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Functions of the Immune System What is the primary function? To maintain good health and to protect the body from harmful substances including: Pathogens.

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Presentation on theme: "Functions of the Immune System What is the primary function? To maintain good health and to protect the body from harmful substances including: Pathogens."— Presentation transcript:

1 Functions of the Immune System What is the primary function? To maintain good health and to protect the body from harmful substances including: Pathogens disease-producing microorganisms ex. Bacteria, viruses, parasites Allergens substances that produce allergic reactions ex. Pollen, dust, animal dander Toxins poisonous or harmful substances ex. Venom Malignant cells potentially life-threatening cancer cells

2 Structures of the Immune System: The 1 st Lines of Defense Intact Skin – wraps the body in a physical barrier that prevents invading organisms from entering the body. Open sores, burns, etc…offer a portal of entry for pathogens

3 Respiratory system – traps inhaled foreign matter with the nose hairs and the moist mucous membranes lining the respiratory system. The tonsils (lymphatic system) also form a protective ring around the throat. If foreign matter gets past these barriers, coughing and sneezing help to expel it from the respiratory system.

4 Digestive System- acids and enzymes produced by the stomach destroy invaders that are swallowed and consumed with food Lymphatic System – work with specialized white blood cells to attack and destroy pathogens that have succeeded in entering the body

5 The Antigen-Antibody Reaction the immune reaction Involves binding antigens to antibodies Labels a potentially dangerous antigen so it can be recognized, and destroyed by the cells of the immune system Antigen any substance that the body regards as being foreign (ex. Viruses, bacteria, toxins, & transplanted tissues) Antibody a disease-fighting protein created by the immune system in response to the presence of a specific antigen (often used interchangeably with Immunoglobulin)

6 Antigen-Antibody Reaction Model

7 Immunoglobulins Bind with specific antigens in the antigen- antibody response 5 primary types of immunoglobulins (AKA antibodies), which are secreted by plasma cells – Plasma cells – specialized WBC’s that produce antibodies coded to destroy specific antigens (See Table 6.1 for the 5 immunoglobulins)

8 Specialized Cells of the Antigen- Antibody Reaction Lymphocytes B Cells Dendritic Cells T Cells

9 Lymphocytes WBC’s that are formed in the bone marrow as stem cells Undergo further maturation and differentiation in lymphoid tissues throughout the body (ex. Thymus) These changes allow the lymphocytes to act as specialized antibodies that are able to attack specific antigens

10 B Cells Specialized lymphocytes that produce and secrete antibodies Each lymphocyte makes a specific antibody that is capable of destroying a specific antigen – most effective against bacteria and viruses circulating in the blood


12 Dendritic Cells Specialized WBC’s that patrol the body searching for antigens that produce infections When antigens are found, they grab, swallow, and internally break apart the captured antigen After destruction of the antigen, the dendritic cell “displays” fragments of the antigen on tentilce-like extensions of the cell, which activates the T Cells

13 Dendritic Cells and T Cell Relationship

14 T Cells Small lymphocytes that mature in the (?) as a result of being exposed to the hormone thymosin, which is secreted by the (?) Kill the infected cells on contact – Produce interferon, which are proteins that fight viruses by slowing or stopping their multiplication memory Jogger: interferon interferes with viral multiplication – Produce lymphokines, which attract macrophages to the infected site and prepare them to attack the invaders

15 Complement…not Compliment Group of proteins that normally circulate in the blood in an inactive form and are activated by contact with nonspecific antigens such as foreign blood cells or bacteria Marks foreign invaders and attracts phagocytes to destroy these antigens

16 Immunity What is Immunity? The state of being resistant to a specific disease Types of Immunity Natural Passive Acquired

17 Natural Immunity Passed from the mother to her fetus before birth via the placenta and colostrum Only lasts for a short time (usually 6-8 weeks)

18 Passive Immunity Antibodies are passed from the mother to her child after birth through breast milk

19 Acquired Immunity Also known as active immunity, this is the production of antibodies against a specific antigen by the immune system either by contracting an infectious disease such as chickenpox, or by vaccinating against a disease such as poliomyelitis (polio).

20 Factors that Affect the Immune System General Health – if the immune system is compromised by poor health, it cannot be fully effective What factors can you think of that will affect your general health? Factors that Affect the Immune System

21 Age Who’s the most at risk? older individuals usually have more acquired immunity, but their immune systems tend to respond less quickly and effectively to new challenges. Babies and very young children do not yet have as much acquired immunity, and their bodies

22 Factors that Affect the Immune System Heredity – genes and genetic disorders affect the individual’s general health and functioning of their immune system Do Allergies run in your family?

23 Which cells produce interferon? a.B cells b.T cells c.dendritic cells ANSWER T cells

24 When you get a flu shot, what type of immunity are you utilizing? a.Passive b.Natural c.Acquired ANSWER Acquired

25 What is a substance that produces an allergic response called? ANSWER Allergen

26 Which word means bleeding from the spleen? ANSWER Splenorrhagia

27 Which cluster of lymph nodes are located in the armpit? ANSWER Axillary

28 Which organ is responsible for maturing the T cells? ANSWER Thymus

29 Which organ is responsible for maturing the T cells? ANSWER Thymus

30 Which type of immunity does a baby get from drinking breast milk containing antibodies? ANSWER Passive

31 Allergic Reactions occur when the body’s immune system reacts to a harmless allergen such as pollen, food, or animal dander as if it were a dangerous invader. Localized allergic response – also known as a cellular response, includes redness, itching, and burning where the skin has come into contact with an allergen. Ex. Poison ivy can cause a localized allergic response Although the body reacts mildly to the 1 st exposure, sensitivity is established and future contacts can cause much more severe symptoms!

32 Systemic reaction (anaphylaxis) – a severe reaction to an allergen. Symptoms of this response develop quickly. Without medical aid, the patient can die. Patients experiencing anaphylactic shock may present with: Wheezing Sensation of choking/shortness of breath Rash and pruritus (hives) swelling of the lips and faces hypotension

33 Scratch test – a diagnostic test to identify common allergens such as tree pollen and ragweed. Swelling and itching indicate and allergic reaction

34 Antihistamines  medications that relieve or prevent the symptoms of allergies  Work by preventing the effect of histamines, which is a substance produced by the body that causes itching, sneezing, runny nose, and watery eyes of an allergic reaction

35 Appears to be genetically transmitted Occurs mostly in women during childbearing years Examples: – Rheumatoid Arthritis – Myasthenia Gravis – Pernicious Anemia – Crohn’s Disease – Multiple Sclerosis – Scleroderma – Graves Disease Autoimmune Disorders any disease characterized by a condition in which the immune system produces antibodies against its own tissues

36 Immunodeficiency Disorders occur when the immune system is compromised (weakened, reduced, absent) Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) – bloodborne infection in which the virus damages or kills the cells of the immune system causing it to progressively fail, which leaves the body at risk for developing many life-threating opportunistic infections Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS)- the most advanced, and fatal stage of an HIV infection

37 What is an opportunistic infection? An infection cause by a pathogen that does not normally produce an illness in healthy humans but does when the host is already weakened (debilitated) by another condition Example: Karposi’s Sarcoma – can be an opportunistic infection frequently associated with HIV, this cancer causes patches of abnormal tissue to grow under the skin, in the lining of the mouth, nose, and throat or in other organs.

38 Karposi’s Sarcoma Before the AIDS epidemic, Kaposi's sarcoma was seen mainly in elderly Italian and Jewish men, and rarely, in elderly women. Among this group, the tumors developed slowly. In AIDS patients, the cancer can develop quickly. The cancer may also involve the skin, lungs, gastrointestinal tract, and other organs.

39 Screening Tests for HIV ELISA (enzyme linked immunosorben assay) blood test used to screen for the presence of HIV antibodies Western blot test – blood test that produces more accurate results than the ELISA test. – Performed to confirm the diagnosis when the results of the ELISA test are postive – ELISA sometimes produces false positive results

40 Treatments of the Immune System Immunotherapy – involves either stimulating or repressing the immune response – Ex: in the treatment of cancer, it is used to stimulate the immune system to fight the malignancy – Ex: in the treatment of allergies, it is used to repress the body’s sensitivity to a particular antigen

41 Treatments of the Immune System Antibody Therapy – synthetic immunoglobulins are used as post-exposure preventative measures against certain viruses, including rabies and some types of hepatitis Immunosupression – treatment to repress or interfere with the ability of the immune system to respond to stimulation by antigens – Ex: Immunosuppressants are given to recipients of organ donations to prevent the rejection of the donor tissue and also to depress autoimmune disorders

42 Which “bug” am I? I am a rod shaped spore- forming bacteria. Tetanus (commonly known as lockjaw) is part of my family and is transmitted through a cut or wound and causes severe muscle spasms. Answer: Bacilli

43 Which “bug” am I? I am a spiral-shaped bacteria that has flexible walls and am capable of movement. Lyme disease is caused by a member of my family and is transmitted to humans by the bite of an infected deer tick. Symptoms may include fever, headache, fatigue and a skin rash. If left untreated, Lyme disease can spread to the joints, heart and nervous system. Answer: Spirochete

44 Lyme Disease

45 Which “bug” am I? I am a small bacterium that lives in lice, fleas, ticks, and mites. Someone in my family causes Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever, which is transmitted to humans by the bite of an infected tick. The signs and symptoms of this disease include fever of sudden onset, headache, and muscle pain followed by the development of a rash Answer: Rickettsia

46 Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever

47 Which “bug” am I? I am a group of about 30 species of bacteria that form irregular groups or clusters resembling grapes. Most of my family are harmless and live normally on your skin and mucous membranes however my aureus cousin commonly infects wounds and can cause toxic shock syndrome or food poisoning! Answer: Staphylococcus

48 Which “bug” am I? I am a family of bacteria that form a chain. Many members of my family are harmless, but some members are responsible for illnesses including strep throat, meningitis, endocarditis, and necrotizing fasciitis!!! Answer: Streptococci

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