Presentation on theme: "Biomes and Aquatic Ecosystems"— Presentation transcript:
1Biomes and Aquatic Ecosystems 6CHAPTERPlaceholder opening page, but maybe we can duplicate the look of the SE chapter opener page by using the same fonts and colors (and maybe that Ch 14 icon?)
2Too Much of a Good Thing?Elephant populations in southern Africa ________________________ but have made overwhelming comebacks within nature reserves and parks.Some worry that elephant overpopulation is causing________________________________________ _________________________________________.Many efforts to control elephant populations are being considered and put into practice.Talk About It Which elephant population control effort—_______________________________________you think has the best chance for long-term, positive effects?
4Lesson 6.1 Defining Biomes Earth’s Major BiomesGroups of terrestrial ecosystems that share biotic and abiotic conditions (copy p.95)10 primary biomes:tropical rain forestdry forest savannadeserttemperate rain foresttemperate foresttemperate grasslandchaparralboreal foresttundraDid You Know?______________________________________________________.
5Climate and Climatographs Lesson 6.1 Defining BiomesClimate and Climatographs(copy these definitions p. 95)Climate: Average conditions, including temperature and precipitation, over long periods of time in a given areaWeather: Day-to-day conditions in Earth’s atmosphereClimatographs: Diagrams that summarize an area’s average monthly temperature and precipitation_____________________________________________________________________________climate conditions.
6Biomes and Net Primary Production Lesson 6.1 Defining BiomesBiomes and Net Primary ProductionGross primary production:________________________________________________________________________________Net primary production: The amount of organic matter (biomass) that remains after primary producers use some to carry out cellular respirationEcosystems vary in their net primary productivity,_______________________________________________________________________.Warm, wet biomes generally have _______ net primary productivity than cold, dry biomes.
8Lesson 6.2 BiomesTropical Rain ForestYear-round warm temperatures and at least _______________________________________Soil generally ______________Forest canopy, emergent layer, and understory support _________________________________.Plants tend to have __________ leaves and shallow roots.Supports ___________________________________; animals tend to be highly specialized.Did You Know? Some tropical plants (epiphytes) grow high on other plants to access sunlight and do not touch the soil.
9Tropical Dry Forest Warm year-round, but _________ Lesson 6.2 BiomesTropical Dry ForestWarm year-round, but __________________________________Most_________________—they lose their leaves and cease photosynthesis part of the year.Plants and animals exhibit __________ (e.g. waxy leaf coating, deep roots, estivation, migration) that enable them to__________________________.Tiger (Panthera tigris)
10Lesson 6.2 BiomesSavannaReceives less precipitation than tropical dry forests, but more than deserts; usually has a _________________________________ interspersed with groups of treesTree growth limited by _________________________________________________Plants are adapted to dry conditions; tend to be _______________, thick bark, and_______________________.Many animals ________________, or burrow when water is scarce.
11Desert Receives less than____________ ____________________________ Lesson 6.2 BiomesDesertDid You Know? ________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________Receives less than________________________________________________________________ from day to night.Plants tend to have ___________ leaves, __________ in their tissues, and________________.Animals get most of their water from the food they eat, and they tend to be ________. Mammals have exaggerated appendages to ___________________________.
12Lesson 6.2 BiomesTemperate Rain ForestYear-round _________ temperatures and _____________Largest extent found in _____________________________Characterized by _____________________, such as cedars and hemlocks, that don’t lose leaves annually; many are conifers (produce seed-bearing cones)Forest floor is shaded,_______________________.Animals that require moisture, such as_______________________Olympic Peninsula, Hoh River rain forest
13Lesson 6.2 BiomesTemperate ForestPrecipitation________________ __________________________Varied temperatures(_______________________________)Plants tend to be ____________.Soil is enriched with nutrients from annual leaf drop.Animals may________________________________________________________________________
14Temperate Grassland (Prairie) Lesson 2.2 BiomesTemperate Grassland (Prairie)Moderate seasonal precipitation and fairly_____________________________________; droughts and fires commonNot enough precipitation to support large trees; ___________________________________, thrive despite droughts, fires, animals grazingAnimals are _____________________________.Soil tends to be ____________________; most of world’s grasslands have been converted to _________________.
15Lesson 6.2 BiomesChaparralDid You Know? ______________________________________________________________________________________________________________ with mild, wet winters and warm, dry summers______________________; droughts and fires commonPlants are drought-resistant; many have thick, waxy leaves or leaves with hairs that trap moisture; succulents are common.Plants may have __________________________________________________; some plants require fire to germinate.Many animals _______ or are __________ to avoid heat.
16Boreal Forest (Taiga) ____________ winters; short, cool summers Lesson 6.2 BiomesBoreal Forest (Taiga)____________ winters; short, cool summers________________________ species diversity_________________ with waxy needles and conical shape, adapted to harsh, snowy conditions are common.Animals feed, breed, and care for young mostly during ____________ year-round residents tend to have _____ insulation and __________________________________.
17Tundra Extremely ________________ winters; relatively __________ Lesson 6.2 BiomesTundraExtremely ________________ winters; relatively _________________________________________________________Found at very______________________________________Harsh winds, nutrient-poor soil, and freezing temperatures__________________________________________________Characterized by permafrost (________________________________________________)Birds and caribou migrate to the tundra during the mild summer to feed on insects and lichens;________________________________________________________________________________________.
18Polar Ice and Mountains Lesson 6.2 BiomesPolar Ice and Mountains____________________________________________ in Northern Hemisphere; ice sits atop _____________ in Southern HemisphereVery few plants; ____________________________________Mountain communities ________________________, similar to how biome communities change with latitude.
20Describing Aquatic Ecosystems Lesson 6.3 Aquatic EcosystemsDescribing Aquatic Ecosystems(copy p. 104)Salinity: the amount of dissolved salt present in water. Ecosystems are classified as salt water, fresh water, or brackish depending on salinity.Photosynthesis tends to be _______ ___________________, which is a function of ___________________.Aquatic ecosystems are either_________________.Aquatic ecosystem zones:__________________________________
21Freshwater Ecosystems: Ponds, Lakes, Inland Seas Lesson 6.3 Aquatic EcosystemsFreshwater Ecosystems: Ponds, Lakes, Inland SeasSalinity is _____________ (parts per thousand)Ponds and lakes are similar, except in size, but _________ contain organisms___________________________.Ponds and lakes are divided horizontally into zones:_____________________________
22Freshwater Ecosystems: Wetlands Lesson 6.3 Aquatic EcosystemsFreshwater Ecosystems: WetlandsAreas of land flooded with water at least part of the year__________________________________________________Wetlands prevent___________________________________________________________________________________.
23Freshwater Ecosystems: Rivers and Streams Lesson 6.3 Aquatic EcosystemsFreshwater Ecosystems: Rivers and Streams_________________________________________________________Watershed: The area of land drained by a river and its tributaries______________, such as dissolved oxygen, temperature, water speed, organisms, and others, ________________________________________________.
24Lesson 6.3 Aquatic Ecosystems Estuaries(copy p. 105)Occur where a river flows into the ocean or an inland seaCoastal estuaries are brackish ecosystems; ________________________________________ranges.Coastal estuaries are home to salt marshes and mangrove forests.Like wetlands, estuaries help prevent______________________________________________________________.Everglades, Florida, wetlandsDid You Know? Salt marshes and mangrove forests are two of the most productive ecosystems on Earth.
25Lesson 6.3 Aquatic Ecosystems Oceans________________________________________________________________________________________.Surface winds and heating generate vertical currents that_________________________________________________.Horizontal ocean zones: intertidal, neritic, open ocean (#16 p. 107)Vertical ocean zones: photic, aphotic, benthicDid you Know?______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________.
26Lesson 6.3 Aquatic Ecosystems Ocean EcosystemsIntertidal: Highly diverse; extreme range of temperature, moisture, and salinityNeritic: Productive kelp forests and coral reefs provide habitats and help protect shorelines from erosion.(#17p. 107)Open ocean: Low productivity due to low light penetration; ______________________; #18) deep sea organisms and hydrothermal vent communitiesDid You Know?_______________________________________________________________________________________.