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Animals Several vertebrate pests cause serious damage to our crops. It thus becomes absolutely necessary to protect our crops against their ravages. Animal.

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Presentation on theme: "Animals Several vertebrate pests cause serious damage to our crops. It thus becomes absolutely necessary to protect our crops against their ravages. Animal."— Presentation transcript:

1 Animals Several vertebrate pests cause serious damage to our crops. It thus becomes absolutely necessary to protect our crops against their ravages. Animal pests include:  Primates: Rhesus macaque, Bonnet macaque and Hanuman langur  Ungulates: Antelopes, Deer, Blue bull, Boar and Elephant  Rodents: Porcupine, squirrel, and rats and mice  Lagomorphs: Hares and Rabbits End Next

2 A. Primates Among primates, lemurs and monkeys (macaques and langurs ) are largely vegetarian, eating leaves, buds and flowers, fruits etc. Vegetarian nature of their diet makes them potentially destructive to crops and orchards. Three species, which live in the vicinity of human habitations in India are important in this respect. These are, the rhesus macaque ( Macaca mulatta ) mostly in North India, the bonnet macaque ( Macaca radiata ) in South India and the Hanuman langur (Presbytis entellus) all over India. The damage caused by them to crops, vegetables and orchards is considerable. EndPrevious Next

3 a. Rhesus macaque (bandar), Macaca mulatta It is stout, olive-grey pink faced monkey with a relatively short tail about one-half the length of head and body. It is distributed all over North India. It lives in small to large groups comprised of about individuals. Though essentially a plain dwelling species, it goes up to about 1500 m altitude in the Himalayas. Throughout its range, it raids cultivated farmlands, vegetable fields and orchards, causing considerable damage. Rhesus macaque EndPrevious Next

4 b. Bonnet macaque, Macaca radiata It is relatively small monkey with along tail and longish, pink face, and its body is olive to grey brown. It is distributed all over peninsular India. It live sin small to medium-sized groups of about 3-76 individuals. It raids farmlands and causes considerable damage to vegetables, tubers, fruit trees. Bonnet macaque EndPrevious Next

5 c. Hanuman langur, Presbytis entellus It is large, agile, graceful, long-legged animal with black faceand long tail and, which is somewhat longer than head and body. It is distributed all over India. It lives in small to large groups of about 3-90 individuals. It is highly adaptable and lives in varied habitats including vicinity of towns, cities, farmlands and orchards but never roosting in human habitations, unlike the macaques. Hanuman langur EndPrevious Next

6 B. Ungulates a. Elephants Among the mammalian pests of cultivated crops, the elephant ( Elephas maximus ) is potentially one of the most destructive animal. Elephants eat a wide variety of plants including ragi, sorghum, paddy, sugarcane, coconut, banana, mango and jack fruit. Large scale removal of the elephants’ natural food plants such as bamboo, tall grasses and Acacia for industrial use, may force them to seek food from cultivated crops. Elephant EndPrevious Next

7 b. Blue bull Blue bull, Boselaphus traqocamelus has become major destroyer of crops in several states. It is called ‘ Nilgai’ but is not relative of cow. These animals trample the fields at night and pull down the standing crops, feeding on the foliage part of the plants. The crops damaged include wheat, millet, pulses, sweet pea, carrot and tomato. In certain areas farmers have stopped cultivation of pulses owing to presence of this pest. With increasing damage by this pest, there is wide spread resentment among farmers against wild life. Blue bull (Nilgai) EndPrevious Next

8 c. Antelopes Among antelopes, the black buck, the chinkara and the four-horned antelope damage browsing crops, fruit trees and forest transplants. Considerable damage to bark of trees is also caused during the process of rubbing the horns against the stem. Black buck EndPrevious Next

9 d. Wild Boar The Indian wild boar causes damage to crops and forestry by destruction of nursery beds, uprooting of young plants and stripping of bark of trees. They have become agricultural pests due destruction of their natural habitats. e. Fox Foxes also damage crops like maize. They feed on maize cobs and also breaks plants. Wild Boar Fox EndPrevious Next

10 C. Rodents a. Porcupine Indian porcupine, Hystrix indica causes damage to field crops crops by digging them up. It also debarks and girdles at the base of young trees in plantations and regeneration areas, which results in outright killing of plants.. They also cut and devour the roots of seedlings, saplings and transplants. Porcupine EndPrevious Next

11 b. Squirrel Squirrels cause damage in agricultural fields and in plantations. They have been observed damaging maize cobs and young seedlings in nurseries. Red flying squirrel occurs in large large forests in Himalayas. It is nocturnal in habit and feeds primarily on fruits and nuts of various crops. Squirrel EndPrevious Next

12 c. Rats and mice Rats cause severe damage to crops and domestic commodities, thereby requiring to be controlled effectively. The atmosphere and surroundings of human habitations are fouled by them to the extent that it becomes intolerable for man. Several types of diseases are known to be transmitted by rats. Besides consuming considerable quantity of food, they contaminate much more by urine, faeces, and hairs and sebaceous secretions. Religious sentiments of some people come in the way of rat control. Mus booduga EndPrevious Next

13 Rat management Mechanical Control Trapping, smoking and flooding of rat burrows and hunting help in reducing rat population. Cultural control Rats can also be controlled by maintaining sanitation, proper storage of food materials, rodent proofing of buildings and cutting of bamboos. Biological control Cats and dogs kill and eat rats. Likewise, owls also predate upon rats. Chemical control Poison baiting with 2% zinc phosphide is used to control rats. Anticoagulants like warfarin also proved effective against rats. Bandicoot EndPrevious Next

14 D. Lagomorphs a. Hare and rabbit Hares and rabbits are one of the best known wild mammals and of considerable economic importance. They are nocturnal and graze mainly on grass, herbs, scrubs, bulbs, roots, bark etc. Instances of their becoming pests on agricultural crops are widely known throughout the country. They do considerable damage to crops like wheat, barleygram, maize, jowar, bajra, pea, mustard, bean, cabbage and others. They are browse on young fruit trees and forest plants. Hare Rabbit EndPrevious

15 Let’s Sum Up Animal pests include Primates, Ungulates, Rodents and Hares. These animals have becomes serious pests of agriculture due to destruction of their natural habitats. Among primates, rhesus macaque, the bonnet macaque and the Hanuman langur are important from agriculture viewpoint. Ungulates comprise of elephants, antelopes, wild boar, blue bull. Blue bull has become major destroyer of crops in several states. With increasing damage by this pest, there is wide spread resentment among farmers against wild life. Rodents like rats, porcupine, squirrel etc. also cause considerable damage to agricultural commodities. Rats should be managed through integrated approach involving mechanical, cultural, biological and chemical methods. Lagomorphs like hares also damage agricultural commodities. EndPrevious Next


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