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Project Title: Chemical Stabilization of Clay Design Department Presenter: Stephan Cheong Date: February 5,2015.

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Presentation on theme: "Project Title: Chemical Stabilization of Clay Design Department Presenter: Stephan Cheong Date: February 5,2015."— Presentation transcript:

1 Project Title: Chemical Stabilization of Clay Design Department Presenter: Stephan Cheong Date: February 5,2015

2   Introduction to Soil Stabilization  Chemical Admixtures  Application of Soil Stabilization  Environmental Impacts  Engineering Properties of Clay  Standard Engineering Tests  Project Limits  Results and Analysis  Discussion  Flexible Pavement Design  Economical Consideration of Flexible Pavement  Benefits of Soil Stabilization  Conclusion  Recommendations Outline of Presentation

3   Permanent physical and chemical alteration of soils to enhance their physical properties.  To create an improved soil material possessing the desired engineering properties.  Chemical stabilization relies on the use of an admixture to alter the chemical properties of the soil. Introduction to Soil Stabilization

4   The chemical additives used to modify the chemical properties of a clay soil in this research are listed below: o Rice Husk Ash – Silicate Based Chemical Admixtures

5  o Sodium Hydroxide – Sodium Based o Lime – Calcium Based Chemical Admixtures

6   Road Pavements  Foundations Application of Soil Stabilization

7  Environmental Parameter Sodium HydroxideRice HuskLime PHYSICAL Air: Dust Control measures when transported Not RequiredRequired Water QualitySodium toxicity results from high concentration of Sodium in water but decreases acidity of water due to low pH Water quality is not affected Ionizes to Calcium cations in water which is beneficial for human and fish health Social Health and SafetySeverely Hazardous Substance Harmless Substance Environmental Impacts

8   Their vulnerability to slow volume changes that can occur independent of loading due to swelling or shrinkage.  The degree of weathering they have undergone which leads to the destruction of interparticle bond.  Reductions in strength and elastic modulus with a general increase in plasticity. Engineering Properties of Clays

9  Standard TestsKey Engineering Properties Liquid and Plastic Limit {ASTM D4318 - 00} Plasticity Index Shrinkage Limit {ASTM D4943 -02} Shrinkage Potential Specific Gravity {ASTM D854 -02} Soil Density Standard Engineering Tests

10  Standard TestsKey Engineering Properties Modified Proctor {ASTM D1557 -00} Compaction California Bearing Ratio {ASTM D1883 -99} Subgrade Strength Settlement Potential of Cohesive Soils {ASTM D4546 -03} Soil Permeability and Percent Settlement

11   Location of Disturbed Tested Sample: University of Guyana  Selected Test Specimens: Soil mixed with 5%, 10%, 15% NaOH, 3%, 5%, 8% Lime and 20%, 25% and 30% RHA.  Soil mixed with 8% Lime, 30% RHA and 10% NaOH was more effective in stabilizing clay soils. Project Limits

12  Soil TypeSpecific Gravity Values Plasticity Index /% Soil Type *Plasticity Chart (ASTM D 2487) Shrinkage Limit/% Untreated Clay Soil 2.69547.26CH13.62 Soil + 30% RHA 2.452 35.75MH 3.90 Soil + 8% Lime 2.50426.87MH8.90 Soil + 10% NaOH 2.95624.09MH7.47 Results and Analysis

13  Soil TypeMaximum Modified Proctor Dry Density / lb/ft 3 California Bearing Ratio Subgrade Strength *Based on AASHTO Pavement Thickness Design Guide Untreated Clay Soil 1053.01Low Soil + 30% RHA 87.03.23Low Soil + 8% Lime 101.64.12Low Soil + 10% NaOH 110.65.71Medium Results and Analysis

14  Soil Type Settlement Potential of Cohesive Soils {Remolded Samples} Hydraulic Conductivity, k z (m/yr ) Untreated Clay Soil 0.05755 Soil + 30% RHA 0.80495 Soil + 8% Lime 0.72524 Soil + 10% NaOH 0.0938

15  Seating Pressure σ vo (KPa) Untreated Clay Soil Soil + 8% LimeSoil + 30% RHA Soil + 10% NaOH - Percent Settlement /% of Remolded Samples 384 -13.0-6.1-8.2-7.4 - Percent Rebound Settlement /% of Remolded Samples 24 -8.2-4.3-5.5-4.7 Results and Analysis

16  Discussion Increased Compaction Stabilized Soil% Variation from Clay 10% NaOH5% 8%Lime-3% 30% RHA-17% Increased Density Stabilized Soil% Variation from Clay 10% NaOH10% 8%Lime-7% 30% RHA-9%

17  Discussion Increased Load Bearing Capacity (Subgrade Strength) Increased Hydraulic Conductivity Stabilized Soil% Variation from Clay 10% NaOH60% 8%Lime1160% 30% RHA1300% Stabilized Soil% Variation from Clay 10% NaOH90% 8%Lime37% 30% RHA7%

18  Stabilized Soil% Variation from Clay (S) % Variation from Clay (R.S) 10% NaOH43% 8%Lime53%48% 30% RHA37%33% Discussion  Reduction in Settlement and Rebound Settlement

19  Flexible Pavement Design (AASHTO 1993) Input Values for Nomograph Reliability (R)%=95 Overall Standard Deviation (So) = 0.40 Estimated Future traffic, 18 Kip ESALs, w 18 = 10 × 10 6 m=1 (drainage provided) Final Serviceability limit = 4.5 Initial Serviceability limit = 2.5 Design Serviceability loss = 2.0 Layer Coefficient Asphaltic Concrete; a 1 = 0.365, E AC = 300,000 psi Aggregate base; a 2 = 0.13, CBR = 70 White Sand/Sand Clay; a 3 =0.11, CBR = 30 White Sand; a 4 = 0.0925, CBR = 20

20  Subgrade Type Design Structural Number SN (DES) d 1 (AC) d 2 (AB) d 3 (WS/SC) d 4 (WS) Subgrade Resilient Modulus /MPa Clay148.2100250 350450 31.1 Clay + 30%RHA 145.187.5237.5 350450 33.4 Clay + 8%Lime 134.275225 350450 42.6 Clay + 10%NaOH 119.650150 350450 59.1 Structural Number and Layer Thickness (AASHTO 1993)

21  SubgradeCost of Stabilized Material/Mile (GYD) Cost of Road Material / Mile (GYD) Total Road Pavement Cost per Mile (GYD) Clay-$133M Clay + 30%RHA0$121.4M Clay + 8%Lime$10M$100M$110M Clay + 10%NaOH $27M$79M$106M Economical Considerations of Flexible Pavement o Lane Width = 12Ft; Stabilized Depth = 12in; Road Length = 1mile

22   From a financial point of view, Stabilization produces the following relevant benefits: 1)Increased Long-term performance of pavement structures 2)Saving of significant amounts of non-renewable resources 3)Transforms inexpensive earth materials into effective construction materials  Despite positive benefits of stabilization, the engineering properties derived can vary widely due to heterogeneity in soil composition, differences in micro and macro structure among soils. Economical Benefits of Stabilization

23  Benefits of Soil Stabilization  Stabilization can: o increase the strength of a soil o control the shrink-swell properties of a soil o Replace mechanical methods of stabilization which can be more costly. o improve stress-strain properties, permeability, and durability.

24   All three admixture can potentially stabilize Guyana’s coastal clays.  The Sodium Hydroxide admixture proved to be the most effective investigated admixture.  Lime was slightly more effective in controlling settlement and improving permeability.  Rice husk ash was more effective in controlling volume changes and improving permeability. Conclusion

25   A complete and thorough Environmental and Social Impact Assessment will be required.  The following items which are not part of the scope of research are recommended areas of further study; 1)Correlation Between Laboratory Strength and In-situ Strength 2)Impact of Subgrade Stabilization on Life-Cycle Cost of Pavements 3)Mixing the Proportions of Two Stabilizers Recommendations


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