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What Are Communicable Diseases?

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Presentation on theme: "What Are Communicable Diseases?"— Presentation transcript:

1 What Are Communicable Diseases?
What is the best way to prevent spreading communicable diseases

2 Communicable disease:
A disease that is spread from one living thing to another or through the environment.

3 Causes of Communicable Diseases
Pathogen- An organism that causes a disease Common pathogens…. viruses, bacteria, fungi, protozoans, and rickettsias

4 Infection- condition that occurs when pathogens enter the body, multiply, and damage body cells Disease develops

5 Viruses Pieces of genetic material surrounded by a protein coating
The nuclear (chromosomal) and cytoplasmic (mitochondrial and chloroplast) material that plays a fundamental role in determining the nature of all cell substances, cell structures, and cell effects; the genes have properties of self-propagation and variation.

6 Alone they are inactive Need living cells to produce
Includes all forms of life Once inside a host cell virus makes more viruses Viruses usually kill the host cell and take over other cells

7 Usually “run their course” Antibiotics do not work Common viruses
Common cold, flu, AIDs, chicken pox, measles

8 Bacteria Single-celled microorganisms- are everywhere!

9 When inside your body they multiply- cell division
Some harmless Some helpful- in digestive system they help digestive food and certain vitamins When inside your body they multiply- cell division Some bacteria produce toxin- kills cells or interferes with their functions Tetanus- Infection generally occurs through wound contamination and often involves a cut or deep puncture wound

10 Bacteria and viruses can be killed by immune system
Most bacterial infections are treated with antibiotics Common: Strep throat, lyme disease, tuberculosis,

11 Fungi Plantlike organisms Molds and yeast
Disease of skin, mucosal membrane, or lungs Athlete’s foot

12 Protozoans Single-celled organisms larger and more complex than bacteria Most are harmless Some can cause disease especially in people with weakened immune systems

13 Rickettsias Similar to bacteria
Often from insect bites (fleas and lice) Rocky Mountain Fever most common

14 How They are Transmitted
Direct Contact Touching, biting, kissing, and sexual contact Sneezing or coughing- sprays infected saliva or mucus Mother transmits infections to unborn child

15 Indirect Contact Contaminated object
germs move onto an object- someone touches the object and picks up the germs Examples.. Wash hands to prevent picking up infections

16 Vectors An organism that carries and transmits pathogens to humans or other animals Examples.. Mosquitoes- malaria, Ticks- Lyme disease Water and Food Carless handling, cooking, and storage of food Water contaminate with pathogens

17 Airborne Transmission
Pathogens travel in the air from a sneeze or cough Long distances Chicken pox, influenza, tuberculosis

18 Preventing the Spread of Disease
Washing Hands Most effective way to prevent spread of disease When…. Before preparing food and eating After the bathroom Before contacts After touching animals When around an infected person

19 Handle food properly Cook properly Chill leftover to proper temp Separate raw meat from other foods

20 Other Measures Eat balanced diet Avoid use of drugs Avoid eating and drinking after people Avoid contact with infected people Keep vaccines up to date Manage stress

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