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What it is and its role in the body

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Presentation on theme: "What it is and its role in the body"— Presentation transcript:

1 What it is and its role in the body
The Immune system What it is and its role in the body

2 Immune System Purpose is to keep infectious microorganisms out of the body and destroy those that enter. Made up of a complex system of organs and cells

3 Organs involved are called lymphoid organs

4 White Blood Cells Also called Leukocytes Phagocytes Macrophages
Attack invading pathogens Macrophages Type of Phagocyte Reacts by engulfing pathogen and making antigens identifiable

5 Immune Response Antigens Antibody
Substances that can trigger an immune response Antibody A protein that acts against a specific antigen

6 Lymphocytes Type of infection-fighting white blood cell
Patrol for pathogens Originate in bone marrow Two types of lymphocytes B cells Finish maturing in bone marrow T cells Finish maturing in thymus Once matured, some stay in lymphoid organs while others go out on patrol

7 T cells 3 types Helper Killer Suppressor
Facilitates production of B cells and Killer T cells Killer Attack and destroy infected body cells, not the pathogen Suppressor “Commanding Officers” Coordinate actions of other T cells

8 B cells Produce antibodies
Each cell is programmed to make one type of antibody that is specific to a type of pathogen Antibodies will: Attach to antigens to mark them for destruction Destroy invading pathogens Block viruses from entering body cells

9 White Blood Cell Chart White Blood Cells/Leukocytes Phagocytes Lymphocytes Macrophages B cells T cells Helper Killer Suppressor

10 Immune Response Pathogens Invade Macrophages engulf pathogen
Macrophages digest pathogen; T cells recognize antigens of pathogen as invaders T cells bind to antigens B cells bind to antigens and helper T cells B cells divide and produce plasma cells Plasma cells release antibodies into bloodstream Antibodies bind to antigens to help other cells identify and destroy pathogens

11 Common Pathogens that Cause Infectious Diseases
Viruses Bacteria Fungi Protozoa Rickettsias

12 Virus Antibiotics DO NOT work against viruses
Piece of genetic material surrounded by a protein coat Reproduce by invading cells of living organisms Multiply then begin taking over other cells Most common are the cold and influenza Antibiotics DO NOT work against viruses

13 Bacteria Single-celled microorganisms
Most are harmless and some are helpful Disease-causing produce toxins Substances that kill cells or interfere with their functions Antibiotics kill bacteria

14 Spreading Disease Direct Contact Indirect Contact Airborne
Touching, kissing, etc. Indirect Contact Sharing contaminated objects, vectors such as insects Airborne Sneezing or coughing pathogens out of your body can enter another’s, fungal spores

15 Vaccinations Vaccinations are weak or dead pathogens intentionally put into the body Immune response takes over and develops the antibodies to defend against the actual disease if it ever enters the body Why do we need a flu shot every year? Why isn’t there one vaccine for the common cold?

16 Allergic Reactions Allergy Disorder of the immune system
Allergic Reactions are the result of the immune system dramatically responding to what it interprets as a threat (dust, pollen, pet dander, etc.) Allergens Substances that cause allergic reactions Reactions can range from minor (watery eyes, itchiness, slight wheezing, runny nose) to major (hives, swelling of tongue and throat, difficulty breathing, dizziness, headache, stomach issues, shock, or loss of consciousness)

17 Anaphylactic Shock Life threatening reaction to allergens
People who suffer major reactions can go into anaphylactic shock. Sudden drop in blood pressure occurs Usually caused by reactions to allergens in food, insect bites or stings, drug, or chemical People who are aware of life-threatening allergies may have an EpiPen ready to use EpiPen – single dose of epinephrine to be administered to the outer thigh only. Increases heart rate and strength of heart beat Dr. prescribed only!! When an EpiPen needs to be used medical attention is needed immediately after administration

18 HIV, Aids, and sti

19 HIV and AIDS HIV Human Immunodeficiency Virus Leads to AIDS (Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome) Destroys specific T cells (CD4+ T cells) crucial to helping the body fight infections HIV can exist for years before leading to AIDS HIV levels increase while the T cells decrease Leaves body more prone to infections and diseases

20 Why is this a major problem??
How HIV Works HIV Virus in blood Attaches to T cell and empties contents Viral DNA is created and inserts into cell’s DNA Infected cell divides with new DNA code Cell division creates raw protein material Raw infected material is packaged into an immature virus cell Leaves infected cell through “budding” New immature cell matures and then attacks another healthy cell New infected cells are slightly different (mutations) than where they came from Why is this a major problem??

21 HIV Symptoms Very few, if any symptoms show at first
Roughly 2 to 3 months after contraction, flu-like symptoms will show including fatigue and swollen lymph nodes in neck and groin Symptoms may go away

22 HIV Later Stage Symptoms
Rapid Weight Loss Recurring night sweats and fever Extreme fatigue Prolonged lymph node swelling Diarrhea lasting more than a week Sores at the mouth, anus, and genitals Red, brown, pink, or purple splotches under the skin or inside mouth, nose, or eyelids

23 HIV Treatment Antiretroviral Therapy (ART)
Drugs do not kill the virus but slow its ability to spread and infect healthy cells About 30 different drugs available Block different stages of the virus’ reproduction and infection process Possible Cure?

24 AIDS Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome
Is not HIV but occurs during late stages of HIV Immune system becomes deficient Diagnosed when patient contracts one or more specific Opportunistic Infections (OI), certain cancers, or has a very low CD4+ T cell count

25 Other Sexually Transmitted Infections
Half of all new sexually transmitted infections occur among people aged 15-24 Common STIs are: Bacterial Vaginosis (BV) Chlamydia Gonorrhea Viral Hepatitis Genital Herpes Human Papillomavirus (HPV)

26 Sexually Transmitted Infections
Pelvic Inflammatory Disease (PID) Syphilis Trichomoniasis Pubic Lice Scabies

27 Chlamydia Affects both men and women
Sexually active women age 25 and younger need testing every year Easy to cure yet an untreated infection can impact a woman’s ability to have children later in life by causing permanent damage to reproductive organs “Silent Infection”

28 Chlamydia Most people show no symptoms when contracted Women Men
Starts in the cervix or urethra then spreads to uterus and fallopian tubes Leads to Pelvic Inflammatory Disease (PID) Could cause unusual discharge from vagina or burning sensation when urinating Men Could have discharge from penis or burning sensation Pain and swelling in one or both testicles (epididymitis) could occur

29 Treatment for Chlamydia
Antibiotics During treatment, abstain from sexual activity (7 days) Repeat infection can occur

30 Gonorrhea CDC estimates that about 820,000 people contract gonorrhea annually Estimated that 570,000 are years old Affects both men and women

31 Gonorrhea Men Women Burning sensation when urinating
White, yellow, or green discharge from penis Epididymitis can occur Symptoms appear between 1-14 days after infection Women Usually show no symptoms Can be mistaken for bladder or vaginal infection Discharge, burning when urinating, or bleeding between periods can occur Can lead to PID

32 Treatment for Gonorrhea
Left untreated, can be life-threatening by spreading to blood and joints Different antibiotics can be prescribed Drug-resistant gonorrhea has become more prevalent

33 Human Papillomavirus (HPV)
Most common STI (approx. 79 million Americans have it) About 14 million new infections per year CDC estimates that nearly ALL sexually active men and women contract it at some point in life Can be acquired through oral, vaginal, or anal sex

34 HPV In 90% of cases, the immune system clears HPV on its own without causing health problems Can be contracted even if infected person is showing no signs or symptoms HPV that does not go away can cause genital warts or cancers

35 HPV Different types of HPV infections can lead to either
Genital Warts Cancers Cervix, Vulva, Vagina Penis Anus, Throat, Tongue and Tonsils Cancers can develop many years after HPV is contracted No way to forecast who gets warts or cancer

36 HPV Prevention Vaccination should be for boys and girls between ages 11 and 12 Given as three shots over six months All three doses are necessary “Catch-up” vaccines are available for men and women ages Women should get screened regularly for cervical cancer Ages 21-65 Abstinence Correctly used latex condoms can reduce risk Areas not covered by condom still at risk


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