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Natural Selection.

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Presentation on theme: "Natural Selection."— Presentation transcript:

1 Natural Selection

2 Survival of the Fittest?
Is this what Darwin meant?

3 Natural Selection The process by which organisms with favorable traits survive and reproduce at a higher rate than organisms without the favorable trait

4 Natural Selection Organisms -
Better able to survive and reproduce in an environment More likely to pass their traits on to future generations Traits improve chances of survival or reproduction Likely to accumulate in a population after several generations Traits are “selected”

5 Natural Selection in Four Steps
Overproduction Genetic Variation Struggle to Survive Successful Reproduction

6 More individuals are born than will become adults.
Overproduction More individuals are born than will become adults.

7 Genetic Variation Individuals Not exactly the same
Have own set of traits (size, color and the ability to find food) Some traits more likely to survive and reproduce Other traits less likely for survival and reproduction

8 Struggle to Survive Environment Individuals
Not able to support all of the individuals born Individuals Killed by other organisms Do not find mates Only some will become adults and reproduce

9 Successful Reproduction
Individuals and Their Environment Well Adapted More likely to survive More likely to reproduce Traits likely to be selected Not Well Adapted More likely to die early Have few offspring Traits less likely to be selected

10 Survival of the Fittest
Key to Natural Selection – Heredity Traits passed from one generation to the next No reproduction – genes will not be passed on Characteristics Survival vs. Reproduction Peacock’s bright feathers Flower’s color Easily spotted by predators/dull and dark colors will not find mate Flowers ultraviolet light – pollination

11 Natural Selection in Action
Population Changes in response to its environment Tends to be well adapted to its environment Environment changes too quickly Some organisms may not survive Only organisms with certain traits are able to survive and reproduce in the new environment

12 Natural Selection in Action
Examples Insecticide Resistance Adaptation to Hunting Industrial Melanism Butterfly Story

13 Insecticide Resistance

14 Adaptation to Hunting Tusks of Male African Elephant
1930 – 99% born with tusks Present – as few as 85% have tusks Males with tusks killed therefore could not reproduce Males without tusks able to reproduce If this trend continues tuskless elephants will outnumber elephants with tusks Males did not lose tusks, tuskless elephants were able to pass on their traits

15 Industrial Melanism

16 How has predation influenced evolution?
Adaptations to avoid being eaten: Spines (cactii, porcupines) Hard shells (clams, turtles) Toxins (milkweeds, dart frogs) Bad taste (monarchs) Camouflage Mimicry Aposematic colors

17 Quiz Adaptation and Survival Stripes on a tiger – Song of a bird –
How does this characteristic help with survival or successful reproduction Stripes on a tiger – Song of a bird – Ears of an elephant – Poison of a rattle snake – Glow of a firefly – Antler of a male deer – Bright flowers of a rose –

18 Quiz Adaptation and Survival Stripes on a tiger -
How does this characteristic help with survival or successful reproduction Stripes on a tiger - Camouflage for hunting Song of a bird – Attracts mate/defends territory

19 Quiz Ears of an elephant – Prevent overheating
Poison of a rattle snake – Capture of prey, protection from predators

20 Quiz Glow of a firefly – Attracts mate Antler of a male deer –
Defends right to mate

21 Quiz Bright flowers of a rose – Attract pollinators

22 VOCABULARY REVIEW EVOLUTION – CHANGE OVER TIME
NATURAL SELECTION - INDIVIDUALS BETTER ADAPTED TO THE ENVIRONMENT ARE ABLE TO SURVIVE & REPRODUCE. A.K.A. “SURVIVAL OF THE FITTEST”

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28 3 ISOLATING MECHANISMS……..
BEHAVIORAL ISOLATION- CAPABLE OF BREEDING BUT HAVE DIFFERENCES IN COURTSHIP RITUALS (EX. MEADOWLARKS) GEOGRAPHICAL ISOLATION – SEPARATED BY GEOGRAPHIC BARRIERS LIKE RIVERS, MOUNTAINS, OR BODIES OF WATER (EX. SQUIRREL) TEMPORAL ISOLATION – 2 OR MORE SPECIES REPRODUCE AT DIFFERENT TIMES.

29 Table 23.1a

30 3.How did tortoises and birds differ among the islands of the Galapagos?
Each island had its own type of tortoises and birds that were clearly different from other islands

31 Galapagos Turtles

32 5. Geologists: Hutton and Lyell
Fundamentalists said that the earth was around 6000 years old Hutton and Lyell argued that the earth is many millions of years old b/c layers of rock take time to form processes such as volcanoes and earthquakes shaped the earth and still occur today

33 Lamark Theory of acquired characteristics
Lamark said organisms acquired traits by using their bodies in new ways These new characteristics were passed to offspring Lamark was totally wrong!

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35 9. Artificial Selection nature provides variation, humans select variations that are useful. Example - a farmer breeds only his best livestock

36 10. Natural Selection The traits that help an organism survive in a particular environment are “selected” in natural selection

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40 11. Natural Selection and Species Fitness
Overtime, natural selection results in changes in the inherited characteristics of a population. These changes increase a species fitness (survival rate)

41 Descent with Modification
Each living species has descended with changes from other species over time

42 Summary of Darwin’s Theory
1. Organisms differ; variation is inherited 2. Organisms produce more offspring than survive 3. Organisms compete for resources 4. Organisms with advantages survive to pass those advantages to their children 5. Species alive today are descended with modifications from common ancestors

43 13. Evidence of Evolution Fossil Record
Geographic Distribution of Living Species Homologous Body structures Similarities in Embryology

44 Evidence of Evolution Fossil Record provides evidence that living things have evolved Fossils show the history of life on earth and how different groups of organisms have changed over time

45 Relative vs. Absolute Dating

46 Relative Dating Can determine a fossil’s relative age
Performed by estimating fossil age compared with that of other fossils Drawbacks – provides no info about age in years

47 Absolute dating Can determine the absolute age in numbers
Is performed by radioactive dating – based on the amount of remaining radioactive isotopes remain Drawbacks - part of the fossil is destroyed during the test

48 13. Evidence of Evolution Geographic Distribution of Living Species
Similar animals in different locations were the product of different lines of descent

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50 13. Evidence of Evolution Homologous Body Structures
Turtle Homologous Body Structures Structures that have different mature forms but develop from the same embryonic tissues e.g. Wing of bat, human arm, leg of turtle Alligator Bird

51 Homologous Body Structures

52 Vestigial Organs traces of homologous organs in other species
Organ that serves no useful function e.g. Appendix

53 13. Evidence of Evolution Similarities in Embryology
In their early stages of development, chickens, turtles and rats look similar, providing evidence that they shared a common ancestry.

54 Embryological development

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63 Figure 1. Aligned DNA fragment and first chromosome banding patterns for man (Homo sapiens),chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes), gorilla (Gorilla gorilla), and orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus).

64 Pictures/Images http://www.cbs.com/primetime/survivor/
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65 Bibliography Holt Science & Technology textbook, Grade 7
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