Primary physical barrier, part of the innate immune system Releases enzymes to combat pathogens on the surface (sweat) Hostile environment for bacteria
Also part of innate immune system Present physical challenges to prevent pathogens from entering the body Coughing, sneezing – trap invading bacteria Stomach acid Lysozomes FEVER
Phagocytes Specialized in finding and destroying bacteria, viruses, and dead or injured body cells Lymphocytes T cells B cells Antibodies
Hematopoiesis – all immune system cells derived from bone marrow Phagocytes: Granulocytes: first to respond by attacking and eating invaders Macrophages: slower to respond, start as monocytes and then turn into macrophages once leaving the bloodstream, activate the immune response Dendritic Cells: capable of fluid filtration of body
Lymph Alkaline fluid that flows into lymphatic vessels Protects tissue and organs Lymph Nodes Small and bean-shaped Filter lymph fluid
Originate in the bone marrow Migrate to parts of the lymphatic system Lymph nodes Spleen Thymus Two main types: T cells and B cells Lymph vessels transport and store lymph
T cells: Helper T – activate B cells and killer T cells by dividing and producing certain proteins Killer T – attack cells that have been infected with the intruder B cells: plasma cell – produces antibodies memory cell – prolonged life span which allows them to remember former intruders
Find and bind to matching antigens Neutralize toxins and incapacitate viruses (by preventing them from infecting new cells)
Produces mature T cells Releases mature T cells into the bloodstream
Immunologic filter of blood B cells become activated and produce large amount of antibodies Red blood cells are in the spleen
Injecting the patient with immune proteins to stimulate immune response Genetic engineering – isolating genes for cancer antigens, combining them with a virus and using this as a vaccine
Asthma is a chronic lung disease that causes episodes of difficult breathing. Asthma symptoms are caused primarily due to constriction, tightening of the muscles surrounding the airways, and inflammation, soreness, swelling and irritation of the airways in the lungs.
Avoid triggers Medication Environmental change Currently there is nothing available to prevent you from getting asthma There are only ways to control asthma and prevent asthma symptoms
Allergies are abnormal immune system reactions to things that are usually harmless to most people. When you're allergic to something, your immune system overreacts and believes that this substance is harmful to your body or it is responding to a false alarm. Things that cause allergic reactions, such as certain foods, dust, plant pollen, or medicines, are known as allergens.
The immune system is designed to identify intruders within the body and get rid of them. For an allergic person, the immune system has a hard time identifying which are the dangerous intruders, and which ones are ok. An allergic person has a hypersensitive immune system, which singles out a harmless substance then attacks it.
Everyone has antibodies, the agents of the immune system which fight various kinds of intruders. The antibody which causes an allergic response is called IgE. Immunoglobulin E or IgE is found in the lungs, skin and mucous membranes. In an allergic person, the immune system's IgE can't tell the difference between threatening and non-threatening protein substances. Interesting note – IgE levels are often higher in people with allergies
Respiratory allergens cause symptoms like sneezing, sniffling, wheezing, coughing, runny nose, itchy eyes, sore throats, etc. Skin irritants can cause eczema, hives, or other reactions. Responses to food allergens differ greatly, and in severe cases can cause a possibly fatal condition, called anaphylaxis.
The first time you are exposed to a specific allergen, your body produces large amounts of IgE antibodies to work against that allergen. Antibodies attach themselves to the cells containing histamine. After repeated exposure to the allergen, histamine will be released in powerful amounts, causing an outbreak of allergy symptoms. Histamine is an important chemical in the body, it can cause problems if it is released in the wrong situation. Allergy symptoms are the body's attempt to eject a substance it identifies to be dangerous.
Skin Testing Blood Testing Allergy Shots Medication Unfortunately…there is no cure
Anaphylaxis is a severe, whole-body allergic reaction to a chemical that has become an allergen Large amounts of histamine is released Occurs when the immune system creates disease fighting anti-bodies (IgE) towards a substance Life-threatening, can occur at any time
Anaphylaxis is an emergency condition that needs professional medical attention right away Epinephrine by injection (epi-pen) Quickly reverses anaphylactic symptoms
Immunoglobulin A (IgA) Found in: Nose Breathing passages Digestive Tract Ears Eyes Saliva Protects body surfaces that are exposed to outside invaders Immunoglobulin G (IgG) Found in: All body fluids Smallest but most common (75% to 85%) of all antibodies in the body The only type of antibody that can cross the placenta to help protect baby during pregnancy
Immunoglobulin M (IgM) Found in: Blood Lymph Fluid Largest in size First type of antibody made in response to an infection Immunoglobulin E (IgE) Found in: Lungs Skin Mucous membranes Causes body to react against foreign invaders such as: Pollen Fungus spores Pet dander IgE levels higher in people with allergies
Immunoglobulin D (IgD) Found in: Small amounts of tissue that line the belly and chest Function is not clear
The body’s immune system begins attacking its own organs and structures HIV/AIDS: a virus which causes the inactivation of T-cells Multiple sclerosis: a disease in which the immune system attacks the brain and spinal cord