ________________; animals tend to be highly specialized. Did You Know? Some tropical plants (epiphytes) grow high on other plants to access sunlight and do not touch the soil.

9 Tropical Dry Forest Warm year-round, but _________
Lesson 6.2 Biomes Tropical Dry Forest Warm year-round, but _________ _________________________ Most_________________—they lose their leaves and cease photosynthesis part of the year. Plants and animals exhibit __________ (e.g. waxy leaf coating, deep roots, estivation, migration) that enable them to __________________________. Tiger (Panthera tigris)

10 Lesson 6.2 Biomes Savanna Receives less precipitation than tropical dry forests, but more than deserts; usually has a __________________________ _______ interspersed with groups of trees Tree growth limited by _______________ __________________________________ Plants are adapted to dry conditions; tend to be _______________, thick bark, and _______________________. Many animals ________________, or burrow when water is scarce.

11 Desert Receives less than____________ ____________________________
Lesson 6.2 Biomes Desert Did You Know? ________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ Receives less than____________ ____________________________ ________________________ from day to night. Plants tend to have ___________ leaves, __________ in their tissues, and________________. Animals get most of their water from the food they eat, and they tend to be ________. Mammals have exaggerated appendages to ___________________________.

12 Lesson 6.2 Biomes Temperate Rain Forest Year-round _________ temperatures and _____________ Largest extent found in _____________________________ Characterized by _____________________, such as cedars and hemlocks, that don’t lose leaves annually; many are conifers (produce seed-bearing cones) Forest floor is shaded, _______________________. Animals that require moisture, such as _______________________ Olympic Peninsula, Hoh River rain forest

13 Lesson 6.2 Biomes Temperate Forest Precipitation________________ __________________________ Varied temperatures (_______________________________) Plants tend to be ____________. Soil is enriched with nutrients from annual leaf drop. Animals may_________________ ___________________________ ____________________________

14 Temperate Grassland (Prairie)
Lesson 2.2 Biomes Temperate Grassland (Prairie) Moderate seasonal precipitation and fairly _____________________________________; droughts and fires common Not enough precipitation to support large trees; ___________________________________, thrive despite droughts, fires, animals grazing Animals are _____________________________. Soil tends to be ____________________; most of world’s grasslands have been converted to _________________.

15 Lesson 6.2 Biomes Chaparral Did You Know? ________ _____________________________________________________________________ _________________________________ with mild, wet winters and warm, dry summers ______________________; droughts and fires common Plants are drought-resistant; many have thick, waxy leaves or leaves with hairs that trap moisture; succulents are common. Plants may have _______________________________ ___________________; some plants require fire to germinate. Many animals _______ or are __________ to avoid heat.

16 Boreal Forest (Taiga) ____________ winters; short, cool summers
Lesson 6.2 Biomes Boreal Forest (Taiga) ____________ winters; short, cool summers _____________________ ___ species diversity _________________ with waxy needles and conical shape, adapted to harsh, snowy conditions are common. Animals feed, breed, and care for young mostly during ____________ year-round residents tend to have _____ insulation and __________________________________.

17 Tundra Extremely ________________ winters; relatively __________
Lesson 6.2 Biomes Tundra Extremely ________________ winters; relatively __________ _______________________________________________ Found at very______________________________________ Harsh winds, nutrient-poor soil, and freezing temperatures __________________________________________________ Characterized by permafrost (________________________ ________________________) Birds and caribou migrate to the tundra during the mild summer to feed on insects and lichens;________________________________________________________________________________________.

18 Polar Ice and Mountains
Lesson 6.2 Biomes Polar Ice and Mountains _________________________ ___________________ in Northern Hemisphere; ice sits atop _____________ in Southern Hemisphere Very few plants; ____________ ________________________ Mountain communities ________________________, similar to how biome communities change with latitude.

19 Lesson 6.3 Aquatic Ecosystems

20 Describing Aquatic Ecosystems
Lesson 6.3 Aquatic Ecosystems Describing Aquatic Ecosystems (copy p. 104)Salinity: the amount of dissolved salt present in water. Ecosystems are classified as salt water, fresh water, or brackish depending on salinity. Photosynthesis tends to be _______ ___________________, which is a function of ___________________. Aquatic ecosystems are either_________________. Aquatic ecosystem zones:__________________________________

21 Freshwater Ecosystems: Ponds, Lakes, Inland Seas
Lesson 6.3 Aquatic Ecosystems Freshwater Ecosystems: Ponds, Lakes, Inland Seas Salinity is _____________ (parts per thousand) Ponds and lakes are similar, except in size, but _________ contain organisms__________ _________________. Ponds and lakes are divided horizontally into zones:__________ ___________________

22 Freshwater Ecosystems: Wetlands
Lesson 6.3 Aquatic Ecosystems Freshwater Ecosystems: Wetlands Areas of land flooded with water at least part of the year __________________________________________________ Wetlands prevent___________________________________ ________________________________________________.

23 Freshwater Ecosystems: Rivers and Streams
Lesson 6.3 Aquatic Ecosystems Freshwater Ecosystems: Rivers and Streams ____________________________ _____________________________ Watershed: The area of land drained by a river and its tributaries ______________, such as dissolved oxygen, temperature, water speed, organisms, and others, _____________________ ___________________________.

24 Lesson 6.3 Aquatic Ecosystems
Estuaries (copy p. 105)Occur where a river flows into the ocean or an inland sea Coastal estuaries are brackish ecosystems; _______________ _________________________ranges. Coastal estuaries are home to salt marshes and mangrove forests. Like wetlands, estuaries help prevent ______________________________________________________________. Everglades, Florida, wetlands Did You Know? Salt marshes and mangrove forests are two of the most productive ecosystems on Earth.

25 Lesson 6.3 Aquatic Ecosystems
Oceans ________________________________________________________________________________________. Surface winds and heating generate vertical currents that _________________________________________________. Horizontal ocean zones: intertidal, neritic, open ocean (#16 p. 107) Vertical ocean zones: photic, aphotic, benthic Did you Know?______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________.

26 Lesson 6.3 Aquatic Ecosystems
Ocean Ecosystems Intertidal: Highly diverse; extreme range of temperature, moisture, and salinity Neritic: Productive kelp forests and coral reefs provide habitats and help protect shorelines from erosion.(#17p. 107) Open ocean: Low productivity due to low light penetration; ____ __________________; #18) deep sea organisms and hydrothermal vent communities Did You Know?____________________ ___________________________________________________________________.

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