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Julia Viola, Jane Frank, Jacquie Monteleone, and Alexa Saporito.

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Presentation on theme: "Julia Viola, Jane Frank, Jacquie Monteleone, and Alexa Saporito."— Presentation transcript:

1 Julia Viola, Jane Frank, Jacquie Monteleone, and Alexa Saporito

2  Overall Purpose:  Identify foreign pathogens and antigens  Recognize a substance as non-self  Allergic/inflammatory response  “Eat” pathogens and REMEMBER them for next time

3 Innate Skin Mucus membranes Saliva Cilia Urine Tears Phagocytes Inflammation (non-specific) Adaptive Lymphocytes Antibodies (specific)

4  Primary physical barrier, part of the innate immune system  Releases enzymes to combat pathogens on the surface (sweat)  Hostile environment for bacteria

5  Also part of innate immune system  Present physical challenges to prevent pathogens from entering the body  Coughing, sneezing – trap invading bacteria  Stomach acid  Lysozomes  FEVER

6  Phagocytes  Specialized in finding and destroying bacteria, viruses, and dead or injured body cells  Lymphocytes  T cells  B cells  Antibodies



9  Hematopoiesis – all immune system cells derived from bone marrow  Phagocytes: Granulocytes: first to respond by attacking and eating invaders Macrophages: slower to respond, start as monocytes and then turn into macrophages once leaving the bloodstream, activate the immune response Dendritic Cells: capable of fluid filtration of body

10  Primary Organs  Bone Marrow  Thymus Gland  Secondary Organs  Adenoids  Tonsils  Spleen  Appendix  Lymph Nodes

11  Lymph  Alkaline fluid that flows into lymphatic vessels  Protects tissue and organs  Lymph Nodes  Small and bean-shaped  Filter lymph fluid

12  Originate in the bone marrow  Migrate to parts of the lymphatic system  Lymph nodes  Spleen  Thymus  Two main types: T cells and B cells  Lymph vessels transport and store lymph

13  T cells: Helper T – activate B cells and killer T cells by dividing and producing certain proteins Killer T – attack cells that have been infected with the intruder  B cells: plasma cell – produces antibodies memory cell – prolonged life span which allows them to remember former intruders


15  Find and bind to matching antigens  Neutralize toxins and incapacitate viruses (by preventing them from infecting new cells)


17  Produces mature T cells  Releases mature T cells into the bloodstream

18  Immunologic filter of blood  B cells become activated and produce large amount of antibodies  Red blood cells are in the spleen

19  Injecting the patient with immune proteins to stimulate immune response  Genetic engineering – isolating genes for cancer antigens, combining them with a virus and using this as a vaccine

20  Asthma is a chronic lung disease that causes episodes of difficult breathing.  Asthma symptoms are caused primarily due to constriction, tightening of the muscles surrounding the airways, and inflammation, soreness, swelling and irritation of the airways in the lungs.



23  Wheezing  Shortness of breath  Chest tightness  Coughing

24  Avoid triggers  Medication  Environmental change  Currently there is nothing available to prevent you from getting asthma  There are only ways to control asthma and prevent asthma symptoms

25  Allergies are abnormal immune system reactions to things that are usually harmless to most people.  When you're allergic to something, your immune system overreacts and believes that this substance is harmful to your body or it is responding to a false alarm.  Things that cause allergic reactions, such as certain foods, dust, plant pollen, or medicines, are known as allergens.


27  The immune system is designed to identify intruders within the body and get rid of them.  For an allergic person, the immune system has a hard time identifying which are the dangerous intruders, and which ones are ok.  An allergic person has a hypersensitive immune system, which singles out a harmless substance then attacks it.

28  Everyone has antibodies, the agents of the immune system which fight various kinds of intruders.  The antibody which causes an allergic response is called IgE.  Immunoglobulin E or IgE is found in the lungs, skin and mucous membranes.  In an allergic person, the immune system's IgE can't tell the difference between threatening and non-threatening protein substances.  Interesting note – IgE levels are often higher in people with allergies

29  Respiratory allergens cause symptoms like sneezing, sniffling, wheezing, coughing, runny nose, itchy eyes, sore throats, etc.  Skin irritants can cause eczema, hives, or other reactions.  Responses to food allergens differ greatly, and in severe cases can cause a possibly fatal condition, called anaphylaxis.

30  The first time you are exposed to a specific allergen, your body produces large amounts of IgE antibodies to work against that allergen.  Antibodies attach themselves to the cells containing histamine.  After repeated exposure to the allergen, histamine will be released in powerful amounts, causing an outbreak of allergy symptoms.  Histamine is an important chemical in the body, it can cause problems if it is released in the wrong situation.  Allergy symptoms are the body's attempt to eject a substance it identifies to be dangerous.

31  Skin Testing  Blood Testing  Allergy Shots  Medication  Unfortunately…there is no cure

32  Anaphylaxis is a severe, whole-body allergic reaction to a chemical that has become an allergen  Large amounts of histamine is released  Occurs when the immune system creates disease fighting anti-bodies (IgE) towards a substance  Life-threatening, can occur at any time

33  Abdominal pain  Abnormal (high-pitched) breathing sounds  Anxiety  Chest discomfort or tightness  Cough  Diarrhea  Difficulty breathing  Difficulty swallowing  Dizziness or light- headedness  Hives, itchiness  Nasal congestion  Nausea or vomiting  Palpitations  Skin redness  Slurred speech  Swelling of the face, eyes, or tongue  Unconsciousness  Wheezing

34  Anaphylaxis is an emergency condition that needs professional medical attention right away  Epinephrine by injection (epi-pen)  Quickly reverses anaphylactic symptoms

35 Immunoglobulin A (IgA) Found in:  Nose  Breathing passages  Digestive Tract  Ears  Eyes  Saliva Protects body surfaces that are exposed to outside invaders Immunoglobulin G (IgG) Found in:  All body fluids Smallest but most common (75% to 85%) of all antibodies in the body The only type of antibody that can cross the placenta to help protect baby during pregnancy

36 Immunoglobulin M (IgM) Found in:  Blood  Lymph Fluid Largest in size First type of antibody made in response to an infection Immunoglobulin E (IgE) Found in:  Lungs  Skin  Mucous membranes Causes body to react against foreign invaders such as:  Pollen  Fungus spores  Pet dander IgE levels higher in people with allergies

37 Immunoglobulin D (IgD) Found in:  Small amounts of tissue that line the belly and chest Function is not clear

38  The body’s immune system begins attacking its own organs and structures  HIV/AIDS: a virus which causes the inactivation of T-cells  Multiple sclerosis: a disease in which the immune system attacks the brain and spinal cord

39     Immune-System-The-Vital-Connection.pdf Immune-System-The-Vital-Connection.pdf   arrowTransplants/Pages/BoneMarrowandtheImmuneSystem.aspx arrowTransplants/Pages/BoneMarrowandtheImmuneSystem.aspx  treatments/ treatments/ 

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