Presentation on theme: "Chemistry: A Molecular Approach"— Presentation transcript:
1 Chemistry: A Molecular Approach The properties of matter are determined by the properties of atoms and molecules.The understanding of matter at the molecular level gives us the ability to control that matter.First semester General Chemistry – the primary goal is to learn the fundamental principles of Chemistry.
2 Why are you here?Why study chemistry?Reasons1)2)3)
3 Ch. 1: Matter, Measurement… A comparison of two molecules:CO consists of one carbon and one oxygen atom.CO2 consists of one carbon and two oxygen atoms.One is a poison while the other is harmless.
4 Ch. 1: Matter, Measurement… Matter can exist in three different states:Solid – Is rigid, has both a definite shape and volume. Solids can by crystalline or amorphous.Liquid – Is a fluid – molecules or atoms can flow. However, it has a fixed volume but no fixed shape.Gas – Also a fluid. However, it has no fixed volume or shape. Gases are unique in that they can be compressed.Liquids and Solids cannot be compressed.Molecular View
5 Learning Check What phase(s) can be compressed? What phase(s) have a fixed volume?What phase(s) have a fixed shape?
6 Classification of Matter Pure substance – has a fixed composition and distinct properties. A pure substance can be either an element or a compound.Ex) Table sugar (sucrose) and Carbon are pure substances.
7 Classification of Matter Elements are substances that cannot be decomposed into simpler substances. Each element is composed of only one kind of atom.Compounds are composed of two or more elements that have been chemically combined.Ex) Sulfur and Sodium chloride
8 Classification of Matter Most matter we encounter is a mixture of substances.The elements and / or compounds in a mixture always retain their identity.Ex) Gatorade and Milk
9 Classification of Matter Homogenous – the mixture is uniform throughout. Most homogenous mixtures are solutions.Crystal Light is a solution.Heterogeneous – the mixture is not uniform throughout.A chocolate chip cookie is a heterogeneous mixture.
10 Separation of Mixtures MatterVariable composition?No.Pure SubstanceSeparation by____________?ElementYes.CompoundMixture________________?HeterogeneousHomogeneous
11 Learning CheckDecide whether the following is a mixture or a pure substance.Tomato juiceIodine crystalsSandBaking sodaA substance does not have a variable composition and can be separated by chemical means. This is a _________________________.
12 Separating MixturesSeparating mixtures into their components is something that scientists often do.Simple: filtering sand from water.Simple: using a magnetic to collect iron fillings from sand.Hard: Distillation of two liquids.Hard: Chromatography.
13 Properties of MatterPhysical property ‑ a characteristic that can be observed for a material without changing its chemical identity.extensive property ‑ dependent on the amountex) mass, volume, heat contentintensive property ‑ independent of the amountex) density, temperature, melting point
14 Physical Properties Copper Reddish, shiny Melting point = 1085oC Density = 8.94 g/mLSpecific heat = J/g CCrystal structure = face centered cubic
15 Properties of MatterChemical property - describes how a substance may change or react towards other substances.Ex) Propane burns in air to form carbon dioxide and water
16 Physical and Chemical Changes Physical change ‑ a change in the form of matter but not it’s identity ‑ can often easily return to the former stateex) melting of iceex) dissolving of salt in waterex) ripping a piece of paper
17 Physical and Chemical Changes Chemical change ‑ a change in which one or more kinds of matter are transformed into new kinds of matter ‑ difficult to return to the former state (by any physical means)ex) rusting of ironex) burning of wood
19 Energy Most physical and chemical changes involve changes in energy. Example – water evaporating from your skin.Example – Burning propane in an outdoor grill.Energy = capacity to do work.Work = Force times distance.
20 Types of Energy Potential Energy = energy of position or composition. Kinetic Energy = energy of motion.Law of conservation of energy.Tendency of systems with high PE.
21 Units of MeasurementUnits used in scientific measurements are those of the metric system.Although we still use the English system, the metric system is becoming more common.
22 SI units1960 agreement on a set of internationally accepted group of seven base units from which all others are derived.Mass = kilogramLength = meterTime = secondTemperature = KelvinAmount of Substance = moleElectric current = AmpereLuminous intensity = Candela
23 Metric Prefixes Common ones include: Non standard unit, Angstrom’s (Å) Kilo (k) = 103Centi (c) = 10-2Milli (m) = 10-3Micro (m) = 10-6Nano (n) = 10-9Non standard unit, Angstrom’s (Å)1 Å = 1 x 10-8 cm
24 Temperature ScalesTemperature is a measurement of the hotness or coldness of an object.English scale = FahrenheitCelsius scale – assigns temperatures based on melting and boiling points of water.Kelvin scale – based on absolute zero being the coldest possible temperatureK = oC
25 Derived Units Examples are units like volume, density, and velocity. Volume of a cube = length cubedDensity of a substance = mass divided by volume.
26 Uncertainty in Measurement Exact numbers – a number that is known to be precisely that value. These have no effect on sig. figs.Ex) 12 inches = 1 footEx) 15 apples in a bagInexact (measured) numbers – have some amount of uncertainty.Ex) A coin has a mass of 2.52gEx) A bottle of soda has a volume of 591mL
27 Uncertainty in Measurement Any measurement contains some uncertainty.precision ‑ the closeness of a group of figures to each other ‑ standard deviationaccuracy ‑ the closeness of a single value or an average to the accepted value - percent errorDensity of AlStudent AStudent BStudent CTrial 12.5 g/mL2.58 g/mL2.68 g/mLTrial 23.3 g/mL2.51 g/mL2.72 g/mLTrial 33.1 g/mL2.55 g/mL2.69 g/mLAverage3.0 g/mL2.70 g/mL%error / %rad
28 Study Check Do the following represent Exact or Measured numbers? A store has 35 bicycles on display.The density of an object is found to be 1.8g/mL.1 meter is equivalent to 100 centimeters.Planck’s constant is listed in the book as x 10-34J s.There are about 454 grams in one pound.
29 Significant FiguresSignificant figures are the digits measured in a number such that all certain digits plus one uncertain digit is included.Certain digits – all performing measurement would agree on these.Uncertain digit – a “best guess” – it is each individual’s best interpretation of the measurement.
31 Rules: Non-zero numbers are always significant. Zeros between non-zero numbers are always significant.Zeros at the beginning of a number are NEVER significant; they are merely placeholders.Zeros that fall at the end of the number and after the decimal point are always significant.When a number ends in zeros without a decimal point, the zeros may or may not be significant. We will err on the least number.
32 Scientific NotationPuts all numbers in the form of: A x 10n, where A is a number between 1 and 10 and n is the exponent equally to the number of places the decimal point must be moved.Scientific Notation removes ALL ambiguity from determining significant figures.See Appendix A for a review of scientific notation.
33 Examples How many significant figures do these measured numbers have? 0.00929.2092,00092,000.0
34 Sig. Figs. In Calculations Multiplication and Division ‑ your answer will keep only the same number of sig. figs. as the measurement that had the fewest number of sig. figs.Addition and Subtraction ‑ your answer will have the same number of sig. figs. as the one with the fewest decimal places.Note – in series of calculations, do not round until the very end. In mixed calculations, follow rules for each individual calculation.
35 Rounding of NumbersRounding is the process of dropping non-significant digits in a calculation and adjusting the last digit.Rules:if the leftmost digit (to be dropped) is 5 followed with any non-zero digits, then round the final digit up one.if the leftmost digit is less than 5, round down.if the digit is 5 only, and the digit to be rounded is even, round down. if it is odd, round up.
36 ExamplesRound each calculation to the correct number of significant figures.1.305 x =105.2 x =495.0 ÷ 0.23 =
37 ExamplesRound each calculation to the correct number of significant figures.= 27.86– = 1.8121 – =