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Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2010 Alcohol and Other Drugs This multimedia product and its contents are protected under copyright law. The following are prohibited.

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Presentation on theme: "Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2010 Alcohol and Other Drugs This multimedia product and its contents are protected under copyright law. The following are prohibited."— Presentation transcript:

1 Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2010 Alcohol and Other Drugs This multimedia product and its contents are protected under copyright law. The following are prohibited by law: any public performance or display, including transmission of any image over a network; preparation of any derivative work, including the extraction, in whole or in part, of any images; any rental, lease or lending of the program.

2 Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2010 Chapter 8 Outline Definition Abuse Addiction Subjective vs. objective view Drugs Alcohol tobacco Prescription over the counter Legal drugs Marijuana Stimulants Depressants Narcotics and Hallcinogens Illegal Drugs Biological and Psychological Interactionist Functionalist Conflict Sociological Explanations

3 Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2010 Drug Use and Abuse Drug: Any substance, other than food or water, that when taken into the body alters its functioning in some way. Therapeutic vs. recreational (purpose vs. pleasure) Licit and Illicit (legal vs. illegal) Drug abuse: Excessive or inappropriate use of a drug that results in some form of physical, mental, or social impairment. Drug addiction: Psychological or physiological need for a drug to maintain sense of well-being and avoid withdrawal symptoms.

4 Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2010 Subjective vs. Objective View of Drug Abuse Objective component is physical, psychological, or social evidence of harm Subjective component is people’s perceptions about the consequences Example: Marijuana vs. Alcohol Subjectively our society believes that marijuana is harmful and should remain illegal, while alcohol is harmless and should stay legal Objectively no little evidence that marijuana is harmful but much evidence of alcohol and it’s dangers.

5 Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2010 Major Patterns of Drinking Social drinkers: Drink primarily on social 0ccasions, from occasionally to frequently Heavy drinkers: Consume greater quantities of alcohol and are more likely to become intoxicated Acute alcoholics: Have trouble controlling use of alcohol and plan their schedule around drinking Chronic alcoholics: Have lost control over drinking and hide or sneak drinks

6 Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2010 Alcohol: Class, Gender, Age and Race The wealthy have greater resources and privacy than lower- income individuals to avoid a “drunk” or “alcoholic” label More men than women drink, and men are more likely to be labeled alcoholic. US Census Bureau 2004 Vast majority of persons between the ages of 18-25 have tried alcohol once Over 60% are current users Before age 30, Whites consume more alcohol than Blacks After age 30, Blacks have higher rates of heavy drinking

7 Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2010 Alcohol-Related Social Problems Health problems Nutritional deficiencies, adult-onset diabetes, alcoholic dementia, cardiovascular problems, alcoholic cirrhosis, and fetal alcohol syndrome Alcohol in the workplace Lost productivity and cost of treatment, and workplace injuries Drinking and driving 19% of fatal motor vehicle accidents in which the driver was between the ages of 16 and 20, the driver had a blood alcohol level of 0.08 Family problems Domestic abuse and violence, patterns of codependency when family members unwittingly aid the alcoholic’s excessive drinking and resulting behavior

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9 Tobacco Use as a Social Problem Health Problems: Cancer of the lungs, larynx, mouth, and esophagus Bronchitis, emphysema, ulcers, and cardiovascular disorders Shorter life expectancy ½ pack a day reduces lifespan by 4 years. Low birth weight babies Environmental (second hand)tobacco 75% of nicotine ends up in the air Why do people still smoke? Nicotine is highly addictive Good marketing by tobacco companies

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11 Prescription and Over-the-Counter Drugs Iatrogenic addiction Occurs from long-term use or high dosages of prescription drugs Initially prescribed by a physician for a medical purpose Controversial Drugs Belief that Ritalin and Prozac are being over-prescribed Teens and Prescription Drugs Prescription drugs are being used illegally by teenagers 2.3 million youths between the ages of 12-17 take legal drugs illegally each year

12 Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2010 Over the Counter Drugs These types of drugs are not linked to significant addiction. Most popular OTC drugs: sleep aids, aspirin and ibuprofen, cold medication. Caffeine is a dependency-producing psychoactive stimulant Heavy caffeine use can increase risk of heart attack and osteoporosis Found in coffee, tea, soda, chocolate

13 Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2010 Marijuana Use and Abuse Most users are between 18 and 25 Use by teens (12–17) has doubled over the past decade Heavy use can impair concentration and motivation High doses during pregnancy can disrupt fetal development Inhalation has been linked to lung problems

14 Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2010 Stimulant Use and Abuse Cocaine and amphetamines are among the major stimulants abused in the U.S. Cocaine comes in two forms: powder and crack 23 million people in U.S. over 12 years old have tried cocaine Men more likely to use than women Research shows that crack use is higher among inner-city, African American and Latino/a users Law enforcement policies and practices may target minorities Amphetamines come in form of diet pills and pep formulas Chronic amphetamine abuse can result in amphetamine psychosis (e.g., paranoia, hallucinations, and violent tendencies)

15 Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2010 Depressants Most common include: Barbiturates (e.g., Nembutal and Seconal) Anti-anxiety drugs or tranquilizers (e.g., Librium., Valium, and Miltown) Low doses produce relaxing feeling, higher does result in sedation. Users may develop both physical addiction and psychological dependency Rophynol: “date rape drug” used in combo with alcohol very dangerous and can cause death.

16 Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2010 Narcotics and Hallucinogens Narcotics: Natural forms: opium, morphine, codeine Opiate Derivatives: heroin and Percodan Heroin is the most widely used drug. Abusers usually young male, under 30, minority, living in a low income area. Hallucinogens: Produce hallucinations LSD, “angel dust”, and “ecstasy”

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18 Perspectives on Drug Abuse Biological Genetic factors through impaired enzyme production, brain function, and physiological response Drugs such as alcohol, heroin, and cocaine act directly on brain mechanisms responsible for reward and punishment Psychological Social learning and reinforcement on drug-taking behavior Personality disorders (e.g., impulsivity and anxiety) Social psychologists state that individuals who define drug behavior as good are more likely to abuse.

19 Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2010 Sociological Explanations Symbolic Interactionist Drug behavior is learned and influenced by families, peers, and others Spending time with members of a drug subculture increases attitudes and behaviors favorable to drug use Once one is labeled an “alcoholic” or “drug addict,” he or she will have difficultly discontinuing use

20 Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2010 Sociological Explanations (cont.) Functionalist Drugs serve functions in society Prescription and over the counter drugs help patients They help doctors treat patients, justify their fees Provide jobs for pharmacists Drugs are also dysfunctional Dysfunctional because people can become addicted Illicit drug activities serve important societal functions (create jobs for DEA agents) Dysfunctional because they are linked to crime, addiction, and other social problems.

21 Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2010 Sociological Explanations, cont. Conflict People in positions of power determine what is legal and illegal. Make drugs used by the powerless illegal. Change in marijuana penalties over time. Corporate interests perpetuate use and abuse of legal drugs Manipulation of nicotine levels to addict users

22 Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2010 Prevention and Treatment Programs Primary prevention Programs that seek to prevent drug problems before they begin Secondary prevention Programs seek to: Limit extent of drug abuse Prevent spread to other substances beyond those already experienced Teach strategies for responsible use of illicit drugs Tertiary prevention Programs that seek to limit relapses by individuals in recovery

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