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Classical Conditioning Stimulus - sometimes that produces a reaction or a response from a person or animal Classic Conditioning - simple form of learning.

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Presentation on theme: "Classical Conditioning Stimulus - sometimes that produces a reaction or a response from a person or animal Classic Conditioning - simple form of learning."— Presentation transcript:

1 Classical Conditioning Stimulus - sometimes that produces a reaction or a response from a person or animal Classic Conditioning - simple form of learning in which one stimulus (thought of food) response (salivating) usually calling forth another stimulus (actual food) occurs when 2 stimuli have been associated with EACH OTHER. Ivan Pavlov Russian Psychologist Discovered that dogs also learn to associate 1 thing with another when food is involved 1

2 US - Unconditioned Stimulus Stimulus that causes a response that is automatic or reflexive reaction in an individual ex. Loud noises, pin-prick, object rapidly approaching you UR - Unconditioned Response automatic response behavior that does not have to be learned as a response to a stimulus in the present situation ex. Tensing the body in response to hearing a loud noise, jumping in response to being pricked by a pin, ducking in response to an object being thrown at you. Pavlov’s experiment US = food; UR = dog’s salivation 2

3 CS - conditioned stimulus Originally neutral stimulus—> learned stimulus CR - conditioned response learned response to a stimulus that was previously meaningless or neutral. Think of CLASSIC CONDITIONING as “stimulus substitution” US is replaced by the CS and response stays about the same. The CR is the same as UR they are elicited by two different kinds of stimuli Must identify which kind of stimulus elicited the response If stimulus previously caused the response - US stimulus just learned = CS 3

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5 John Watson Interested in how human emotions are learned Tested am 11 month old baby named ALBERT Reactions to various stimuli white rat, rabbit, masks, balls of cotton Albert’s response was positive and tried to touch when given a chance Watson wanted to produce FEAR When ALBERT reached out to touch the rat (CS) Watson produced a loud noise (US) behind the child. Albert’s response was he CRIED (UR) After 7x’s the sight of the rat (CS) caused ALBERT to cry (CR) Albert conditioned to ASSOCIATE loud noise with 1 stimuli – rat Positive/Negative learned by Conditioning 5

6 To understand how classical conditioning works need to identify basic principles: Acquisition - how fast you learn Interstimulus interval - time between CS ( bell) (sight of rat) + US (meat) (loud noise) Pavlov discovered timing was crucial of the CS. If CS was presented at the same time as the US, too long after it, too long before it, it had LITTLE or NO EFFECT on dog’s behavior ****1 st stimulus CS takes on the properties of the 2 nd stimulus US Example : Medicine/HONEY 6

7 Extinction - elimination of a CR by presenting only the CS without the US ex. Pavlov ringing bell without meat ; dog salivated less and stops salivating US = reinforcement Extinction occurs when reinforcement is withdrawn. EXAMPLE – GUINEA PIG 7

8 Spontaneous Recovery - reappearance of a CR after extinction EXAMPLE - GUINEA PIG Stimulus Generalization - act of responding in the same way to stimuli that seem to be similar even if the stimuli are not identical ex. Albert conditioned to fear RAT. He also cried when shown other furry objects - rabbit, mask of Santa Claus) CR (crying) was conditioned to the CS (rat) stimuli similar to the CS often became sufficient to elicit CR Greater similarity - stronger CR between stimuli 8

9 Stimulus Discrimination - responding differently to stimuli that are not similar to each other. Ex. Dog conditioned by bell–>stimulus generalization–> salivate in response to a metronome. If metronome never followed by US and bell always was, the CR to the metronome would stop to occur. Dog will discriminate between the two. 9

10 Conditioned Taste Aversion - learned avoidance of a particular food Taste aversion helps us avoid these foods by keeping us away from them EXAMPLE #5 Kidney stone - US severe stomach pain - UR hamburger - CS stomach pain – CR Conditioned taste aversion differs from regular classical condition in several respects: CTA occurs 1 trial requiring only One pairing of the CS with the US instead of several Interstimulus interval for CTA can be hours rather than seconds. 10

11 2 methods of reducing fears based on the principle of extinction Flooding - person is exposed to the harmless stimulus until fear responses to the stimulus are extinguished Usually effective—> Unpleasant ex. Fear of heights - look out from 6 story window until not afraid Fear of snakes - put in a room with harmless snakes until not afraid Counterconditioning - pleasant stimulus is paired repeatedly with a fearful one, counteracting the fear. Systematic Desensitization taught relaxation techniques exposed to fear but try to relax ex. Fear of snakes show picture of snake until can relax next phase see a video until can relax next show a real snake until can relax 11

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13 Operant Conditioning - learning strengthened when behavior is followed by positive reinforcement Thorndike was observing Trial & Error learning. EXAMPLE – CAT Instrumental conditioning - individual is instrumental in emitting, or producing a response. Thorndike proposed his LAW of EFFECT: Any response that produces satisfaction in a given situation becomes ASSOCIATED with that situation. Situation occurs again. Response is more likely to be repeated. 13

14 Thorndike - LAW OF EFFECT If we do something and get rewarded we will do it again If we do it often enough we will form a habit Acquisition Shaping effective to help subjects acquire or learn a behavior through operant conditioning Extinction Stronger original learning the longer you will continue to respond Spontaneous Recovery - occurrence of behavior that had been extinguished, can appear after a rest period. 14

15 BF SKINNER - named behavior = Operant Conditioning Operant behavior is first emitted more or less as a random act. Behavior becomes Learned or Operantly conditioned only when followed by regular reinforcement. Reinforcement usually REWARD. EXAMPLE – GLASSES Shaping - successive approximation gradual process begins with reinforcement of some behavior that gets closer to the final behavior desired Careful giving and withholding of reinforcement subject can gradually be made to perform complex responses 15

16 Reinforcement - increases the probability that the behavior that precedes it will be repeated Most effective if it is given immediately after a behavior If delayed - power is diminished. People prefer doing certain things more than others. EXAMPLE – CHILD PREMACK PRINCIPLE states any 2 responses, the one that is more likely to occur can be used to reinforce the response that is less likely to occur Example Premack Principle 16

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18 SCHEDULES OF REINFORCEMENT Continuous Reinforcement every correct response is reinforced However - behavior is produced by continuous reinforcement - provides little resistance to a behavior produced by extinction Example Partial Reinforcement Intermittent schedule produces a response that takes longer to extinguish than continuous reinforcement Think of SCHEDULES OF REINFORCEMENT as a CONTINUUM CRPRNo R 18

19 Fixed Ratio (FR) Schedule - Certain number of responses must be made before reinforcement is given ex. Reinforcement might be given after every 3 responses. Variable Ratio (VR) Schedule - Number of responses required for reinforcement to occur varies ex. Slot Machine Machine provides reinforcement but can NEVER tell when it occurs. Your response rate is STEADY and HIGH. Ex. Lottery Ticket - person buys ticket each week in hopes of hitting the winnings. 19

20 Fixed Interval (FI) Schedule - subject receives reinforcement for the first response shown after a given time interval ex. Subject reinforced ONCE every 2 minutes ex. Students study to receive a test grade at the end of the semester. ex. Children GOOD “ALL” week to receive their allowance. Subject tends to rest immediately after a reinforcement and then increases frequency of responding just before the next reinforcement occurs. Variable Interval (VI) Schedule - Subject is reinforced for the first response given after a particular time interval which is CHANGED for each trial ex. One trial may have 2 minute interval, next 4 minute interval, 3 rd 1 minute interval ex. Teacher gives unannounced Quiz. 20

21 Primary Reinforcement Effective without having been associated with other reinforcers. Ex. Food, water - serve as reinforcers without being paired with other reinforcers Secondary Reinforcement Effective only after it has been associated with a primary reinforcer Ex. Why is it reinforcing to find a $ It is valuable to you because associated with other reinforcers–>food 21

22 Positive Reinforcement -occurs when a pleasant stimulus such as FOOD is presented and strengthens the response it follows Negative Reinforcement - Occurs when an aversive stimulus is removed and the preceding behavior is strengthened ex. Remove a painful stone from shoe; felt relief and experienced negative reinforcement ex. Escaping from a hot crowded room ex. Taking a Tylenol when you have headache Positive - as Presenting Negative - as Removing PR - PRESENTING something pleasant NR - something unpleasant is REMOVED; also increases response BOTH TYPES INCREASE IN BEHAVIOR REMEMBER: Reinforcement Always increases the likelihood that the behavior will occur again. 22

23 Punishment - Decreases the likelihood that the behavior preceding it will be repeated Think of Punishment in 2 distinct forms Presentation of something UNPLEASANT after a behavior will lead to a decrease in the behavior = POSITIVE PUNISHMENT ex. Scolding a child, assessing a fine Removal of something PLEASANT after a behavior will usually also lead to a decrease in the behavior = NEGATIVE PUNISHMENT ex. Taking your car keys, keeping child in school during recess EFFECTIVE PUNISHMENT Varies widely but dependent on the following characteristics: PROXIMITY, CONSISTENCY, INTENSITY 23

24 Proximity – closeness of the aversive stimulus to the punished behavior; the closer the more effective Consistency – always follow behavior with punishment Intensity – strength of punishment *usually more consistent and intense punishment results in a more EFFECTIVE reduction in the undesired behavior Reinforcement and Punishment defined by their consequences INCREASE BEHAVIOR = Reinforcement DECREASE BEHAVIOR = Punishment 24

25 Cognitive Learning learn by thinking about it or watching others. Utilizing mental structures and memory to make decisions about behavior. 2KINDS 1. Latent - EC Tolman 2. OBSERVATIONAL - Albert Bandura Latent Individual acquires knowledge of something but doesn’t show it until motivated to do so. Observational = social learning theory Reinforcement is largely more in motivation rather than in the learning process itself Example - cheerleader 25

26 For observational learning to be EFFECTIVE 4 processes must occur: 1.Attention3. Reproduction 2. Retention4. Motivation 1. Attention - must pay attention to role model We do this most often when we are motivated and believe the behavior has some relevance to us 2. Retention – must store our observations in our memory in symbolic form 3. Reproduction - must be able to convert the symbolic representations that we have stored in our memory into appropriate behavior 4. Motivation - Behavior must be reinforced in order to motivate us to repeat it with any regularity Observational Learning helps explain the rich cultural diversity shown by people all around the world. Our customs and perhaps even our styles of thinking are dependent upon our observational experiences 26

27 PQ4R 1. Previewing 2. Questioning 3. Reading 4. Reflecting 5. Reciting 6. Reviewing 27


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