Adaptations Humans can change their environment to meet their needs. Organisms have evolved adaptations to their environment by the process of natural selection.
Adaptations Adaptations are inherited traits that increase an organism’s chance of surviving and reproducing in a particular environment. Tarsier
Adaptations Not all traits are adaptations. Sometimes undesirable traits can be passed down because they are genetically linked with other beneficial traits.
Adaptations are the final products of the long process of natural selection. Adaptations are naturally selected for, not intentional.
Structural Adaptations Structural adaptations are aspects of the physical body that help organisms survive and reproduce.
Structural Adaptations Camouflage is coloring that blends with the environment, and makes organisms difficult to see.
Structural Adaptations Camouflage…
Structural Adaptations Mimicry is when one species (the mimic) looks like another species (the model) in order to deceive a third species.
Structural Adaptations Batesian mimicry is when the model organism is dangerous or venomous, but the mimic is not dangerous. King Snake (mimic) – harmless Coral Snake (model) - venomous “Red on yellow, will kill a fellow.”
Structural Adaptations Mullerian mimicry is when both the model organism and the mimic are dangerous or distasteful. Monarch and Viceroy Butterflies – both taste bad
Structural Adaptations Self mimicry is when a species fools its prey by looking inviting or familiar OR to scare off a predator. The owl butterfly’s eyespot can confuse a predator OR gives the predator a false target.
Behavioral Adaptations Behavioral adaptations are actions or behaviors that help organisms survive and reproduce. Male bower bird decorates his nest to attract a mate. Bird of Paradise dances for a mate.
Behavioral Adaptations The herding instinct is seen in cows, and they know a large group is less likely to be attacked than when alone.
Often, adaptations are BOTH structural and behavioral. Check out the Bird of Paradise. 2:40 http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=SB8UodV_DJg
Extinction A species becomes extinct when all the individuals of a particular species die off. There have been several major extinction events in history.
Extinction Cause: 1. Loss of Habitat As humans develop and occupy more space, and use more resources, habitats are destroyed.
Extinction Cause: 2. Loss of Genetic Diversity Cheetahs were greatly endangered about 10,000 years ago. The few that remained had to inbreed, which is why they are so identical today. Species NEED genetic variety to make it more likely to survive. A species is considered to be threatened if they are likely to become endangered due to low genetic variation. Cheetahs are threatened because they had to inbreed and now have low genetic variation.
Extinction Cause: 3. Competition with Exotic Species The kudzu plant was introduced into the Southern USA from Japan in the 1930s to help prevent soil erosion. It has taken over some areas because it grows so quickly (30 cm / day). Humans often introduce a new species to an area because it is unique or pretty. If it has no known consumer, it will take over and kill native species.
Extinction Cause: 4. Inability to Adapt This is involved in rapid environmental changes, and can cause rapid extinction. If the climate changes suddenly, and a species doesn’t have any individuals with genetic traits that allow them to adapt, the entire species will go extinct.
What is not an example of an adaptation? Ainbreeding Bcamouflage Cmimicry Dbehavior 5.2 Adaptation and Extinction
Why do some non-desirable traits remain in a population? Aselective breeding Bmutation Cthey are genetically linked to more beneficial traits Dthey may be useful in the future 5.2 Adaptation and Extinction
What cause for extinction would most likely be involved in rapid environmental changes such as climate change? Aloss of habitat Binability to adapt Closs of genetic diversity Dcompetition with exotic species 5.2 Adaptation and Extinction
Which of the causes of extinction is not influenced by human actions? Ainability to adapt Bloss of genetic diversity Closs of habitat Dcompetition with exotic species
Why do desert rabbits have mottled fur? Abehavioral adaptations Bmimicry Ccamouflage Dincomplete dominance
When do we designate a species as threatened or endangered? Awhen there is one population left Bwhen the number of individuals falls below a certain level Cwhen population numbers are declining Dwhen genetic variation is low SCI 3.e