2Big IdeasProblem: We live in a single use, throw-away society that encourages the consumptionThere is no “away”Trash often does not stay putTrash represents waste:wasted resources, wasted energy, wasted land, wasted hours, wasted productivityThe best solution is prevention:Preventing pollution is much safer & cheaper than trying to clean it up
3Focus should be: Source Reduction Source reduction (waste prevention) means consuming and throwing away lessYou can:Purchase durable, long-lasting goodsSeek products and packaging that are as free of toxins as possibleAvoid single use itemsSaves resourcesSaves moneyReduces pollution
4Throw-a-way societyOnly Humans produce waste other organisms can’t useUntil a society becomes relatively wealthyVery little waste1900’s most material reused/recycledjunk/scrap dealersAfter WWIICultural/Social changesDisposable products became the normPlanned ObsolescenceProducts designed to be replacedIncreases consumption & waste
6Solid waste: any unwanted or discarded material we produce that is not a liquid or gas. Municipal solid waste (MSW): produced directly from homes & cities. (Mostly paper)Industrial solid waste: produced indirectly by industries that supply people with goods and services.ManufacturingAgricultureMining/Drilling/Raw material extractionHazardous (toxic) waste: threatens human health or the environment because it is toxic, chemically active, corrosive or flammable.2%98%50%15%35%focus on MSW, even though majority is industrial
7Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) Waste collected by municipalities fromhouseholds,small businesses,institutions such asschools,prisons,municipal buildingshospitals.
8US leads the world in trash production The US has 4.5% of world’s population, but produces 1/3 of the world’s trash.4.5 pounds per person2 times as much as other industrialized nations5 – 10 times as much as developing countriesTwo reasons to be concerned¾ represents unnecessary waste of earth’s finite resourcesIn producing the products we use and discard, we are creating huge amounts ofAir pollutionWater pollutionLand degradationSolid and hazardous waste
9Wasting Resources What we throw away in our high waste economy Enough aluminum to rebuild country’s commercial airline fleet every 3 monthsDiscarded carpet each year would cover Delaware27 million tons of edible food each yearEnough paper to build a wall 11 feet high across the entire country every yearAmericans spend more money on trash bags than 90 other countries spend on everything they buy.
10What Makes Up The Solid Waste Stream? Biggest single category:PaperMSW31% - paper33%- organic materials (yard waste, food scraps, wood)12%- plastic18%- durable goods (appliances, tires)80% – 90% could be recycle, or composted
11What Makes Up The Solid Waste Stream? Another way to look at MSW:By SourceBiggest source: Containers & packaging
12Reduce, Reuse, RecycleReduce- waste minimization or prevention – Source reductionReuse- reusing something like a disposable cup more than onceRecycle- materials are collected and converted into raw materials and then used to produce new objects
13Landfills Where does MSW go? What we actually do What we should be doingWhat we actually do(Landfills)
15Dump versus a LandfillDump – an open site where waste was dumped in a pile.Problems: attract pests of all kinds, create hazardous leachate, noxious smellsDumps are illegal in the USLandfill – an engineered system designed to dispose of waste in manner that protects public health and natural resourcesRequire extensive engineering systems to protect groundwater, prevent pest infestations and contain dust, odor and blowing trash.
16Constructing a Landfill Basics:Build Landfill: Dig big hole, line it, install leachate collection systemAdd trash (daily load is called a cell), cover each day with layers of dirt and clay to minimize smell and rodentsClose Landfill: Install methane collection system, cap the landfill, install storm water runoff system and groundwater monitoring systemDesignate for other uses: Park, nature reserve, golf course.No buildings: ground is unstable and methane can build up in structures
17Sanitary Landfill: Compacted solid waste Topsoil Sand Clay Garbage Synthetic linerSubsoilWhen landfill is full,layers of soil and clayseal in trashMethane storageand compressorbuildingElectricitygeneratorLeachatetreatment systemMethane gasrecoveryPipe collect explosivemethane gas used as fuelto generate electricityCompactedsolid wastestorage tanksmonitoringwellGroundwaterLeachate pipesLeachate pumped upto storage tanks forsafe disposalClay and plastic liningto prevent leaks; pipescollect leachate frombottom of landfill
19Federal Landfill Standards set by RCRA Location restrictionsAway from faults, wetlands, flood plains, or other restricted areas.Composite liners requirementsGeomembrane (plastic) liner over 2 feet of compacted clay soil lining the bottom and sidesLeachate collection systemsOn top of the liner (usually with sand for drainage) and removes leachate from the landfill for treatment and disposal.Operating practicesCompacting and covering waste frequently with several inches of soil (daily cover)Benefits: reduce odor, control litter, insects, and rodents and protect public health.Closure and post-closure careInclude covering landfills and providing long-term care and monitoring of closed landfills.Methane collection & monitoringGroundwater monitoringRequires testing groundwater to determine whether leachate has escaped from the landfill.
21Problems With Landfills Most MSW is buried in landfills that eventually are expected to leak toxic liquids into the soil and underlying aquifersSiting issues (“Not In My Backyard!”)Leachate contaminationadjacent waterways & aquifershuman toxicityMethane gas release greenhouse gas– From anaerobic decomposition of organic matterBenefit: collect methane and use it for energyIncomplete decomposition of waste
22Methane Collection System Collects valuable methane that results from anaerobic decomposition inside the landfillSafety feature and energy source!Methane = Natural gasCan be a form of Waste to Energy
23Choosing a Location (“Siting”) a Landfill ControversialPoliticalSoils with clayAway from water sourcesAbove the water tableOn the outskirts of populous centersHow far away: balance between transportation costs and proximity causing nuisance and eyesoreNIMBY resistanceEnvironmental justice
24Benefits of Landfills Can accept large amounts of trash Most convenient method of disposalRegulated to make saferEven though most expected to eventually leakAccepts most MSWIncluding paper, plastic, metal, organic material,etcException: no hazardous wasteIncluding batteries, paints, solvents, pesticides, etc
26Case Study: What Should We Do with Used Tires? We face a dilemma in deciding what to so with hundreds of millions of discarded tires.
27What Should We Do with Used Tires? They can burn for years producing large amounts of toxic air pollutants... Very hard to put out
28TiresAre allowed in landfill if they are shredded otherwise they are recycled.
29Incineration Where does MSW go? What we actually do What we should be doingWhat we actually do(Landfills)
30Incinerators Burning MSW can be used to generate electricity Burn trash create heat boil water to make steam steam turns a turbine electricity!Called Waste-to-energyIncinerators must have:Scrubbersdevices that use a liquid spray to neutralize acidic gases.Removes SO2 , acidic gases and particulate matterFilters or electrostatic precipitatorsprogressive series of filters remove tiny particlesRemoves particulate matter
35Reuse/recycle Where does MSW go? What we actually do What we should be doingWhat we actually do(Landfills)
36Solving the MSW Problem The only TRUE solution to our MSW problem is the 3 R’s (in order of preference):ReduceReuseRecycle
37(1) Reduce Source reduction – MOST EFFECTIVE!!! Design & manufacture products in ways that decrease the volume of solid waste createdRedesign packagingCompanies moving to Zero-Waste ManufacturingSubaruReuses materials, reclaims solvents & paints, recycle materials, remaining 1% is burned for energyTechnological development can constantly decrease the size and weight of a productReduce consumption
38(2) ReuseExtends resource supplies and requires less energy than mining raw materials & manufacturingIncreases residence time before disposalExamplesRefillable beverage containersReusable grocery bagsMany cities have banned plastic bagsDallas stores must charge 5¢ per bagRepairRepurpose: newspaper for animal beddingEbay, flea markets, garage salesBorrow books from library
39(2) Reuse Developing Countries Developed Countries Reusing can be hazardous for poor who scavenge in open dumps.They can be exposed to toxins or infectious diseases.Developed CountriesReusing products is an important way to reduce resource use, waste, and pollution
40(3) RecyclingConservation of resources by converting material into new product.
41Recycling is increasing in US Other Developed Countries:
422 Categories Closed-loop Becomes the same item Needs no/few new inputs old carpet → new carpetOpen-loopBecomes a different itemNeeds additional inputsplastic bottle → fleece jacket
43(3) Recycle Recycle these: Every ton of recycled paper saves: Glass bottles, newspapers, steel cans, plastic bottles, cardboard, office paperEvery ton of recycled paper saves:17 trees7000 gallons of water4100 kwatt-hrs of energy3 cubic yards of landfill space
44(3) Recycle Recycling Paper Recycling Glass US recycles 50% Denmark recycles 97%Recycling GlassUS recycles 25%Costs less than new glassCan be used to make glassphalt
45(3) Recycle 50% of aluminum recycled in US World avg = 70% Recycled aluminum uses 90% fewer resources
46Plastic RecyclingRecycling some plastics is chemically and economically difficult to recycle. Plastics are often recycled into other forms of plastic and those plastics are often not recyclable.Many plastics are hard to isolate from other wastes.Recovering individual plastic resins does not yield much material.The cost of virgin plastic resins is lower than recycled resins due to low subsidized fossil fuel costs.There are new technologies that are making plastics biodegradablePlastics must be sorted according to their resin identification code which indicates the type of material they were made from.Polyethylene terephalate, High density polyethlene, Polyvinyl chloride, Low density polyethylene, Polypropylene, Polystyrene, Other polycarbonatesSoft drink bottlesShampoo and fast food service itemsYogurt containers, straws, and bottle capsOther various plasticsMilk bottles and butter tubsGrocery & bread bagsStyrofoam
47Characteristics of Recyclable Materials *Easily isolated from other waste*Available in large quantities*Valuable – there is a market
48Benefits of Recycling Reduces global warming Reduces acid deposition Reduces urbanair pollutionMake fuelsupplieslast longerReducesSavesenergyenergy demandwater pollutionRecyclingReduces solidwaste disposalmineraldemandProtectsspecieshabitatdestruction
49Two Ways to Recycle(MRF) Materials Recovery Facilities – Single StreamMachines and workers separate trash at a facilityPros: can increase the amount of recycled materials, provides high paying jobsCons: expensive to build and operate, can produce air pollution, only economically feasible when scrap prices are highConcerns: removes responsibility and awareness from the consumerSource separationConsumers separate their trash into different binsPros: cheaper, can be less energy intensive, lower start-up costsCons: not everyone does it, relies on consumersConcern: May waste resources if it requires two separate trucks to visit each house, better to have single truck with dual collection capabilities
50Recycling – trying to achieve Zero-Waste San Francisco – goal to minimize the amount of waste that ends up in a landfillIBM & Recology on video library page
51Nike: Reuse-A-Sneaker Poor unsafe working conditionsInadequate wagesToxic solvents, adhesives, and rubber manufacturingVOC’sImposed a Cradle to Grave Analysis“Nike Considered”: likert scale of sustainability at each step in the processFriendlier adhesives/rubberOrganic Exchange CottonReuse-A-ShoeNike Grind – to make playground & other athletic surfaces
52Why is recycling not the whole answer to our waste problem
56Composting: Recycling Nutrients Organic Matter:Food scrapsYard wasteAgricultural manureSewage SludgeCan also includeWoodPaper (usually better to recycle, unless soiled)
57Composting - Pros Reduces volume in landfills Organic matter in landfills decompose anaerobically → produce methaneProduces humusFertilizerEnhances soil textureRetains moistureAnyone can do itLarge or small scaleCan be sold or distributed to community
58Composting - Cons Takes time and space Can be inconvenient Need to monitorC:N ratio 30:1 for best microbial actionAdd moistureAerate/Agitate to add O2If not properly maintainedCan smell badAttract flies, rats, etc
61The two largest classes of hazardous wastes are Hazardous waste: is any discarded solid or liquid material that is toxic, ignitable, corrosive, or reactive enough to explode or release toxic fumes.The two largest classes of hazardous wastes aretoxic heavy metals (lead, mercury, arsenic, cadmium, chromium).synthetic organic compounds or Persistent Organic Pollutants (POP) (e.g. pesticides, PCBs, dioxins, DDT)
62Hazardous Waste in the Environment Hazardous Wastes in the environment are harmful when absorbed in high concentrations.Heavy metalsPOPsCan easily leach into groundwater.Chemicals and toxins can be released at safe levels but may react or combine with other chemicals, from synergism, to create dangerous mixtures.They can be taken up by organisms via food or water or simply absorbed from the surroundings.Will bioaccumulate and biomagnify in the food chainAre PersistentStay in environment a long timeSpraying apples with insecticide, Japan
64Hazardous Waste Harmful to humans/ecosystems The majority is byproduct of industrial processes – 36 million ton/yearHouseholds generate 1.5 million ton/yearOnly 5% recycledExpensive & difficult to treat & dispose ofNo truly good way of disposal - 2 options:1) source reduction: don’t create it in the 1st place2) Use a less toxic alternative
65Hazardous Waste Sources Cleaning machineryManufacturing processesMining and drillingAgricultureDry cleanersAuto service stationsHouseholds: over cleaners, batteriesFuels, solvents, lubricants, pesticides
66What Harmful Chemicals Are in Your Home? CleaningGardening• Disinfectants• Pesticides• Drain, toilet, andwindow cleaners• Weed killers• Ant and rodent killers• Spot removers• Septic tank cleaners• Flea powdersPaint• Latex and oil-based paints• Paint thinners, solvents,and strippersAutomotive• Stains, varnishes,and lacquersFigure 22.15Science: harmful chemicals found in many U.S. homes. The U.S. Congress has exempted disposal of these materials from government regulation. QUESTION: Which of these chemicals are in your home?• Gasoline• Wood preservatives• Used motor oil• Antifreeze• Artist paints and inks• Battery acidGeneral• Solvents• Dry-cell batteries(mercury and cadmium)• Brake andtransmission fluid• Glues and cements• Rust inhibitor andrust removerFig , p. 534
67Household Hazardous Waste Common household items such aspaints, cleaners, oils, batteries and pesticidesLook for Labelsdanger, warning, caution, toxic, corrosive, flammable or poisonDisposalDeliver to your local HHW collection facility for proper disposalBetter: Share these materials with neighbors to reduce waste
68Hazardous Waste Regulations (US) Two major federal laws regulate the management and disposal of hazardous waste in the U.S.:RCRA - Resource Conservation and Recovery ActTracks waste progressCradle-to-the-grave system to keep track of waste.CERCLA - Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability ActCommonly known as Superfund program.Clean up abandoned waste sites
69Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) Regulates hazardous waste from “cradle to grave”EPA regulates the generation, transportation, treatment, storage, and disposal of hazardous wasteRegulates disposal of solid waste in landfills – sets standardsRegulates handling of household hazardous wasteRegulates storage of materials in underground storage tanks (i.e. gas tanks)Works to minimize the generation of hazardous waste
70Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) (Superfund Act) Clean up abandoned hazardous waste sites.Most severe sites on NPL – National Priorities ListNJ has 9,000 contaminated sites, but only 114 have final NPL statusCleanup is very expensive, so who pays?If a responsible party is located and financially able, they are required to pay for the cleanup.If no party can be found, the government pays to clean up the siteSuperfund was funded by a tax on oil and chemical companies until 1995, now it is funded by the general tax fundPassed in 1980 In response to the Love Canal incident
71Superfund Sites 2014 – 1,332 sites NJ – 114 CA – 97 PA – 95 NY – 85 TX – 50Superfund Sites
72Love Canal, NY - There Is No “Away” Between , Hooker Chemical sealed multiple chemical wastes into steel drums and dumped them into an old canal excavation (Love Canal).In 1953, the canal was filled and sold to Niagara Falls school boardIn 1957, Hooker Chemical warned the school not to disturb the site because of the toxic waste.In 1959 an elementary school, playing fields and homes were built disrupting the clay cap covering the wastes.In 1976, residents complained of chemical smells and chemical burns from the site, increased rates of illness, birth defects
73Love CanalPresident Jimmy Carter declared Love Canal a federal disaster area.The area was abandoned in 1980In 1983, Love Canal became the 1st superfund siteTook 20 years & 400 million to clean upIt still is a controversy as to how much the chemicals at Love Canal injured or caused disease to the residents.difficult to link long-term health effectshttps://www.youtube.com/watch?v=OEdt6f_fAFo
74How many other Love Canals are there around the world Chemical time bombsLeaking chemical storage tanks and drumsPesticides dumpsPiles of mining wastes
75BrownfieldAbandoned industrial and commercial sites contaminated with hazardous wastesLess contaminated than superfund sitesFactories, junkyards, older landfills, gas stationsProblemsLots of sites: 450,000 in USNo uniform Federal StandardsClean up is managed by city/state govVaries widely by regionNo legal liability enforcementCan’t compel polluter to clean upSuccessCan revitalize/rehabilitate for public goodParks, athletic fields, nature preserves, etc
76Brownfields Pros to remediation: Cons: Can be done as part of urban redevelopment projectsAllows urban areas to return to profitable uses: parks, athletic field, preservesRemove threat from hazardous wastes for both human and natureCons:ExpensiveOlder sites may be difficult to clean to new standards.Have to dispose of contaminated materialHave to disturb soil and habitatCould contaminate another area
77HAZARDOUS WASTES Management of the Waste we are Producing (1) source reduction(2) conversion to less hazardous materials(3) long-term storage
78Disposal of Hazardous Waste Best - reduceStop production of products that contain hazardous wastesfind substitutes / alternative substancesRecycle and/or reuseBetter - mitigateConvert into less hazardous substances by incineration, biological treatment or thermal treatmentWorst - storeHaz. Waste landfill, surface impoundments, underground injection wells,
79Conversion to Less Hazardous Substances Physical Methods: using charcoal or resins to separate out harmful chemicals.Chemical Methods: using chemical reactions that can convert hazardous chemicals to less harmful or harmless chemicals, usually by incineration.Biological Methods:Bioremediation: bacteria or enzymes help destroy toxic and hazardous waste or convert them to more benign substances.Phytoremediation: involves using natural or genetically engineered plants to absorb, filter and remove contaminants from polluted soil and water.Mycoremediation : fungi mycelium absorbs contaminants from soil
80DEALING WITH HAZARDOUS WASTE We can produce less hazardous waste and recycle, reuse, detoxify, burn, and bury what we continue to produce.
81Biological: Detoxifying Wastes -BioremediationUses organisms to break down wastesBacteria & microbes-Phytoremediation uses plants to remove wastes from soil-Mycoremediation uses fungi myceliumVery good at absorbing heavy metal
82Radioactive contaminants Inorganic metal contaminants Organic contaminantsPoplar treeBrake fernSunflowerWillow treeIndian mustardLandfillPollutedgroundwater inOilspillAD: Easy to establish, inexpensive, little air pollution and low energy useDIS: Slow, only effective where plant roots can reach, and some plants can become toxicPollutedleachateDecontaminatedwater outSoilSoilGroundwaterGroundwaterRhizofiltrationRoots of plants such assunflowers with danglingroots on ponds or in green-houses can absorb pollutantssuch as radioactive strontium -90 and cesium-137 and various organic chemicals.PhytodegradationPlants such as poplarscan absorb toxic organicchemicals and break them down into less harmful compounds which they store orrelease slowly into the air.PhytoextractionRoots of plants such as Indianmustard and brake ferns canabsorb toxic metals such aslead, arsenic, and others andstore them in their leaves.Plants can then be recycledor harvested and incinerated.PhytostabilizationPlants such as willow trees and poplars can absorb chemicals and keep them from reaching groundwater or nearby surface water.
83Can reduce material dumped into landfills Trade-OffsPhytoremediationAdvantagesDisadvantagesEasy to establishSlow (cantake severalgrowingseasons)InexpensiveEffective onlyat depth plantroots canreachCan reduce material dumped into landfillsSome toxic organic chemicals may evaporate from plant leavesFigure 22.18Trade-offs: advantages and disadvantages of using phytoremediation to remove or detoxify hazardous waste. QUESTION: Which single advantage and which single disadvantage do you think are the most important?Produces little air pollution compared to incinerationSome plantscan becometoxic toanimalsLow energy useFig , p. 538
84Conversion to Less Hazardous Substances Incineration: heating many types of hazardous waste to high temperatures – up to 2000 °C – in an incinerator can break them down and convert them to less harmful or harmless chemicals.Plasma Torch: passing electrical current through gas to generate an electric arc and very high temperatures can create plasma.The plasma process can be carried out in a torch which can decompose liquid or solid hazardous organic material.
85Mobile. Easy to move to different sites Trade-OffsPlasma ArcAdvantagesDisadvantagesSmallHigh costProduces CO2 and COMobile. Easy to move to different sitesCan release particulates and chlorine gasFigure 22.19Trade-offs: advantages and disadvantages of using a plasma arc torch to detoxify hazardous wastes. QUESTION: Which single advantage and which single disadvantage do you think are the most important?Can vaporize and release toxic metals and radioactive elementsProduces notoxic ashFig , p. 538
86Long-Term Storage: Hazardous Waste Hazardous waste can be disposed of on or underneath the earth’s surface, but without proper design and care this can pollute the air and water.Deep-well disposal: liquid hazardous wastes are pumped under pressure into dry porous rock far beneath aquifers.Surface impoundments: excavated depressions such as ponds, pits, or lagoons into which liners are placed and liquid hazardous wastes are stored.
87Deep Underground Wells Trade-OffsDeep Underground WellsAdvantagesDisadvantagesSafe method ifsites are chosencarefullyLeaks or spills atsurfaceLeaks fromcorrosion of wellcasingWastes can beretrieved ifproblemsdevelopExisting fracturesor earthquakescan allow wastesto escape intogroundwaterFigure 22.20Trade-offs: advantages and disadvantages of injecting liquid hazardous wastes into deep underground wells. QUESTION: Which single advantage and which single disadvantage do you think are the most important?Easy to doEncourageswaste productionLow costFig , p. 539
88Low construction costs Trade-OffsSurface ImpoundmentsAdvantagesDisadvantagesGroundwatercontaminationfrom leaking liners(or no lining)Low construction costsLow operating costsAir pollution fromvolatile organiccompoundsCan be built quicklyOverflow fromfloodingFigure 22.21Trade-offs: advantages and disadvantages of storing liquid hazardous wastes in surface impoundments. QUESTION: Which single advantage and which single disadvantage do you think are the most important?Wastes can be retrieved if necessaryDisruption andleakage fromearthquakesCan store wastes indefinitely with secure double linersPromotes wasteproductionFig , p. 539
89Long-Term Storage of Hazardous Waste Long-Term Retrievable Storage: Some highly toxic materials cannot be detoxified or destroyed. Metal drums are used to stored them in areas that can be inspected and retrieved.Secure Landfills: Sometimes hazardous waste are put into drums and buried in carefully designed and monitored sites.
90Secure Hazardous Waste Landfill In the U.S. there are only 21 commercial hazardous waste landfills.
92International Waste Management =Toxic colonialism Developed countries sometimes send their waste to developing countriesLess expensive than following laws within the countryControversial aspect of waste managementEnvironmental Justice issue
94Life-Cycle Analysis (Cradle to Grave) Important tool to make good decisionsMaps the materials/energy/pollution used and released throughout the lifetime of the productMining raw materialManufacturingShippingUseDisposalImpacts quantifiedEnvironmentalEconomicSocialLimitationsA lot must be estimated
95Integrated Waste Management Holistic approach (“from all angles”)W. McDonough’s book Cradle to CradleNew approach to manufacturingDevelop products for disassemblyRecycled easily: with little material put in waste streamEx: VolkswagenCars designed to be easily taken apart for repair/recyclingEx: carpeting
96Integrated Waste Management A method that seeks to develop as many options as possible, to reduce environmental harm and cost.Reduction, recycling, composting, landfills, and incineration are some ways IWM is utilized.Move from linear to circular material flow
101E-wasteElectronic waste including televisions, cell phones, computers, DVD players and other electronic devicesHazardous waste!Contains POPS: PVCs (polyvinylchloride), PBBs (polybrominated flame retardants),Heavy metals: lead, mercury, cadmium, chromium, etcIf disposed in landfill, these hazardous chemicals are released in air, water and soilE-waste must be collected so the hazardous materials can be removed and recycled: US recycles 20% Switzerland recycles 80%US produces half world’s e-waste
102How to dispose of E-Waste What we are currently doing:The Electronic Waste Recycling Act mandates and funds a program to ensure the collection and proper disposal of e- wasteMost of the US’s e-waste is shipped to developing countries (China, India, Pakistan) to be recycled.Less than 20% of e-waste is actually collected for recyclingWhat we SHOULD be doing:Manufacture products that do not contain toxic materialsDesign products that have interchangeable parts so that broken parts can be repaired and then re-used (http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=oDAw7vW7H0c )Require companies to take back products at the end of the life cycle so that the company has to consider how manage the waste in their design process.Charge consumers a recycling fee when they purchase the product and require the trade-in of the old product when a new one is purchased
103Achieving a Low-Waste Society In the U.S., citizens have kept large numbers of incinerators, landfills, and hazardous waste treatment plants from being built in their local areas. (NIMBY)Environmental justice means that everyone is entitled to protection from environmental hazards without discrimination.NIABY – Not In Anyone’s BackyardNOPE – Not On Planet Earth
104Global Outlook: International Action to Reduce Hazardous Waste An international treaty, The Stockholm Convention 2001, calls for phasing out the use of harmful persistent organic pollutants (POPs), the dirty dozen.POPs are insoluble in water and soluble in fat.Nearly every person on earth has detectable levels of POPs in their blood.The U.S has not ratified this treaty.Dirty dozen: DDT, dioxin, PCB’s (polychlorinated biphenyls), HCB (hexachlorobenzene)
105Solutions: mimic nature Consume lessRedesign manufacturing processes and products to:use less material and energycreate less pollution and wasteDevelop products that are easy to repair, reuse, recycle, or compost “cradle to cradle”Eliminate or reduce packaging materialCharge fee-per-bag for trash collection, but free recycle collectionEstablish cradle to grave responsibility laws
106Making the Transition to a Low-Waste Society: A New Vision Everything is connected.There is no “away” for the wastes we produce.Dilution is not always the solution to pollution.The best and cheapest way to deal with wastes are reduction and pollution prevention.