2Why do we classify organisms? Help us to organize organisms so that they can be easily found and determine their similarities and differences.2. Identify the unknown species.3. Assign names to organism.4. Make the study of a wide variety of organism easy.
3 The stripes that are characteristic A method of grouping thingsaccording to certain characteristics or properties.Characteristicbeing a feature that helps to distinguish aperson or thing.Example The stripes that are characteristicof the zebra.
4is generally referred to any living thing An organismis generally referred to any living thingsuch as animal, fungus, micro-organism, or plant.
5The process of nourishing or being nourished, especially the process by which a living organism assimilates food and uses it for growth and for replacement of tissues.Animals that eat only fresh meatAnimals that eat only plantsAnimals that eat both meat and plants
6Green plants, algae, and certain bacteria are autotrophs. An organism that cannot synthesize its own food and is dependent on complex organic substances for nutrition.An organism capable of synthesizing its own food from inorganic substances, using light or chemical energy. Green plants, algae, and certain bacteria are autotrophs.The sexual or asexual process by which organisms generate new individuals of the same kind; procreation.
7The division of a cell into two daughter cells with the same genetic material. Reproduction by means of a cell or organism dividing into two or more new cells or organisms
8A mode of reproduction involving the fusion of female gamete (ovum) and male gamete (spermatozoon), which forms a zygote that potentially develops into genetically distinct offspring.A form of reproduction that does not involve meiosis, ploidy reduction or fertilization,and the offspring is a clone of the parent organism ; because of no exchange of genetic material.
9consisting of a single cell or only one cell Made up of only one cellHaving or consisting of many cells
10A microscopic single-celled organism which has neither a distinct nucleus with a membrane nor other specialized organelles, including the bacteria and cyanobacteria.an organism consisting of a cell or cells in which the genetic material is DNA in the form of chromosomes contained within a distinct nucleus. Eukaryotes include all living organisms other than the eubacteria and archaea.
115. Kingdom Monera- made up of bacteriaExamples:Bacteria
13Bacteria are the simplest of all living organisms They are very small ( A thousand bacteria can sit side by side in just 1 millimeter)Bacteria were among the first life forms on Earth.
141. Bacteria posses a cell wall but do not have nucleus. 2. They are not completed cells.Organisms whose cells lacka membrane-bound nucleus
153. Bacteria is unicellular organism (or single cell.) Having or consisting of only one cell.
164. Bacteria can move freely from one place to another. Some kinds of bacteria move by using Flagella.The word flagellum in Latin means whip
17can make their own food called Autotroph 5. Some of Bacteria can make their own food but some cannot. Some get food from dead and decaying matter.Bacteria that cannot maketheir own food called HeterotrophBlue-green bacteria(algae)can make their own food called Autotroph
197. Bacteria reproduce by cell division or binary fission.
20Bacteria have 3 major shapes: cocci, bacilli and spirilla (twisted)(rod-shaped)(spherical)
21Cocci may remain attached after cell division. Arrangement of cocciCocci may remain attached after cell division.These group characteristics are often used to help identify certain cocci.Cocci may be oval, elongated, or flattened on one side.Cocci that remain in pairs after dividing are called diplococci.
22Cocci that remain in chains after dividing are called streptococci. Arrangement of cocciCocci that remain in chains after dividing are called streptococci.Cocci that divide in multiple planes and form grape like clusters or sheets are called staphylococci.
23Arrangement of cocciCocci that divide in two planes and remain in groups of four are called tetrads.Cocci that divide in three planes and remain in groups cube like groups of eight are called sarcinae.
24Arrangement of bacilli Bacillus is a shape (rod shaped) but there is also a genusof bacteria with the name Bacillus.Most bacilli appear as single rods.Diplobacilli appear in pairs after division.
25Arrangement of bacilli Streptobacilli appear in chains after division.Some bacilli are so short and fat that they look like cocciand are referred to as coccobacilli.
26Arrangement of Spiral bacteria Spiral bacteria have one or more twists.Spirilla have a helical shape and fairly rigid bodies.Vibrios look like curved rods.
27which look like flagella contained beneath a flexible external sheath. Arrangement of Spiral bacteriaSpirochetes have a helical shape and flexible bodies. Spirochetes move by means of axial filaments,which look like flagella contained beneatha flexible external sheath.
28Other shapes of Bacteria Stella are star-shaped.Haloarcula, a genus of halophilic archaea, arerectangular.
29Help to produce drugs to fight disease Useful of BacteriaSome bacteria perform benefit functions, such as:Help in returning milkinto yogurt or cheeseHelp to produce drugs to fight diseasebacterial vaccinesAntibacterial antibiotics
30Most bacteria are completely harmless. Harmful BacteriaMost bacteria are completely harmless.However certain types are responsible for causing a variety of diseases in human, plants and animals
31Controlling Bacteria Antiseptic vs. Disinfectants Antiseptic- chemicals that kill bacteria on living thingsExamplesIodine, Hydrogen peroxide, Alcohol, Soap, MouthwashDisinfectants - stronger chemicals that destroybacteria on objects or nonliving things
32Characteristics of Bacteria 1. Prokaryotes – means have no true nucleus2. They are not completed cells3. Some are autotrophs and some heterotrophs4. Bacteria can found everywhere.5. They can move freely from one place to another place.6. They reproduce by cell division or binary fission7. Most are useful or harmless.