4 White Blood Cells Also called Leukocytes Phagocytes Macrophages Attack invading pathogensMacrophagesType of PhagocyteReacts by engulfing pathogen and making antigens identifiable
5 Immune Response Antigens Antibody Substances that can trigger an immune responseAntibodyA protein that acts against a specific antigen
6 Lymphocytes Type of infection-fighting white blood cell Patrol for pathogensOriginate in bone marrowTwo types of lymphocytesB cellsFinish maturing in bone marrowT cellsFinish maturing in thymusOnce matured, some stay in lymphoid organs while others go out on patrol
7 T cells 3 types Helper Killer Suppressor Facilitates production of B cells and Killer T cellsKillerAttack and destroy infected body cells, not the pathogenSuppressor“Commanding Officers”Coordinate actions of other T cells
8 B cells Produce antibodies Each cell is programmed to make one type of antibody that is specific to a type of pathogenAntibodies will:Attach to antigens to mark them for destructionDestroy invading pathogensBlock viruses from entering body cells
9 White Blood Cell ChartWhite Blood Cells/Leukocytes Phagocytes Lymphocytes Macrophages B cells T cells Helper Killer Suppressor
10 Immune Response Pathogens Invade Macrophages engulf pathogen Macrophages digest pathogen; T cells recognize antigens of pathogen as invadersT cells bind to antigensB cells bind to antigens and helper T cellsB cells divide and produce plasma cellsPlasma cells release antibodies into bloodstreamAntibodies bind to antigens to help other cells identify and destroy pathogens
11 Common Pathogens that Cause Infectious Diseases VirusesBacteriaFungiProtozoaRickettsias
12 Virus Antibiotics DO NOT work against viruses Piece of genetic material surrounded by a protein coatReproduce by invading cells of living organismsMultiply then begin taking over other cellsMost common are the cold and influenzaAntibiotics DO NOT work against viruses
13 Bacteria Single-celled microorganisms Most are harmless and some are helpfulDisease-causing produce toxinsSubstances that kill cells or interfere with their functionsAntibiotics kill bacteria
14 Spreading Disease Direct Contact Indirect Contact Airborne Touching, kissing, etc.Indirect ContactSharing contaminated objects, vectors such as insectsAirborneSneezing or coughing pathogens out of your body can enter another’s, fungal spores
15 VaccinationsVaccinations are weak or dead pathogens intentionally put into the bodyImmune response takes over and develops the antibodies to defend against the actual disease if it ever enters the bodyWhy do we need a flu shot every year?Why isn’t there one vaccine for the common cold?
16 Allergic Reactions Allergy Disorder of the immune system Allergic Reactions are the result of the immune system dramatically responding to what it interprets as a threat (dust, pollen, pet dander, etc.)AllergensSubstances that cause allergic reactionsReactions can range from minor (watery eyes, itchiness, slight wheezing, runny nose) to major (hives, swelling of tongue and throat, difficulty breathing, dizziness, headache, stomach issues, shock, or loss of consciousness)
17 Anaphylactic Shock Life threatening reaction to allergens People who suffer major reactions can go into anaphylactic shock.Sudden drop in blood pressure occursUsually caused by reactions to allergens in food, insect bites or stings, drug, or chemicalPeople who are aware of life-threatening allergies may have an EpiPen ready to useEpiPen – single dose of epinephrine to be administered to the outer thigh only.Increases heart rate and strength of heart beatDr. prescribed only!!When an EpiPen needs to be used medical attention is needed immediately after administration
19 HIV and AIDSHIVHuman Immunodeficiency VirusLeads to AIDS (Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome)Destroys specific T cells (CD4+ T cells) crucial to helping the body fight infectionsHIV can exist for years before leading to AIDSHIV levels increase while the T cells decreaseLeaves body more prone to infections and diseases
20 Why is this a major problem?? How HIV WorksHIV Virus in bloodAttaches to T cell and empties contentsViral DNA is created and inserts into cell’s DNAInfected cell divides with new DNA codeCell division creates raw protein materialRaw infected material is packaged into an immature virus cellLeaves infected cell through “budding”New immature cell matures and then attacks another healthy cellNew infected cells are slightly different (mutations) than where they came fromWhy is this a major problem??
21 HIV Symptoms Very few, if any symptoms show at first Roughly 2 to 3 months after contraction, flu-like symptoms will show including fatigue and swollen lymph nodes in neck and groinSymptoms may go away
22 HIV Later Stage Symptoms Rapid Weight LossRecurring night sweats and feverExtreme fatigueProlonged lymph node swellingDiarrhea lasting more than a weekSores at the mouth, anus, and genitalsRed, brown, pink, or purple splotches under the skin or inside mouth, nose, or eyelids
23 HIV Treatment Antiretroviral Therapy (ART) Drugs do not kill the virus but slow its ability to spread and infect healthy cellsAbout 30 different drugs availableBlock different stages of the virus’ reproduction and infection processPossible Cure?
24 AIDS Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome Is not HIV but occurs during late stages of HIVImmune system becomes deficientDiagnosed when patient contracts one or more specific Opportunistic Infections (OI), certain cancers, or has a very low CD4+ T cell count
25 Other Sexually Transmitted Infections Half of all new sexually transmitted infections occur among people aged 15-24Common STIs are:Bacterial Vaginosis (BV)ChlamydiaGonorrheaViral HepatitisGenital HerpesHuman Papillomavirus (HPV)
27 Chlamydia Affects both men and women Sexually active women age 25 and younger need testing every yearEasy to cure yet an untreated infection can impact a woman’s ability to have children later in life by causing permanent damage to reproductive organs“Silent Infection”
28 Chlamydia Most people show no symptoms when contracted Women Men Starts in the cervix or urethra then spreads to uterus and fallopian tubesLeads to Pelvic Inflammatory Disease (PID)Could cause unusual discharge from vagina or burning sensation when urinatingMenCould have discharge from penis or burning sensationPain and swelling in one or both testicles (epididymitis) could occur
29 Treatment for Chlamydia AntibioticsDuring treatment, abstain from sexual activity (7 days)Repeat infection can occur
30 GonorrheaCDC estimates that about 820,000 people contract gonorrhea annuallyEstimated that 570,000 are years oldAffects both men and women
31 Gonorrhea Men Women Burning sensation when urinating White, yellow, or green discharge from penisEpididymitis can occurSymptoms appear between 1-14 days after infectionWomenUsually show no symptomsCan be mistaken for bladder or vaginal infectionDischarge, burning when urinating, or bleeding between periods can occurCan lead to PID
32 Treatment for Gonorrhea Left untreated, can be life-threatening by spreading to blood and jointsDifferent antibiotics can be prescribedDrug-resistant gonorrhea has become more prevalent
33 Human Papillomavirus (HPV) Most common STI (approx. 79 million Americans have it)About 14 million new infections per yearCDC estimates that nearly ALL sexually active men and women contract it at some point in lifeCan be acquired through oral, vaginal, or anal sex
34 HPVIn 90% of cases, the immune system clears HPV on its own without causing health problemsCan be contracted even if infected person is showing no signs or symptomsHPV that does not go away can cause genital warts or cancers
35 HPV Different types of HPV infections can lead to either Genital WartsCancersCervix, Vulva, VaginaPenisAnus, Throat, Tongue and TonsilsCancers can develop many years after HPV is contractedNo way to forecast who gets warts or cancer
36 HPV PreventionVaccination should be for boys and girls between ages 11 and 12Given as three shots over six monthsAll three doses are necessary“Catch-up” vaccines are available for men and women agesWomen should get screened regularly for cervical cancerAges 21-65AbstinenceCorrectly used latex condoms can reduce riskAreas not covered by condom still at risk
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