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Tree structure By Edward F. Gilman Department of Environmental Horticulture University of Florida

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Presentation on theme: "Tree structure By Edward F. Gilman Department of Environmental Horticulture University of Florida"— Presentation transcript:

1 Tree structure By Edward F. Gilman Department of Environmental Horticulture University of Florida

2 Tree Structure What’s the Problem?

3 What is good structure? 1.Forest grown vs. open grown tree 2.Codominant stems 3.Good branch attachment 4.Structurally sound tree Outline of topics

4 1.Forest grown tree How do they develop on their own? vs.. Open grown tree

5 Trees in the forest grow with one trunk, and codominant stems toward the top of the tree

6 Codominant stems form far up into the canopy on most forest trees

7 Open grown trees Canopy develops low on the trunk Canopy spreads wide Tree is often wider than tall

8 Its party time for all Its all about access to sunlight

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10 Appears to be a nice tree

11 Close-up of base of tree

12 Same tree five years later Huge crack

13 “Fall down go boom tree” Keep an eye on this side of the tree

14 “I thought I heard something creak last night”

15 What is good structure? 1.Forest grown vs. open grown tree 2.Codominant stems 3.Good branch attachment 4.Structurally sound tree Outline of topics

16 2. Codominant stems Stems nearly same diameter

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18 “Elephant ears” These are weak Severely acute angle

19 Why are they a problem? Included bark beginning to form

20 Bark inclusion Decay and discoloration from self wounding

21 Bark inclusion Near-normal wood formation Closed crack indicating inclusion

22 Bark inclusion Closure crack indicating inclusion

23 Bark inclusion (Not a codominant stem!)

24 Close-up of closure crack

25 What is good structure? 1.Forest grown vs. open grown tree 2.Codominant stems 3.Good branch attachment 4.Structurally sound tree Outline of topics

26 3. Good branch attachment How does a BRANCH form? What are the indicators?

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29 Branch bark ridge present Some branch unions have a prominent branch bark ridge

30 Collar No branch bark ridge

31 Pine union Collar is visible as a swelling at the base of the branch Branch bark ridge (arrows) is visible as a dark, rough bark region on the top and sides of the union

32 Wood orientation at union Peel the bark from the union Note how trunk wood grows out onto the base of the branch (dotted line is edge of trunk wood)

33 Desirable branch size

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35 Weak union Strong union

36 What is good structure? 1.Forest grown vs. open grown tree 2.Codominant stems 3.Good branch attachment 4.Structurally sound tree Outline of topics

37 4. Structurally sound tree Scaffold branches spaced vertically. –Rule of thumb: about 5% of tree’s ultimate height. Scaffold branches spaced radially; none directly above another. Consistently maintain 60% L.C.R.

38 Good structure

39 Stems too close together

40 Pruning – Is a solution that will be discussed in another presentation.

41 Tree structure By Edward F. Gilman Department of Environmental Horticulture University of Florida


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