13(plants and other photosynthetic Nutrientcyclingandenergy flowin anecosystemSunlightEcosystemProducers(plants and other photosyntheticorganisms)CyclingofchemicalnutrientsHeatChemical energyFigure 1.5Consumers(such as animals)Heat
22Inherited DNA directs development of an organism Sperm cellNucleicontainingDNAFertilized eggwith DNA fromboth parentsEmbryo’s cells withcopies of inherited DNAEgg cellOffspring with traitsinherited fromboth parentsFigure 1.9
311.1 Section CheckStarting with the molecular level in figure 1.3, write a sentence that includes components from the previous (lower) level of biological organization, for example: “A molecule consists of atoms bonded together”. Continue with organelles, moving up the biological hierarchy.2. Identify the theme or themes exemplified by (a) the sharp quill of a porcupine, (b) the development of a multicellular organism from a single fertilized egg, and (c) a hummingbird using sugar to power its flight.
40An example of unity underlying the diversity of life: the architecture of cilia in eukaryotes15 µm5 µmCilia ofParameciumCilia ofwindpipecellsFigure 1.160.1 µmCross section of a cilium, as viewedwith an electron microscope
48Evolutionary adaptation Figure 1.21Bats, the only mammals capable of active flight, have wings with webbing between extended “fingers”. Darwin proposed that such adaptations are refined over time by natural selection.
511.2 Section CheckHow is a mailing address analogous to biology’s hierarchical taxonomic system?Explain why “editing” is an appropriate metaphor for how natural selection acts on a populations heritable variation.
65Key North Carolina South Carolina The geographic ranges of a poisonous snake and its mimicScarlet kingsnake (nonpoisonous)KeyRange of scarletkingsnake onlyOverlapping ranges ofscarlet kingsnake andeastern coral snakeNorth CarolinaEastern coral snake (poisonous)South CarolinaFigure 1.25Scarlet kingsnake (nonpoisonous)
69Percent of total attacks Does the presence of poisonous coral snakes affect predation rates on their mimics, kingsnakes?RESULTS100Artificial kingsnakes83%84%Brownartificial snakes8060Percent of total attackson artificial snakes40Figure 1.272017%16%Coral snakesabsentCoral snakespresent
75From body From lungs Right atrium Left atrium Right ventricle Left Model ofBlood Flowthrough the HeartFrombodyFromlungsRightatriumLeftatriumRightventricleLeftventricleFigure 1.28 A model of the blood flow through the four chambers of a human heartTo lungsTo body
82Natural Selection Environmental factors Population of organisms HereditaryvariationsOverproductionand competitionEnvironmentalfactorsDifferences inreproductive successof individualsEvolution of adaptationsin the population