Presentation on theme: "What Are Communicable Diseases?"— Presentation transcript:
1What Are Communicable Diseases? What is the best way to prevent spreading communicable diseases
2Communicable disease: A disease that is spread from one living thing to another or through the environment.
3Causes of Communicable Diseases Pathogen-An organism that causes a diseaseCommon pathogens….viruses, bacteria, fungi, protozoans, and rickettsias
4Infection-condition that occurs when pathogens enter the body, multiply, and damage body cellsDisease develops
5Viruses Pieces of genetic material surrounded by a protein coating The nuclear (chromosomal) and cytoplasmic (mitochondrial and chloroplast) material that plays a fundamental role in determining the nature of all cell substances, cell structures, and cell effects; the genes have properties of self-propagation and variation.
6Alone they are inactive Need living cells to produce Includes all forms of lifeOnce inside a host cell virus makes more virusesViruses usually kill the host cell and take over other cells
7Usually “run their course” Antibiotics do not work Common viruses Common cold, flu, AIDs, chicken pox, measles
8BacteriaSingle-celled microorganisms- are everywhere!
9When inside your body they multiply- cell division Some harmlessSome helpful- in digestive system they help digestive food and certain vitaminsWhen inside your body they multiply- cell divisionSome bacteria produce toxin- kills cells or interferes with their functionsTetanus- Infection generally occurs through wound contamination and often involves a cut or deep puncture wound
10Bacteria and viruses can be killed by immune system Most bacterial infections are treated with antibioticsCommon:Strep throat, lyme disease, tuberculosis,
11Fungi Plantlike organisms Molds and yeast Disease of skin, mucosal membrane, or lungsAthlete’s foot
12ProtozoansSingle-celled organisms larger and more complex than bacteriaMost are harmlessSome can cause disease especially in people with weakened immune systems
13Rickettsias Similar to bacteria Often from insect bites (fleas and lice)Rocky Mountain Fever most common
14How They are Transmitted Direct ContactTouching, biting, kissing, and sexual contactSneezing or coughing- sprays infected saliva or mucusMother transmits infections to unborn child
15Indirect Contact Contaminated object germs move onto an object- someone touches the object and picks up the germsExamples..Wash hands to prevent picking up infections
16VectorsAn organism that carries and transmits pathogens to humans or other animalsExamples..Mosquitoes- malaria, Ticks- Lyme diseaseWater and FoodCarless handling, cooking, and storage of foodWater contaminate with pathogens
17Airborne Transmission Pathogens travel in the air from a sneeze or coughLong distancesChicken pox, influenza, tuberculosis
18Preventing the Spread of Disease Washing HandsMost effective way to prevent spread of diseaseWhen….Before preparing food and eatingAfter the bathroomBefore contactsAfter touching animalsWhen around an infected person
19Handle food properlyCook properlyChill leftover to proper tempSeparate raw meat from other foods
20Other MeasuresEat balanced dietAvoid use of drugsAvoid eating and drinking after peopleAvoid contact with infected peopleKeep vaccines up to dateManage stress