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( Loxodonta Africana ) (Elephas maximus) By: Aneesh Patel |Foreword||Table of Contents|

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1 ( Loxodonta Africana ) (Elephas maximus) By: Aneesh Patel |Foreword||Table of Contents|

2 The elephant, classified in the family Elephantidae, used to have over 600 species to its credit. But, that was 40 million years ago, when they were free of poaching and habitat destruction. Today, there are two remaining species, the African Elephant (Loxodonta africana), and the Asian Elephant (Elephas maximus). |Table of Contents||Home Page|

3 -Characteristics- -Behavior- -Adaptations- -Interactions with other organisms- -Reproduction- -Where They are Found- -Characteristics- -Behavior- -Behavior- -Adaptations- -Interactions with other organisms-Adaptations- -Interactions with other organisms- -Reproduction- -Where They are Found- |Home Page| -Comparison of Both- -Why Elephants are Endangered- -Solutions to save Elephants- References

4 The African Elephant is the largest land mammal on Earth. They can grow from four to eight tons. They are also herbivores, which means they eat only plants and vegetables. They can consume more than 225 kilograms of food in one day. They have large ears that appear to be in the shape of Africa, and two, long, white tusks coming out from their mouth. |Home Page||Table of Contents|

5 The African Elephant is a one of the most social animals in the animal kingdom. They communicate with each other with sounds and gestures. Elephants are even known to express feelings such as playfulness and anger. They usually travel in groups called herds of about ten females and young males. The males leave the herd when they hit puberty, usually in their thirteenth year and travel by themselves or with another group of males. Elephants are usually very peaceful. They are only angry and retaliate when either themselves or their young is in danger. They are very protective of their young. |Home Page||Table of Contents|

6 African Elephants are very well suited to live in the Savannahs in Africa. They have adapted a long extension of the mouth called the trunk. This unique tool has over 15,000 muscles to help the elephant grab a branch form a tall tree, drink water, etc. Their sense of smell is very complicated. They are said to be able to locate water that’s underground by sniffing the air. Also, the blood flowing in large vessels in the ears can be cooled down by flapping the ear. |Home Page||Table of Contents|

7 The African Elephant has many partner organisms. This means that both creatures benefit from the others presence. Here are a few of the elephants partners: The Red-billed Oxpecker: Picks ticks and other parasites off the skin of the elephant. The elephant gets clean, while the Oxpecker gets its food. The Cattle Egret: Follows the elephants and warns the elephants of danger. Also they catch some of the small animals they flush. |Home Page||Table of Contents|

8 Males are the most active in reproduction. Males in musth, a time when their testosterone levels are higher, are more likely to reproduce than those that aren’t. The gestation period of an elephant lasts 22 months. Most of the time, only one calf is born. The female elephants usually start to reproduce at the age of ten and they tend to give birth every four years. |Home Page||Table of Contents|

9 African Elephants are found in the Savannahs of Africa. The Savannahs are a unique terrestrial biome which is the home to many different organisms. Elephants enjoy the Savannahs because there is plenty of herbs for them to eat, room for them to roam around, and also drinking holes for them to drink at. It is the perfect place to house elephants. |Home Page||Table of Contents|

10 Asian elephants are gray colored to help them stay concealed in the shade, where they are usually lurking. Female Asian Elephants usually don’t have tusks that are visible. The same goes to some of the male species in Northern India. This species of elephants can grow to be twenty-one feet long, and up to 11,000 pounds. However, females are a little smaller, growing to be up to eight and a half feet tall and weigh a little less than males. |Home Page| |Table of Contents|

11 The Asian Elephant and the African are similar in behavior. Males leave the herds at puberty in both species and also both species travel in groups called herds. However, Asian Elephants often join other herds to make a large group of Elephants called a clan. Asian Elephants communicate through a variety of sounds. Some of the sounds that the elephants make may travel a mile or more. |Home Page| |Table of Contents|

12 Just like the African Elephant, the Asian Elephant has a trunk. However, the African Elephant has two extensions at the end of the trunk, and the Asian Elephant has only one extension at the end of the trunk. |Home Page||Table of Contents|

13 Asian Elephants live any place where there is water and food, usually close to drinking holes and grasslands. They are accompanied in this habitat by many different animals. Some are good, and some are bad. One of the bad ones that Asian Elephants live near is the Tiger. The tiger is at the top of the food chain where the Asian Elephants live. Just like the African Elephants have the Red-Billed Oxpecker, the Asian Elephants have the Hornbills, which disperse seeds, which turn into trees that the elephants usually eat. |Home Page| |Table of Contents| (Asian Elephant)

14 The Asian Elephant and the African Elephant are very similar when it comes to reproduction and propagation. Males are usually the most active in reproduction. They have to win over the female. The gestation periods are similar between the two, and the only difference between the two is that the female Asian Elephant is able to reproduce at the age of four, when the female African Elephant is able to reproduce at the age of ten. |Home Page||Table of Contents|

15 Just like African Elephants, Asian Elephants also live in a terrestrial biome. They live in the lands of Asia, including China and India. They can live from sea-level land, to mountainous places, and also grasslands. Some have even been known to live in marshes. Asian Elephants can survive anywhere there is water and food, and the lands of Asia is perfect for them. Home Page||Table of Contents|

16 The African ElephantThe Asian Elephant - -Only males have tusks -Can grow to be three to six tons - Live in Forests of Asia |Home Page| |Table of Contents| -Both genders have tusks -Can grow to be four to eight tons - Live in Savannahs of Africa

17 Elephants are beautiful animals that wouldn’t harm a thing. But, us humans aren’t the same way. Elephants used to cover much more ground and have a lot more species than they have today. That was before poaching began. Humans hunt elephants for their ivory tusks. This is a prized object to many people who would like to use it to carve something, etc. But there has been so much poaching, and also so much habitat damage, that elephants are dying out. If we don’t do something to save these creatures, we might lose them forever. |Home Page||Table of Contents|

18 People of higher power have been hard at work to try to save these beautiful animals. In 1989, there was a worldwide ban of poaching elephants because of their ivory. But this hasn’t stopped the poachers, who have still been poaching elephants. But it has slowed them down a little bit. The number of deaths of elephants has decreased, but this doesn’t mean that elephants are saved. We still have to create more preservation societies and conservation funds to keep elephants from going extinct. |Home Page||Table of Contents|

19 “Asian Elephants” and “African Elephants,” Friends of the National Zoo. Copyright August 2003 Pai, Professor S. “African Elephant, African Elephant Pictures,” 23 August “African Mammals,” African Wildlife Foundation. 23 August |Home Page||Table of Contents|


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