Presentation on theme: "1 Stary Sącz 13.11.2008 Project is part-financed by the EOG grants Polish Carpathians. General characteristics and the socioeconomic profile."— Presentation transcript:
1 Stary Sącz 13.11.2008 Project is part-financed by the EOG grants Polish Carpathians. General characteristics and the socioeconomic profile
2 The Carpathians are one of European's largest mountain ranges, cover about 210,000 km2. Spreading widely toward the north and south. Carpathian Mountains form an arc running from Bratislava in the Slovak Republic to the Iron Gate.
3 Wstęp Generally the mountain range is divided into three main parts: 1. The Western Carpathians: located in Slovakia, Poland and Hungary (between Bratislava and Łupkowska Pass) with the highest peak Gierlach (2655m) in Slovakia. 2. The Eastern Carpathians: located in Poland, Slovakia, Ukraine and Romania (between Łupkowska Pass and Predeal Pass) with the highest peak Pietros (2305m) in Romania. 3. The Southern Carpathians: located wholly in Romania (between Predeal Pass and The Iron Gate) with the highest peak Moldoveanu (2544m).
6 Forests cover 41% of the Polish Carpathian region. There are 6 national parks and 13 protected landscape parks. In the forests dominated following stand: fir and beech (25%), spruce (22%) and pine (17%)
8 Carpathian region is a source of the cleanest rivers and streams of drinking water. There are also the largest pristine forest areas in Europe, which form a unique ecosystem with exceptionally rich flora and fauna.
10 Carpathian Mountains are among the most valuable natural areas in Europe, with a relatively dense network of protected areas. Within the Carpathian Mountains there are 83 national and landscape parks (or their equivalents), a few hundred nature reserves and some thousands of other protected objects. The largest protected areas are located on the territory of Romania.
11 Wstęp Though a Carpathians partly belongs to Poland, it would be difficult to name Poland as "Carpathian" Country. Carpathians occupy 6,2 % territory of Poland and are settled by 8,2 % of domestic population. Polish Carpathians
12 Wstęp Tematy do dyskusji Polish Carpathians Carpathians in Poland are occupying 19.600 sq. km, creating 330 km arch. An about 3.0 million of people live there.
13 The first tracks of the man was discovered in the Carpathians date back in IX century B.C., but continuity settlement exists here only from the VI cent. A.D. The colonization progressed from the north and spread at first through Carpathian Foothills, and in the XIII cent. reaching main valleys. Up to the end of XIV cent. end in. into the Carpathians came the Vlach pastoral settlement, reaching the Tatra mountains and Żywiec Beskid on West.
14 Economic boom in the end of XIX cent. followed thanks to industrialization in the West and the exploitation of petroleum in the East of the Carpathians, and then thanks to the development of the spas and the tourism. It created much more jobs than granting property rights in 1848 r. In many areas of the Carpatian a great emigration for economic reasons was important.
15 Change of polit-econom. system of Poland after 1990 r. triggered the decline in some industrial plants what reduced intensity of the journeys to school and factories. The unemployment, a liquidation of an state arable farms and a fall in the frequency at spas take place. At the same time thousands of private industrial, craft, building, transport and tourist companies arose, and lift restrictions in contacts with neighbouring states created the development of the border zones.
16 Unlike many European mountains, the region of Polish Carpathians is demonstrating the population development, mainly thanks to the positive rate of birth, balancing migration losses.
17 In spite of mountain character, the region is enough densely populated. The population density takes over 130 persons per 1 sq km. There are around 60 towns with Bielsko- Biała (180 thous.) – the lagest one, and over 1700 villages, starts from only a few inh. in some depopulated villages in Bieszczady to Kozy near Bielsko-Biała (11 thous. inh.). The permanent settlement reach 1100 m. near Zakopane, in other areas 800 m. In Bieszczady and Low Beskid rarely comes up to 600 m.
19 Carpathian region is a poorly urbanized part of Poland, because only 40 % of population is concentrated in towns, (equal to Polands average 61 %). There are as many as 44 towns that lost the municipal status apart from 60 cities here; The most downgraded towns are located in eastern districts.
20 Cities: -In the West cities are mostly industrial centres, around Bielsko-Biała, -In the East cities form the chain from Gorlice, through Jasło and Krosno up to Sanok, other whereas lie on the north edge of the Carpathians, close Cracow, Tarnów and Rzeszów.
21 Remaining cities fulfill different service functions. Some of them are administrative centres of the county and district level, city-spas (the Krynica, Rabka, Szczawnica) and tourist centres (Lesko, Zakopane). Border cities: Cieszyn at the Czech border, Muszyna at the Slovak border and Ustrzyki Dolne at the Ukrainian border. Craft traditions are vivid still in the Kalwaria Zebrzydowska (the furniture industry), in Sułkowice and Świątniki Górne (metal craft). Nowy Sacz, Bielsko-Biala, Sanok are educational centers in the region. There are many colleges and universities.
22 The Carpathian Mountains perform a lot of essential functions in economic life of Poland. They are the center of agriculture, forestry, water management, industry and tourism.
23 The farmlands cover a little bit over the half of the region (51 %), in this arable land is consisting up (37 %), meadows and pastures (13 %) and orchards (1 %). 70% of the cultivated area is concentrated at altitudes of up to 400 m above sea level, 1% of them are above the level of 1000 m As a result of the decline in the profitability of farming and crops share of uncultivated areas is constantly growing.
24 In terms of the economic development the Polish Carpathians region is divided into two parts along Tarnów – Nowy Sącz line: The West part is more densely populated, better urbanized and industrialized. There are also the largest tourist centres in the region. In the west, most people get money from tourism industry. Some are renting private accommodation, others building their own hotels.Some of them produce and sell souvenirs. In the East the population density is lower, there are a lot of neglected areas that were a base and polygons for the Russian army during Communism era. Most people leaving here are involved in logging trees,cultivating land and rearing cattle. Cities are smaller and less populated. Tourism is also less developed due to bigger distance from cities.
25 Wstęp Unemployment unemployment rate in comparing to the average in Polish Karpaty
26 Wstęp Earnings (Wages) average earnings on the background of the national average
27 Wstęp Enterprise number of companies / 1000 inh.
28 Wstęp Enterprise Enterprises in Polish Carpathians by size
29 The grade of industrialization of the Carpatian region is diversified: In the West -Bielsko-Biała - is the biggest agglomeration well-known for the diverse industry: car industry, aircraft, chemical and textile industry, -Andrychów and Skoczów - textile industry -Żywiec - is known for its brewery -Cieszyn – metal and chemical industry
30 In the East - Nowy Targ is important centre of shoes industry, - Nowy Sącz with a factory of electrodes, computer and machinery industries, manufacturing windows and gates. - Jasło – oil refineries, - Krosno – glassworks, manufacturing companies of shock absorbers, air parts and furniture, - Sanok – factory of buses.
31 In a few cities food-processing plants of fruits and vegetables exists. In the described part of Poland there arent big mineral sources. There are small source of petroleum and natural gas. Quarries of sandstone have already just local meaning. There are hydroelectric power plants in Rożnów, Czorsztyn
32 Wstęp Structure of export Structure of export,2004
33 Wstęp The industrial processing, production plants and the craft percentage of production plants in the total no of enterprices
34 Thanks to great and diverse natural and cultural advantages tourism plays huge role in the region. Winter sports centres: Zakopane, Szczyrk, Beskid Sadecki, Spas centres: Krynica Zdrój, Szczawnica, Bielsko-Biała Pilgrimage centres: Kalwaria Zebrzydowska and Pacławska are main centres of the pilgrimage tourism as well as Ludźmierz, Stary Sącz,Tuchów, and Wadowice – home town of the Pope John Paul II.
35 Wstęp Tourism Number of given accommodation / 1000 inhabitants Domestic tourism is quite well developed unlike international tourism
36 Products of Polish Carpathians (some samples)