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The Civil War By Mr. Pohl. Secession 7 States Seceded before mid- April 1861. 4 States Seceded after April 15. West Virginia broke away from Virginia.

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Presentation on theme: "The Civil War By Mr. Pohl. Secession 7 States Seceded before mid- April 1861. 4 States Seceded after April 15. West Virginia broke away from Virginia."— Presentation transcript:

1 The Civil War By Mr. Pohl

2 Secession 7 States Seceded before mid- April 1861. 4 States Seceded after April 15. West Virginia broke away from Virginia and joined the Union. Kentucky, a slave state, voted to remain neutral. Kansas had recieved statehood in January 1861 as a free state.

3 Reasons for Succession State vs. Federal Powers (State’s Rights) Slavery Territorial expansion of slavery Outlawing slavery Tariff Laws Enforcement of the Fugitive Slave Law Economic differences Election of a Republican president

4 The North United States of America The South Confederate States of America 21 States Over 20 million citizens Relied on factories and Industry Produced its own industrial goods. Consisted mostly of Free States Had many small family farms 11 States Around 10 million people. -3.5 million were slaves Dependent on slaves for Cotton production. Needed to import most industrial goods. Cotton production resulted in large Plantations

5 Abraham Lincoln President of the US of A Opposed Slavery Reelected in 1864 President until his Assassination in 1865 Union Leadership General Winfield Scott The Union’s first commanding general Created the Anaconda Plan Replaced by General McClellan General George McClellan Lincoln’s second pick as commanding general. Was considered too cautious. Was replaced by Henry Halleck Lost to Lincoln in the 1864 Presidential election General Ulysses Grant Replaced General Halleck in 1864. Was Commander of all Union armies in the war. Focused on commanding the Army of the Potomac His strategies would lead to the end of the Civil War

6 Confederate Leadership

7 Other Groups The British Empire Bought Southern Cotton Accepted delegates from the Confederacy Had Already Outlawed Slavery American Indians Were divided both by tribe and within tribes. American Indians fought for both the CSA and the USA Many tribes were split between pro-Union and pro- Confederate groups Kentucky Remained neutral at the start of the War. Eventually sided with the Union

8 War Begins Southern states took over military bases in the South. – Most bases were freely abandoned. Presidents Buchannan and Lincoln refused to give up Fort Sumter Troops in Charleston, South Carolina decided to besiege the fort. Fort Sumter surrendered April 13, 1861

9 Battle of First Bull Run July 21, 1861 The first major Battle of the Civil War Sightseers arrived to watch the battle. The Confederate Army was victorious. Union Army 37,000 Men 3,051 Casualties Confederate Army 32, 000 Men 1,982 Casualties

10 Battle of Antietam September 17, 1862 Fought to stop the Confederate invasion of Maryland – Maryland had many southern supporters – Pro Confederate politicians in Maryland were imprisoned there. The battle forced to Lee to retreat back to Virginia Considered the Bloodiest day in US military history. Union Army Gen. George McClellan 70,000 Men 12,410 Casualties Confederate Army Gen. Robert E. Lee 39, 000 Men 13,724 Casualties

11 Emancipation Emancipation policy changed during the war. Many slaves escaped to Union lines Lincoln opposed emancipation in 1861 & 1862 The Emancipation Proclamation (Jan. 1863) – Ended slavery only in rebellious areas The 13 th Amendment (Dec. 1865) – Outlawed slavery everywhere in the United States

12 The Union Blockade Anaconda Plan A Strategy devised by Gen. Winfield Scott Southern Ports were blockaded Union forces moved from the North and from New Orleans to encircle the south. Cut it off from European markets

13 Blockade Running and Commerce Raiding The Union Blockade damaged the South’s Economy Confederates Vessels tried to avoid the blockade The Confederacy bought vessels in England Raided American merchant ships The last raiding vessels surrendered Nov. 6, 1865

14 New Technology Sea Torpedoes – Naval Mines Ironclads – Monitor – Merrimack (Virginia) Submarines – CSS Hunley Land Rifled Cannon Minne Balls Observation Balloons Telegraph Repeating Rifles

15 Monitor vs. Merrimac Both ships were covered in iron plating The Confederates were attempting to sink blockading ships The Union’s first ironclad arrived to attack the Merrimac The battle ended in a draw

16 Black Soldiers The Union Army enlisted black soldiers Enlistment began in July 1862 180,000 men served in the Union military Black soldiers served in separate regiments – Mostly under white officers

17 The Turning Point Union fleet captures New Orleans – April 25-28, 1862 The Union captures Memphis, Tennessee – June 6, 1862 General Grant captures Vicksburg – July 4, 1863 Port Hudson, Mississippi surrenders – July 9, 1863

18 The Battle of Gettysburg Union Army Gen. George Meade 85,000 Men 23,000 Casualties Confederate Army Gen. Robert E. Lee 70,000 Men 28,000 Casualties The Battle ended the last Confederate invasion of the North Fought from July 1-4, 1863 Pickett’s Charge Union Victory The Confederate army retreated back to Virginia

19 Sherman’s March Carried out from May 1864 to April 1865 Union Gen. William Tecumseh Sherman – Planned to destroy southern infrastructure – Marched from Tennessee to Savannah, Georgia The march succeeding in destroying railroads, and devastated the deep south.

20 To Wars End Battle of Petersburg – June 1864 to April 2, 1865 – Involved trench warfare – Ended in Union capture of Richmond, Virginia Appomattox Courthouse – Grant forced Lee’s surrender April 9, 1865 Cherokee General Stand Watie surrendered June 23, 1865 Some confederate soldiers moved into Mexico – Hoped to restart the war later The Civil war Lasted just over 4 years. April 13, 1861 to June 23, 1865 630,000 Soldiers Died During the War Around 1, 000, 000 men were wounded The South was placed under military occupation.

21 Sources None Given. (October 6, 2009). Robert Blackwell, fl. 1861Original Acrostics on All the States and Presidents of the United States, and Various Other Subjects, Religious, Political, and Personal. Illustrated with Portraits of All the Presidents, and Engravings of Various Other Kinds. In Documenting the American South. Retrieved October 5, 2009, from None Given. (2009). Overview of the Civil War in Kentucky. In K.E.T.. Retrieved October 5, 2009, from Historical Society. Retrieved October 6, 2009, from None Given. (November 28, 2006). The Battle of Antietam. In Battle History. Retrieved October 6, 2009, from John Morris. (April 11, 2006). CSS HL Hunley. In CSS HL Hunley. Retrieved October 6, 2009, from Wright, John D. American History Timeline of the Civil War. London, England: Amber Books Ltd. 2007 Justin sanders. No Date. Declaration of Causes of Seceding States. Retrieved October 6, 2009, from D.H. Rule. (January 25, 2001). A bio of John Charles Fremont. Retrieved October 6, 2009 from Lori Greene and others. (No Date). Sherman’s March. In Retrieved October 13, 2009, from The U.S. National Archives and Records Administration. No Date. Black Soldiers in the Civil War. Retrieved October 6, 2009. The National Parks Service. The Surrender. Retrieved October 6, 2009.

22 Picture Sources Slide 1 – Julio Reis. “US Secession Map of 1861” February 23, 2007 via Wikipedia Creative commons Slide 5 – Library of Congress. "Abraham Lincoln, Sunday, November 8, 1863" February 4, 2009 via Flickr, Public Domain – Matthew Brady: uploaded by Scewing. "Winfield Scott" June 17, 2009 via Wikipedia commons, Public Domain F – Matthew Brady: uploaded by Nicoray. "George McClellan" February 14, 2006 via Wikipedia commons, Public Domain – Matthew Brady: uploaded by MarkSweep. "Ulysses Grant" December 26, 2004 via Wikipedia commons, Public Domain Slide 6 – SPeND. "Found Jefferson Davis Portrait" March 20, 2009 via Flickr, Creative Commons Attribution – Vannerson, Julian: uploaded by Tom. "Robert E Lee" March 27, 2006 via Wikipedia commons, Public Domain

23 Picture Sources Slide 7 – RobertLunaIII. "Stand Watie" August 18, 2007 via commons.Wikipedia, Public Domain RobertLunaIII – George Eastman House. “Queen Victoria” march 6, 2009 via Flickr, Creative Commons Attribution – HiB2Bornot2B. “Flag of Kentucky’ August 1, 2007 via Wikipedia commons, Public Domain Slide 18 – Theodor Ditterline uploaded by Suntag. “Field of Gettysburg 1863” February 17, 2009 via Wikipedia commons, Public Domain –

24 U5.2 Civil War Evaluate the multiple causes, key events, and complex consequences of the Civil War. 8 – U5.2.1 Explain the reasons (political, economic, and social) why Southern states seceded and explain the differences in the timing of secession in the Upper and Lower South. 8 – U5.2.2 Make an argument to explain the reasons why the North won the Civil War by considering the critical events and battles in the war the political and military leadership of the North and South the respective advantages and disadvantages, including geographic, demographic, economic and technological 8 – U5.2.3 Examine Abraham Lincoln’s presidency with respect to his military and political leadership the evolution of his emancipation policy (including the Emancipation Proclamation) 8 – U5.2.4 Describe the role of African Americans in the war, including black soldiers and regiments, and the increased resistance of enslaved peoples. 8 – U5.2.5 Construct generalizations about how the war affected combatants, civilians (including the role of women), the physical environment, and the future of warfare, including technological developments.

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