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CAP Mission Aircrew CAPR 60-series Review Revision June 2012.

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Presentation on theme: "CAP Mission Aircrew CAPR 60-series Review Revision June 2012."— Presentation transcript:

1 CAP Mission Aircrew CAPR 60-series Review Revision June 2012

2 CAPR 60-series Review m These slides are a review, and as such are not meant as a substitute for a thorough study of the regulations, particularly CAPRs 60-1 and 60-3 m This review is not comprehensive, as it is primarily based on the perspective of an aircrew

3 CAPR 60-1 CAP Flight Management

4 CAP Flight Management m Flying CAP aircraft is a privilege, not a right of membership. m Air Force Assigned Missions (AFAM) m CAP Corporate Missions m Supervised Mission m WMIRS

5 Basic Rules Use CAP A/C only for official business Hand-propped starts are prohibited Carry equipment prescribed in CAPR 66-1 Always wear seat belt and shoulder harness (unless it interferes with duties) Use Sterile Cockpit procedures on all flights Use manufacturer or NHQ CAP approved checklists Minimum flight visibility of 3 statute miles is required for all VFR flights unless the PIC is a current and qualified instrument pilot The maximum crosswind limit for operating CAP aircraft is that which is stated in the POH as the maximum demonstrated crosswind velocity or 15 knots if the POH does not specify Pilot’s take Aircraft Ground Handling Video test biennially

6 Operation Limits An FAA flight plan shall be filed and activated for every flight beyond 50 nm; flights that are part of a Supervised Mission may be exempted from this requirement by the mission IC Pilot Duty Limitations The maximum crew duty day for pilots is 14 hours of official CAP duty Pilots will not plan to serve as PIC past the end of their crew duty day Pilots will not flight plan to exceed 8 hours PIC time between periods of crew rest Pilots must have 10 hours of crew rest between the last official CAP duty and the first official CAP duty in the next duty period A wing or higher commander may authorize exceeding the 8 hour PIC time limit, provided each flight in excess of the requirements is individually approved, agreed to by the PIC, and an appropriate risk assessment is made by the commander and PIC involved

7 Operation Limits (con’t) Authorized airfields Civilian airports listed in the current FAA Airport/Facility Directory Military airfields (if approved) Unlisted civilian airfields may be approved by a wing or higher commander with written permission from the airfield owner/operator Sustained flight below an altitude or lateral distance from any object of 1,000 ft. during the day or 2,000 ft. at night is prohibited except for takeoff and landing or in compliance with ATC procedures (such as IFR flight). At no time will the pilot allow the aircraft to come within 500 feet of terrain or obstructions unless taking off or landing.

8 Operation Limits (con’t) IFR flights will not depart unless the weather is at or above landing minimums at the departure airport. A wing commander may publish an authorization for different minimums at specific airports if, after review, a safe alternate airport with lower IFR landing minimums is in the immediate area. Night VFR is permitted; however, if the PIC and aircraft are IFR qualified and current then the flight should be conducted under IFR, if practical Taxiing When taxiing within 10 feet of any obstacle, pilots shall proceed at a pace not to exceed a slow walk until clear During taxi maintain at least 50 feet behind light single-engine aircraft, 100 feet behind light multi-engine or light jet aircraft, and 500 feet behind helicopters or heavy multi-engine or heavy jet aircraft

9 Passenger Requirements Authorized passengers are CAP crew members, other current CAP members, CAP employees, ROTC / JROTC cadets (ROTC / JROTC flight orientation program only), International Air Cadet Exchange (IACE) orientation flight cadets and escorts, CAP- USAF personnel conducting official business, or FAA designated pilot examiners during flight checks Passengers or crew not mentioned above can be authorized when essential to the mission and must be approved by the mission approval authority prior to flying (5 working days notice requested for passenger approvals on training missions) All non-CAP members other than Military/National Guard/Federal employees and ROTC / JROTC cadets (ROTC / JROTC flight orientation program only) must execute a CAPF 9, Release, and leave the form in a secure location on the ground known to the FRO or mission IC

10 Passenger Requirements (con’t) Only pilots that are qualified as CAP Instructors, Cadet/AFROTC/AFJROTC Orientation Pilots, or SAR/DR or Transport Mission Pilots (during supervised missions) may carry CAP cadets as passengers or crew members. At no time may a pilot who is a CAP cadet carry another CAP cadet as a passenger or crew member. Aircraft will not carry CAP or AFROTC/AFJROTC cadets on board during the first 10 Tach hours following an engine change, major overhaul, or replacement of cylinders/magnetos

11 Passenger Requirements (con’t) CAP has two exemptions granted by the FAA for flying non- CAP passengers. This exemption to 14 CFR Parts and allows our pilots to obtain reimbursement as a private pilot and provides a tool for CAP to comply with specific FAA requirements regarding transportation flights. The exemption is located on the National Stan/Eval/Flight Ops web page and should be consulted prior to flying non-CAP passengers to ensure any special requirements and restrictions are adhered to. CAP members will wear an appropriate CAP uniform and carry proof of CAP membership. Only occupants of CAP gliders and crew members requested not to wear uniforms by the customer of a CD Mission are exempt from the CAP uniform requirement.

12 Aircraft Requirements Before utilizing a member-owned/furnished aircraft for AFAMs the aircraft be inspected by CAP-USAF LR personnel utilizing the CAPF 71. Inspections must be conducted annually and are valid for one year. A facsimile of the aircraft airworthiness certificate must also be provided to the CAP-USAF LR when the aircraft is submitted for inspection. The aircraft owner must annually sign a hold harmless agreement (HHA) waiving any claims for damage to the aircraft arising from the use of the aircraft. CAP-USAF LRs review the current HHA and aircraft inspection paperwork prior to approving the use of member- owned/furnished aircraft for each AFAM use. NOTE: FECA and FTCA coverage are provided to CAP members executing properly released AFAMs in member owned / furnished aircraft, but the HHA excludes reimbursement for damage or loss of member-owned/furnished aircraft.

13 Flight Release A flight release (in person or by telephone) is required for all CAP flight activities The FRO is responsible for initiating missing aircraft procedures two hours after the estimated landing time if not notified the flight was extended or safely concluded Flight activities involving multiple flights at the same location and on the same day may be eFlight released, or CAPF 99 released without passenger, flight time and estimated landing time information provided each participating aircraft and PIC combination is identified in advance and that someone on the ground at the activity site tracks aircraft occupants and flight times for reporting back to the FRO at day’s end for entry as eFlight releases At the conclusion of all flights, the PIC (or IC of a supervised mission) is responsible for ensuring all flight hours have been recorded in WMIRS

14 Grounding and Mishaps Grounding means a member cannot act as PIC, crewmember, or passenger in CAP aircraft. In the case of grounding away from home base, the member may be permitted to return to home base as a passenger in a CAP aircraft. Any commander in the chain of command (from squadron to National Commander) of a CAP member, or an IC during a supervised mission, may ground that member for cause CAP members may be assessed some or all of the damages due to negligent operation or movement of CAP corporate aircraft. Guidance for commanders to use in assessing members for damage may be found in CAPR

15 CAP Flight Management m Cover A, B and C mission symbols m Cover filling out the Flight Log

16 CAPR 60-3 CAP ES Training and Operational Missions

17 ES Training & Missions m Prescribes concepts, policies, and standards that govern all Civil Air Patrol (CAP) supervisory, ground, and flight personnel in the training, qualification, and execution of CAP operational missions m Practices, procedures, and standards prescribed in this regulation are mandatory. Supplements to this regulation cannot be issued below the wing level and require Region Commander, NHQ CAP/DO and CAP-USAF/XO approval.

18 ES Training & Missions m Priority for Support The Air Force Other DoD departments and agencies Other federal departments and agencies State civil agencies Local agencies m Individual Member Responsibilities Maintain proficiency in and documentation of their specialty qualifications Provide information concerning their qualifications, availability, and readiness to their Unit CC (or designee) Maintain individual equipment readiness and availability to support operational mission requests

19 ES Training & Missions m Mission Commitment Policies Upon locating survivors, all personnel must assume that immediate assistance is necessary and act accordingly. The condition of survivors cannot be determined accurately through aerial observation alone. Only qualified CAP members, qualified members of other agencies with which CAP has an approved MOU, and CAP mission trainees under the supervision of a qualified person may participate in CAP operational missions. There will be at a minimum a 1-to-3 ratio of supervisors to trainees when trainees are utilized. Use of qualified CAP cadets is encouraged as much as possible on appropriate missions. Discuss restrictions.

20 ES Training & Missions m Operational Risk Management (ORM) All CAP members will apply the appropriate level of ORM and risk mitigation techniques to all events Additional training and information on ORM is available on the NHQ Safety website Example aircrew ORM Risk Management worksheet in the Flight Guide

21 ES Training & Missions m Managing the Mission m WMIRS m Air Operations Preliminary search Concentrated search Disasters Airborne reconnaissance and delivery of imagery m Ground Operations m Mission Assistance

22 ES Training & Missions m Assistance to Law Enforcement Officials May provide passive assistance to law enforcement officers and agencies. CAP members may not be deputized nor may they take an active part in arrest or detention activities and have no authority to restrict persons by means of force, actual or implied. CAP assistance to law enforcement agencies that may lead to criminal prosecution is restricted to patrol, reconnaissance, and reporting only. Requests for such assistance, unless of an emergency nature, must be approved in advance by the wing and region commanders and coordinated with NHQ CAP/DO. Assistance may also be a by-product of the normal conduct of a CAP mission. In some instances, such as during an airborne search, CAP members may observe suspicious activities and as concerned citizens, should report those observations to proper authorities. When requested by the proper law enforcement authority, CAP members may provide crash site surveillance and/or crowd control duties during an emergency/disaster situation. When on such a mission, the senior CAP member present will ensure the above restrictions are understood and will contact the nearest law enforcement officer if assistance is required.

23 ES Training & Missions m Liability Protection CAP members acting within the scope of their duties on CAP operational missions will be afforded liability protection by the US Government under the FTCA while serving on AFAMs (including 911T missions) or by CAP's liability insurance policies (within limits) while on other CAP corporate missions (refer to CAPR 900-5, The CAP Insurance/Benefits Program ). CAP members 18 years of age and older are eligible for FECA benefits if injured or killed while serving on an AFAM (including 911T missions). Travel to and from such mission activity is also covered. Some states provide state worker’s compensation benefits for CAP members injured or killed while serving on state operational missions. For specifics consult the wing legal officer and CAPR IMPORTANT to meet all CAP regulations while on missions (e.g., credentials and uniform), or you may be ruled ineligible

24 ES Training & Missions m Entry on or Seizure of Private Property During Missions As a general rule, CAP members are subject to the well-known rules that prohibit trespass on or seizure of private property. While entry upon private property may be justified if such an act is for the purpose of saving life, every effort should be made to obtain the controlling agency's approval and property owner's consent. Entry and activities on private property during training missions will always be arranged in advance with the owner Under no circumstances may a CAP member seize property or engage in searches beyond the exceptions stated above

25 ES Training & Missions m Distress Beacons Distress beacons are frequently tracked to a locked vehicle, aircraft, or building. CAP mission personnel should contact the controlling agency (e.g., AFRCC) for further instructions. If entry is required the owner/operator or local law enforcement officials will make it. CAP members will not enter private property and should not do anything that could cause harm or damage to the distress beacon or aircraft/boat. If the beacon is not readily silenced contact the IC. The IC should contact the controlling agency and plan to withdraw.

26 ES Training & Missions m First Aid and Emergency Medical Care CAP is not an emergency medical care or paramedic organization and should not advertise itself as such. CAP will not be the primary provider of medical support on missions or training events though qualified personnel can be used to support such activities. The only type of medical aid that should be administered by CAP personnel or by any other person at CAP's request is reasonable first aid deemed necessary to save a life or prevent human suffering and executed by a person qualified to attempt such medical care within their skill level.

27 ES Training & Missions m CAP flight crews and ground teams will make a conscientious effort to avoid or reduce fatigue by: Periodic separation from duty station Periodic light refreshments of moderate amounts of hot foods, soup, fruit juice, etc. Avoidance of excessive smoking Periodic sleep prior to sorties Refraining from alcohol within 24 hours of reporting for the mission

28 ES Training & Missions m Security CAP does support sensitive missions regularly, and some mission results support classified missions and customer needs. Members need to be familiar with the classification definitions and their associated access and requirements when assigned these missions. Guidance for these programs is available on the NHQ CAP/DOS website. OPSEC is the basis for the protection of information that regardless of the designation, the loss or compromise of sensitive information could pose a threat to the operations or missions of the agency designating the information to be sensitive. All CAP members must complete OPSEC Awareness Training and sign the non-disclosure agreement in order to become or remain emergency services qualified.

29 ES Training & Missions m Only personnel holding a valid CAPF 101 (or authorized on equivalent computer rosters) containing the applicable specialty ratings may be assigned to perform duties on CAP operational missions. Properly documented individuals in training for a specialty rating may only perform mission duties under the supervision of fully qualified personnel. m Personnel are authorized to train for the specialty rating qualifications by their Unit CC (including approved emergency services school directors) m Training to qualify in a specialty is expected to be completed within 2 years. Members not completing training requirements within two years should expect to re- demonstrate expired portions of their training.

30 ES Training & Missions m The General Emergency Services specialty rating is required of all individuals qualifying in emergency services and will be completed prior to commencing training for any other specialty m This training authorizes members to attend missions, observe activities and perform administrative and general operations support tasks under the direction of qualified staff personnel, essentially as a license to learn m Successful completion of the current CAPT 116 (on-line) qualifies the member in the GES Specialty Rating m To remain current in the GES specialty all current holders will complete new examinations within 180 days of issuance of a new examination

31 ES Training & Missions m All training must be certified as complete by a qualified evaluator, and members cannot certify their own training m Trainees can still participate in training or actual missions as allowed on their CAPF 101 under qualified supervisors. If the supervisor is not a qualified evaluator, the trainee will not receive credit for training towards qualification. m For each specialty rating, SQTRs have been developed to train and qualify members in stages. The most current versions of the task guides for all specialties are found at the NHQ CAP/DOS website.

32 ES Training & Missions m Prerequisites must be completed prior to initiating training requirements. Once trainees have met the Prerequisites, they will be required to complete Familiarization and Preparatory training for the specialty before serving in that position on actual or training missions under supervision. m Familiarization and Preparatory training is the minimum set of tasks that the member must master prior to acting as a supervised trainee on practice or actual missions. These tasks represent those skills that will keep the member safe and allow the member to function under supervision without jeopardizing the mission. This requirement avoids placing personnel not ready to perform certain jobs or those who work for them at risk.

33 ES Training & Missions m Once Familiarization and Preparatory training is completed, trainees must complete Advanced Training and participate satisfactorily in two missions before a CAPF 101 is approved and a member is considered “Qualified.” m Advanced Training covers the remainder of the tasks required for specialty qualification. On actual missions, it is expected that these tasks could be accomplished by the trainee's supervisor or other fully trained members if they became critical. Because of this, trainees are allowed to learn these "on the job.“ m These two “missions” do not have to be on different mission numbers, be Air Force assigned or approved, or be completed after advanced training. These sorties must be complete sorties and/or operating periods where the member participates in all aspects of their assigned mission specialty. It is possible to participate in more than one specialty on a given mission or day. m FEMA (NIMS) courses m Aircraft Ground Handling

34 ES Training & Missions m Mission Scanner At least 18 years of age Qualified GES Familiarization & Preparatory Advanced Training (includes IS-100a, IS-700a, Aircraft Ground Handling, and CAPP 117 Part 2) m Mission Observer Qualified Mission Scanner Familiarization & Preparatory Advanced Training

35 ES Training & Missions m Transport Mission Pilot (TMP) CAP VFR Pilot At least 18 years of age Qualified GES IS-100a & IS-700a Aircraft Ground Handling PIC 100 hours, including at least 50 hours cross-country m On authorized ES missions TMPs can only: Transport ES-qualified CAP members required for an authorized mission Ferry aircraft required for an authorized ES mission Fly “high bird” communications sorties on an authorized ES mission Current and qualified FAA Private pilots may transport parts and equipment owned by CAP or a CAP member to a mission base or staging area Current and qualified FAA Commercial pilots may transport parts and equipment not owned by CAP

36 ES Training & Missions m SAR/DR Mission Pilot CAP VFR Pilot Qualified Mission Scanner Qualified Transport Mission Pilot PIC 175 hours Familiarization & Preparatory Advanced Training (includes IS-200a) PIC 200 hours CAPF 91 check ride

37 ES Training & Missions m Most specialty qualifications generally expire 3 years from the date the qualification was attained Exceptions in Table 2-1 m To renew an expiring specialty qualification, the member must: Be a current CAP member Be evaluated on at least one mission (actual or training) every 3 years by a qualified evaluator in each specialty (or equivalent specialty) for which renewal is requested. Have satisfactorily completed applicable parts of the current CAPT 116. Have satisfactorily completed the current CAPT 117, ES Continuing Education Examinations.

38 ES Training & Missions m Requalification Procedure for Expired Specialties m Transfers from Other Wings

39 CAPR 60-5 Critical Incident Stress Management

40 Critical Incident Stress m A comprehensive, integrated, multi-component crisis intervention system m CISM is solidly based in crisis intervention theory and educational intervention theory m Designed to mitigate the psychological impact of a traumatic event (e.g., plane crash, natural disaster, serious incident or accident). It also serves as an early identification mechanism for individuals who may require professional mental health follow-up subsequent to a traumatic event. m No one in emergency services is immune to critical incident stress, regardless of past experiences or years of service. CISM takes care of CAP members (primarily) and support personnel from other agencies (secondarily) who experience a potentially traumatizing event serving at a mission site or other CAP ES activity.

41 Critical Incident Stress m Each wing will assess the need for a CIS Team m Each wing should, even if utilizing local non-CAP resources, appoint a wing CIS to develop contacts with local CISM teams, coordinate CISM services, and develop PEP (Pre-Exposure Preparation) Training m All individuals participating in operational activities should have the opportunity to receive appropriate CISM services

42 CAPR 62-1 CAP Safety Responsibilities and Procedures

43 Safety Responsibilities m The overarching goal of any safety program is to mitigate risks, control hazards and prevent mishaps. The primary goal of the CAP Safety Program is to protect both the membership and its assets in the performance of their volunteer duties. All levels of command seek to instill a culture of safety that guides the planning and execution of every CAP activity. m CAP leadership and its safety program managers shall use both education and training to promote the culture of safety within the Civil Air Patrol m CAP’s Culture of Safety is a combination of both education and training

44 Safety Education

45 m Operational Risk Management (ORM) is a logic-based, common sense methodology to making calculated decisions on human, material and environmental factors associated with any type of activity. It is a methodical, six-step process to manage inherent or induced risk. m CAP commanders, activity directors, safety directors, and/or safety officers, shall reference the list of Operational Risk Management analyses for CAP activities available on the National CAP Safety web page m CAP leaders are required to use ORM forms to quantify and mitigate risk during CAP activities in conjunction with mandatory, daily Operational Risk Safety Briefings. Additionally, new participants that arrive throughout an activity or sub-activity must receive a mandatory operational risk safety briefing pertaining to their roles and responsibilities before participating.

46 CAPR 62-2 Mishap Reporting and Investigation

47 Mishap Reporting m Prompt notification and reporting of all CAP safety mishaps to the appropriate officials is mandatory. m Definitions: A mishap means any unplanned or undesired operational occurrence, or series of occurrences, that results in, or has the potential to result in, death, injury, or damage to equipment or property. First Aid means the immediate and temporary physical aid provided to a sick or injured person until a higher level of medical treatment can be provided by a licensed doctor, registered nurse, physician’s assistant, or emergency medical technician, if needed.

48 Mishap Categories m Aircraft Flight: Mishaps involving CAP aircraft, which take place between the time any person boards the aircraft with the intention of flight until such time as all persons have disembarked. Ground: Mishaps involving CAP Aircraft, with no intent of flight; examples of this type mishap may include, but are not limited to, aircraft damaged while being repositioned for or after refueling; aircraft run into by a tug while parked, etc. m Vehicle Mishaps involving CAP Vehicles, during authorized CAP activities; includes damage to structures such as buildings, fences, light poles, etc. m Bodily Injury Mishaps involving personal injuries sustained during authorized CAP activities. This classification of mishap does not include injuries due to aircraft or vehicle accidents or incidents.

49 Mishap Classifications An accident is a mishap that results in death (within 30 days), serious bodily injury, or major damage to, or loss of, equipment or property An incident is a mishap, other than an accident or minor mishap, which results in bodily injury or damage to equipment or property Other events such as minor mishaps (don’t result in significant injury or damage), near misses and safety deviations do not generally require mishap review, but must be reported and tracked for trend identification, awareness and analysis

50 Mishap Reporting m It is extremely important to report all mishaps. There are lessons to be learned from each mishap which help identify trends and some mishaps, that may first appear to be minor, are found to be more severe upon further discovery. m For this reason, all mishaps must be reported using the mishap management portion of the eServices Safety Management System.

51 Mishap Reporting m In all cases of mishaps arising out of CAP activities that can be classified as an accident, an appropriate CAP leader will immediately notify the CAP National Operations Center (NOC). m It is the responsibility of the PIC to immediately report any aircraft mishaps to the wing/region commander and/or safety officer IAW the wing/region mishap reporting procedure.

52 Mishap Reporting m Unit / Activity Commanders are responsible for ensuring an on-line mishap notification (Form 78) is accomplished within 48 hours of a mishap: The on-line Form 78 is an important legal document that must be completed correctly Failure to complete an on-line Form 78 could result in the member being held personally responsible for damages or medical expenses incurred, and loss of government- or corporate-provided insurance benefits m Wings have mishap-reporting procedures, published in a letter or supplement to this regulation, that ensures the region/wing commander and safety officer are promptly notified of all mishaps within the region/wing.

53 CAPR 66-1 CAP Aircraft Maintenance Management

54 Mid-Cycle Oil Change m Mid-Cycle Oil & Filter Change: Between 40 and 60 hours since the last 100-hour/annual inspection or six calendar months since the last oil change, whichever occurs first, perform an interval oil and filter change and inspect the engine compartment and surrounding area for leaks, damage or other abnormalities. CAP aircraft shall not fly over 60 hours or 6 calendar months since the preceding 100- hour/annual inspection without completing this mid-cycle maintenance action.

55 Inspections m Annual/100-hour Inspections: Corporate aircraft shall not be operated unless within the preceding 12 calendar months in service it has received an annual inspection in accordance with FAR Part 43. Over-fly is not authorized. Corporate aircraft shall not be operated unless within the preceding 100 hours time in service it has received an annual or 100-hour inspection and has been approved for return to service in accordance with FAR Part 43, or has received an inspection for issuance of an airworthiness certificate in accordance with FAR Part 21. Up to ten percent (10 hours) over-fly is authorized to allow the aircraft to be flown to the designated place of inspection. This excess time to reach the designated place of inspection will be included in computing the time for the next 100-hour inspection.

56 Other Inspections m Calendar Inspections: Pitot-Static / Transponder / Altimeter (24 months) ELT (inspected every 12 months during the annual inspection; battery replaced as specified by the manufacturer) VOR (within preceding 30 days of an IFR flight) m Other Inspections: Fire extinguisher (12 months) Carbon monoxide detector (12 months, usually each January) Corrosion Preventive Compound (24 months; 12 months in Florida, Hawaii and Puerto Rico) Survival kit (12 months; replenish any items used as soon as possible) Aircraft shall be washed at least every six months (part of corrosion prevention)

57 Other m Also covers: CAP Restrictive Placards ADs and SBs Authorized Preventive Maintenance Aircraft Environmental Protection. When available, aircraft windshield covers shall be installed any time aircraft is outside and not in use to protect aircraft avionics and interiors. Pitot tube covers and engine plugs shall also be installed when aircraft is not in use to preclude bird and insect infestation and damage.

58 Other m Also covers: Aircraft Security: Corporate aircraft shall be locked, securely tied down, and wheels chocked when not in use. When available, aircraft avionics locks shall be installed any time aircraft are not in locked or guarded areas. Control locks shall be used on aircraft not equipped with avionics locks. Restrictions for CAP & AFROTC/AFJROTC cadet o-flights m Required Equipment: Aircraft shoulder harness (front seats; strongly recommended for the remaining positions) Aircraft fire extinguisher (permanent mount) Avionics/control lock Cargo tie-down or net CO detector Survival kit

59 Storage and Tie-Down m Storage and Tie-Down. Region and wing commanders are responsible for assuring that all possible preventive measures are taken to safeguard corporate aircraft from wind and weather damage: Aircraft should be kept in a hangar whenever possible Aircraft parked in the open shall be tied down at the three approved tie-down points (wings and tail) and securely chocked to prevent wind damage The control lock shall be installed Aircraft in extended outside storage shall be tied at four points (nose, wings, and tail)

60 Storage and Tie-Down m Storage and Tie-Down: Tie-Down Anchors. There are many methods of anchoring tie-downs. Satisfactory tie-down anchors may be constructed as shown at Attachment 3. Variations may be necessary when local conditions dictate. Tie-Down Ropes. Tie-down ropes with tensile strength of 3,000 pounds or greater shall be used. Nylon or Dacron tie-down ropes are recommended. When specified tie-downs are not available, crew members shall use ropes/straps appropriate for anticipated environmental conditions. Refer to Attachment 3 for rope specifications. Tie-Down Chains. Chains shall not be used directly from aircraft mooring points to an anchor point because of excessive impact loads on wing spars. When chain tie-downs are used, they shall be attached to wire rope anchors as depicted in Attachment 3. Wire rope anchors are constructed of two continuous lengths of parallel wire rope passed through the anchor points. The tie-down chains shall be attached to the wire rope with round pin galvanized anchor shackles. This allows the chains to float along the wire rope to reduce impact loads. Chain links used for tie-down must be at least 5/16-inch steel and a proof load of 2,720 pounds and breaking load of 5,440 pounds. All fittings must be equally as strong and chains should be secured without slack. Spoilers. In high wind areas, the use of sandbags, or spoiler boards as described in FAA advisory circular 20-35C, are recommended.

61 Questions?


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