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Return to Menu Return to Menu Passage A Passage A Passage B Passage B.

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2 Return to Menu Return to Menu Passage A Passage A Passage B Passage B

3 Passage A Think About ItThink About ItThink About ItThink About It Read About ItRead About ItRead About ItRead About It Talk About ItTalk About ItTalk About ItTalk About It Write About ItWrite About ItWrite About ItWrite About It

4 1. Are you hesitant about revealing your identity when you chat on the Internet? Why? Yes. Because we’re worried that someone will cheat us after he or she knows our real identity. Reference:

5 2. Do you think cyberspace poses dangers to us? Why or why not? Please give your reasons. Reference: No. Because the cyberspace itself is not dangerous. It is dangerous only when some of its users use it to deceive others.

6 3. Can you list some positive and negative impacts of digital culture on society at large? Reference: Negative impacts of the digital culture: 1) Some people are easily addicted to the Internet. They spend much time chatting in the Internet while they ignore their study and work. 2) Some people can take advantage of the Internet to cheat other people and spread something bad such as porn and misleading information. It leads to people’s dishonesty. Positive impacts of the digital culture: There is lots of important information and life-changing opportunities on the Internet. It’s easier for people to communicate each other.

7 Read About It Language PointsLanguage PointsLanguage PointsLanguage Points Content AwarenessContent AwarenessContent AwarenessContent Awareness Language FocusLanguage FocusLanguage FocusLanguage Focus

8 Why Digital Culture Is Good for You?Digital The news media, along with social and behavioral scientists, have recently sent out a multitude of warnings about the many dangers that await us out there in cyberspace. The truth of the matter is that the Web is no more inherently dangerous than anything else in the world. It is not some amorphous entity capable of inflicting harmful outcomes on all who enter. In fact, in and of itself, the Web is fairly harmless. It has no special power to overtake its users and alter their very existence Like the old tale that the vampire can not harm youalong with awaitThe truth of the matter is that the Web is no more inherently dangerous than anything else in the world. It is not some amorphous entity capable of inflicting harmful outcomes on all who enteraltervampire

9 unless you invite it to cross your threshold, the Internet cannot corrupt without being invited. And, with the exception of children and the weak-willed, it cannot create what does not already exist. corrupt exception (1) Like alcohol, the Web simply magnifies what is already there: Experts are concerned that the masking that goes on online poses a danger for everyone who is a part of the Digital Culture. Before we know it, the experts tell us, we will all use fake identities, become fragmented, and will no longer be sure of just who we are. Wrong.magnifies poses fake

10 The only people who feel compelled to mask, and otherwise misrepresent themselves online are the same people who are mysterious and unfrank in “real life”...the Net just gives them one more tool to practice their deceit.compelled misrepresent As for the rest of us, getting taken in by these people is a low probability. We know who these folks are in the “real world”. The Internet does not “cause” people to disguise as something they are not. As for the Digital Culture getting cheated by these dishonest folks, well, there are just as many “cues” online to decipher deception as there are in the “real world”. The competent WebHeadAs for the rest of us, getting taken in by these people is a low probabilitycuescompetent

11 can recognize many red flags given off by the online behavior of others. Oftentimes the intentions of fellow users is crystal clear, especially over time. When someone is trying to deceive us online, inconsistencies, the essence that they are trying “too hard” or are just plain unbelievable, often come through loud and clear. Likewise, just like in the “real world”, a host of other unacceptable tendencies can be readily recognized online. Narcissism (it’s all about “meeeee”), those people who have nothing but negativity or unpleasant things to say about others, and those who feel compelled to undermine others and who think they must blow out the other guys’ candles in order for their own to shine can be spotted a cybermile away.When someone is trying to deceive us online, inconsistencies, the essence that they are trying “too hard” or are just plain unbelievable, often come through loud and clearLikewisetendencies Narcissism (it’s all about “meeeee”), those people who have nothing but negativity or unpleasant things to say about others, and those who feel compelled to undermine others and who think they must blow out the other guys’ candles in order for their own to shine can be spotted a cybermile away

12 (2) The Web can bring out the best in people: Gregarious, frank folks in “real life” usually carry these same traits over to their online life. Most are just as fun-loving online if not more so, as they are at a party, at work, or at the local bar. Though admittedly, some are not quite as much fun to be around without a stiff drink.bring out Shy folks have a “safer” environment online than in the “real world” and can learn to express themselves more freely on the Net (you’ve never seen anyone stutter on e-mail, have you?) allowing them to gain confidence and communication skills that can eventually spill over into other aspects of their lives. Helpful people in “real life” are often just as willing to come to someone’s assistance online as anywhere else.

13 (3) People are judged differently on the Web: On the Internet people are judged by their personality, beliefs and online actions, NOT by their physical appearance. This is good. It not only gives ugly folks an aid, but causes Beautiful People to have to say something worth listening to in order to get attention. (4) People open up more: Many people are opening up a whole lot more these days since they are not required to use their real name and provide their real identity in the Internet.open up (5) We’re connected: Members of the Digital Culture know full well that there is a wealth of important information and life-changing opportunities out there in cyberspace. The Web has opened doors for

14 many of us that otherwise would never have been an option. Research possibilities and networking are just two such opportunities.option (6) We Learn the Power of Words and to be Better Listeners: With no facial expressions, body language, or physical appearance to distract us, members of the Digital Culture have learned the power of words... both their own, and others’. We know very well how a simple string of words can harm, hurt and offend, or how they can offer humor, help, support and encouragement. Most experienced members of the online culture have learned to become wordsmiths, carefully crafting the words they use to convey exactly what they mean so as not to be misunderstood.offendcraftingconvey

15 Many of us have also learned to become far better listeners thanks to the Internet. Not only do we choose our words more carefully but we (especially those who communicate via email as opposed to chat rooms) are forced to wait until the other person finishes before we can speak or respond. thanks to opposed (837 words)

16 Vampire A vampire is a creature in legends and horror stories in Western culture. Vampires are said to come out of graves at night and suck the blood of living people.

17 Meeeee Its actually the word “me” with the sound “e” lengthened to produce an emphatic effect. In the passage “me” refers to Narcissism.

18 Why Digital Culture Is Good for You? Examples a digital switch, digital computer( 数字计算机 ),a digital switch, digital computer( 数字计算机 ), digital controller ( 数字控制器 )digital controller ( 数字控制器 ) digital a. — of or based on a system by which information is represented in the form of changing electrical signals

19 They might have thought him slow, but there was something else evident. Examples a digital switch, digital computer( 数字计算机 )a digital switch, digital computer( 数字计算机 ) digital controller ( 数字控制器 )digital controller ( 数字控制器 ) digital a. — of or based on a system by which information is represented in the form of changing electrical signals More to learn More to learn

20 They might have thought him slow, but there was something else evident. If there had been no other evidence, they might have thought him slow (not quick to learn). Paraphrase

21 along with — together with Examples Along with the letters posing questions, there are answers written by people who are supposed to know how to solve such problems.Along with the letters posing questions, there are answers written by people who are supposed to know how to solve such problems. She was released from prison along with two other politicians.She was released from prison along with two other politicians.

22 await v. — There is a contract awaiting signature. Examples There is a contract awaiting signature.There is a contract awaiting signature. John spent three months in prison awaiting trial and was eventually found guilty of “forcibly obstructing business.”John spent three months in prison awaiting trial and was eventually found guilty of “forcibly obstructing business.”

23 The truth of the matter is that the Web is no more inherently dangerous than anything else in the world. It is not some amorphous entity capable of inflicting harmful outcomes on all who enter. Examples The high speed and high power that are so essential for the successful operation of the military plane are inherently uneconomical.The high speed and high power that are so essential for the successful operation of the military plane are inherently uneconomical. It seems that human beings are inherently social animals.It seems that human beings are inherently social animals. inherently a. — by its or one’s nature; intrinsically More to learn More to learn

24 The truth of the matter is that the Web is no more inherently dangerous than anything else in the world. It is not some amorphous entity capable of inflicting harmful outcomes on all who enter. Examples These sufferings inflicted on the children are terrible to see.These sufferings inflicted on the children are terrible to see. I wish you wouldn’t keep inflicting your view on others in the room.I wish you wouldn’t keep inflicting your view on others in the room. inflict v. — force somebody to experience (something very unpleasant) More to learn More to learn

25 The truth of the matter is that the Web is no more inherently dangerous than anything else in the world. It is not some amorphous entity capable of inflicting harmful outcomes on all who enter. In fact, the Web in itself is as safe as anything else in the world. Paraphrase

26 alter v. — change or make sb or sth. change Examples These clothes are too large; they must be altered.These clothes are too large; they must be altered. His appearance hasn’t altered a bit.His appearance hasn’t altered a bit.

27 corrupt n. — cause to become morally bad; change from good to bad Examples When she started her career she was an honest and decent girl but vanity corrupted her quickly.When she started her career she was an honest and decent girl but vanity corrupted her quickly. Sex and violence on the television can corrupt young people.Sex and violence on the television can corrupt young people.

28 exception — ( a case of ) excepting or being excepted; a situation that is unusual and varies greatly from the excepted norm Examples Snow was generally light or did not remain on the ground long after falling. There were few exceptions.Snow was generally light or did not remain on the ground long after falling. There were few exceptions. You must all take the examination. I can make no exceptions.You must all take the examination. I can make no exceptions. More to learn More to learn

29 with the exception of — except; apart from Examples With the exception of Tom, everyone went to summer camp.With the exception of Tom, everyone went to summer camp. With the exception of a few spelling mistakes, it is a good composition.With the exception of a few spelling mistakes, it is a good composition. More to learn More to learn

30 without exception — including all, with no exclusion Examples You must all take the physical exam without exception.You must all take the physical exam without exception. All members, without exception, must fill out the form.All members, without exception, must fill out the form.

31 magnify v. — make something larger than it really is; exaggerate Examples The glass magnified the object so that we saw it bigger than its life-size.The glass magnified the object so that we saw it bigger than its life-size. She tends to magnify all her problems and complain incessantly.She tends to magnify all her problems and complain incessantly.

32 pose v. — a position in which someone stands, sits, etc., esp. in order to be photographed, painted Examples He nervously assumed a stiff pose next to the fireplace.He nervously assumed a stiff pose next to the fireplace. The children were photographed in amusing poses.The children were photographed in amusing poses. More to learn More to learn

33 pose v. — cause (esp. a problem or difficulty) Examples I’m glad they’re coming to stay but it does pose the problem of where they can all sleep.I’m glad they’re coming to stay but it does pose the problem of where they can all sleep. The increase in student numbers poses many problems for the universities.The increase in student numbers poses many problems for the universities.

34 fake a. — made and intended to deceive Examples Nowadays fake name-brand articles flood the stalls along this lane.Nowadays fake name-brand articles flood the stalls along this lane. He wore a fake moustache to the party.He wore a fake moustache to the party. More to learn More to learn

35 fake v. — copy something so as to deceive Examples He faked her signature to get money from the bank.He faked her signature to get money from the bank. Tom was arrested for faking some famous paintings.Tom was arrested for faking some famous paintings.

36 compel v. — make (a person or a thing) do something by force, moral persuasion or orders that must be obeyed Examples He was compelled to give up his studies by his illness.He was compelled to give up his studies by his illness. We are often compelled to say things we don’t mean out of politeness.We are often compelled to say things we don’t mean out of politeness.

37 misrepresent v. — give an intentionally untrue account or explanation of Examples The company misrepresented its products in the advertisement.The company misrepresented its products in the advertisement. “The press are misrepresenting my views on this matter,” he claimed.“The press are misrepresenting my views on this matter,” he claimed.

38 As for the rest of us, getting taken in by these people is a low probability. Examples It took me a long time to take in the title of this novel.It took me a long time to take in the title of this novel. The meaning of the sentence is too involved for the students to take in at once.The meaning of the sentence is too involved for the students to take in at once. take in v. — understand fully More to learn More to learn

39 As for the rest of us, getting taken in by these people is a low probability. Examples He was quite taken in by her pretense of modesty.He was quite taken in by her pretense of modesty. We are completely taken in by his story and lent him the money at once.We are completely taken in by his story and lent him the money at once. take in v. — deceive; cheat More to learn More to learn

40 As for the rest of us, getting taken in by these people is a low probability. The rest of us are far from likely to be cheated by these people online. Paraphrase

41 cue n. hint or suggestion, a signal for someone to do something Examples When I turn around I saw that it was your cue to stop talking and exit the room.When I turn around I saw that it was your cue to stop talking and exit the room. They started collecting the dishes and washing up, so that was our cue to leave the party.They started collecting the dishes and washing up, so that was our cue to leave the party.

42 competent a. ---having the ability or skill to do something Examples I wouldn’t say she was brilliant but she is competent at her job.I wouldn’t say she was brilliant but she is competent at her job. My secretary is perfectly competent, but she doesn’t have initiative.My secretary is perfectly competent, but she doesn’t have initiative.

43 When someone is trying to deceive us online, inconsistencies, the essence that they are trying “too hard” or are just plain unbelievable, often come through loud and clear. Examples They deceived children into stealing from supermarkets.They deceived children into stealing from supermarkets. We are deceived by his uniform ─ we had assumed that he was a soldier.We are deceived by his uniform ─ we had assumed that he was a soldier. deceive v. — cause sb. to accept as true or good what is false or bad, esp. for dishonest purpose; cheat More to learn More to learn

44 When someone is trying to deceive us online, inconsistencies, the essence that they are trying “too hard” or are just plain unbelievable, often come through loud and clear. When someone is trying to deceive us online, you would discover very obvious contradictions in what they say. These would be unfailing proof that they are trying “too hard” or are simply not to be betrusted. Paraphrase

45 likewise ad. —in the same way; similarly Examples Just water these flowers once a week, and likewise the trees in the garden.Just water these flowers once a week, and likewise the trees in the garden. I became angry, and she reacted likewise.I became angry, and she reacted likewise.

46 tendency ad. —a likelihood to move in a certain direction or go sth; trend Examples There is a tendency for the unemployment to rise in this field.There is a tendency for the unemployment to rise in this field. There is a growing tendency for people to pursue a lifelong education.There is a growing tendency for people to pursue a lifelong education.

47 Narcissism (it’s all about “meeeee”) 2, those people who have nothing but negativity or unpleasant things to say about others, and those who feel compelled to undermine others and who think they must blow out the other guys’ candles in order for their own to shine can be spotted a cybermile away. Examples Drugs undermined his health.Drugs undermined his health. He undermined my authority by allowing students to be absent from class.He undermined my authority by allowing students to be absent from class. undermine v. — weaken (esp. someone ’ s power or chance of success), often gradually More to learn More to learn

48 Narcissism (it’s all about “meeeee”) 2, those people who have nothing but negativity or unpleasant things to say about others, and those who feel compelled to undermine others and who think they must blow out the other guys’ candles in order for their own to shine can be spotted a cybermile away. Examples She blew the oil lamp out.She blew the oil lamp out. The sudden wind blew out the candles.The sudden wind blew out the candles. blow out v. — extinguish by blowing More to learn More to learn

49 Narcissism (it’s all about “meeeee”) 2, those people who have nothing but negativity or unpleasant things to say about others, and those who feel compelled to undermine others and who think they must blow out the other guys’ candles in order for their own to shine can be spotted a cybermile away. Self-centered people can be recognized from very far away online because they tend to criticize others or devalue others in an effort to win more attention and respect from others. Paraphrase

50 bring out v. ---evoke, present Examples This kind of work brings out the best in him.This kind of work brings out the best in him. A crisis can bring out the best and the worst in people.A crisis can bring out the best and the worst in people. More to learn More to learn

51 bring out v. —publish, produce Examples He still insisted that he bring out a book in the summer.He still insisted that he bring out a book in the summer. The company has brought out a new type of laptop computer.The company has brought out a new type of laptop computer.

52 open up v. — speak more freely Examples When she felt she could trust me she began to open up.When she felt she could trust me she began to open up. Usually after a few drinks he could open up.Usually after a few drinks he could open up.

53 option n. — choice; one thing which can be chosen from a set of possibilities Examples One option would be to reduce the costs of the construction.One option would be to reduce the costs of the construction. You have the option of leaving or staying.You have the option of leaving or staying.

54 offend n. — hurt the feelings of; upset Examples The father was very offended that his children forgot his birthday.The father was very offended that his children forgot his birthday. His crudeness offended my sense of modesty.His crudeness offended my sense of modesty.

55 craft v. — carefully make something by hand or carefully conceive or choose Examples This is a beautifully crafted vase.This is a beautifully crafted vase. This is a beautifully crafted poem, the words and rhythm following effortlessly.This is a beautifully crafted poem, the words and rhythm following effortlessly. More to learn More to learn

56 craft n. — skill, esp. with one’s hand; skill in deceiving people Examples He is learning the craft of wood craving.He is learning the craft of wood craving. He used his craft to persuade the customer to buy that expensive article.He used his craft to persuade the customer to buy that expensive article. More to learn More to learn Compound words handcraft, stagecraft, craftsman.handcraft, stagecraft, craftsman.

57 craft n. — a boat or a ship Examples The harbour was full of pleasure craft.The harbour was full of pleasure craft. Compound words aircraft, spacecraftaircraft, spacecraft

58 convey v. — make (feelings, ideas, thoughts, etc.) known Examples I tried to convey what I felt in a clumsily worded speech.I tried to convey what I felt in a clumsily worded speech. He put his finger to his lips to convey to us that we shouldn’t say anything.He put his finger to his lips to convey to us that we shouldn’t say anything.

59 thanks to ad. — because of, owing to Examples Thanks to your help I have succeeded in my mission.Thanks to your help I have succeeded in my mission. It is thanks to Jim that I get out of real trouble last time.It is thanks to Jim that I get out of real trouble last time.

60 oppose v. — regard (esp. a suggestion or planned course of action ) with strong disapproval; against Examples Many people opposed making war to Iraq.Many people opposed making war to Iraq. He was strongly opposed to my plan.He was strongly opposed to my plan.

61 Passage B Think About ItThink About ItThink About ItThink About It Read About ItRead About ItRead About ItRead About It

62 Before reading the passage B, describe the pictures to your classmates

63 1. Try to define “culture” after discussing it with your classmates. Culture, in anthropology, the patterns of behavior and thinking that people living in social groups learn, create, and share. Culture distinguishes one human group from others. It also distinguishes humans from other animals. A people’s culture includes their beliefs, rules of behavior, language, rituals, art, technology, styles of dress, ways of producing and cooking food, religion, and political and economic systems. Reference:

64 2.Have you ever been to a place with a culture different from yours? What differences have you noticed? Open Reference:

65 3. Have you ever experienced any kind of culture shock? Tell your story to your classmates. Open Reference:

66 Read About It Language PointsLanguage PointsLanguage PointsLanguage Points Content AwarenessContent AwarenessContent AwarenessContent Awareness Language FocusLanguage FocusLanguage FocusLanguage Focus Reading Skill PracticeReading Skill PracticeReading Skill PracticeReading Skill Practice Translating Skill PracticeTranslating Skill PracticeTranslating Skill PracticeTranslating Skill Practice

67 Cultural Differences? In 1993, I had my first opportunity to visit Russia as a representative of the University of California. I was there to provide some technical assistance in the area of agricultural labor management. “Russians are a very polite people,” I had been tutored before my arrival. One of my interpreters, once I was there, explained representative tutoredinterpreters that a gentleman should pour the limonad (a type of juice) for the ladies and show other courtesies to them. courtesies Toward the end of my three-week trip I was invited by my young Russian host and friend Dmitri Ivanovich and his lovely wife Yielena

68 Yielena out to dinner. At the end of a wonderful meal Yielena asked if I would like a banana. I politely declined and thanked her, and explained I was most satisfied with the meal. But the whole while my mind was racing: “What do I do? Do I offer her a banana even though they are as close to her as they are to me? What is the polite thing to do?” “Would you like a banana?” I asked Yielena. “Yes,” she smiled, but made no attempt to take any of the three bananas in the fruit basket. “What now?” I thought.

69 “Which one would you like?” I fumbled. “That one,” she pointed at one of the bananas. So all the while thinking about Russian politeness I picked the banana Yielena had pointed at and peeled it half way and handed it to her. Smiles in Yielena and Dmitri’s faces told me I had done the right thing. After this experience I spent much time letting the world know that in Russia, the polite thing is to peel the bananas for the ladies. Sometime during my third trip I was politely disabused of my notion. Sometime during my third trip I was politely disabused of my notion “Oh no, Grigorii Davidovich,” a Russian graciously corrected me. “In Russia, when a man peels a banana for a lady it means he has a romantic interest in her.” How embarrassed I felt. And here I had beenembarrassed

70 proudly telling everyone about this tidbit of cultural understanding. Certain lessons have to be learned the hard way. Some well meaning articles and presentations on cultural differences have a potential to do more harm than good and may not be as amusing. They present, like my bananas, too many generalizations or quite a distorted view.Some well meaning articles and presentations on cultural differences have a potential to do more harm than good and may not be as amusing distorted Some often-heard generalizations about the Hispanic culture include: Hispanics1 need less personal space, make less eye contact, touch each other more in normal conversation, and are less likely to

71 participate inparticipate in a meeting. Generalizations are often dangerous, and especially when accompanied by recommendations such as: move closer when talking to Hispanics, make more physical contact, don’t expect participation, and so on.accompaniedrecommendations Differences between people within any given nation or culture are much greater than differences between groups. Education, social standing, religion, personality, belief structure, past experience, affection shown in the home, and a myriad of other factors will affect human behavior and culture.Differences between people within any given nation or culture are much greater than differences between groups affection Sure there are differences in approach as to what is considered polite and appropriate behavior both on and off the job. In some cultures “yes” means, “I hear you” more than “I agree.” Length of pleasantries and greetings before getting down to business, level ofgetting down to

72 tolerancetolerance for being around someone speaking a foreign (not- understood) language, politeness measured in terms of gallantry or etiquette (e.g., standing up for a woman who approaches a table, yielding a seat on the bus to an older person, etc.) and manner of expected dress are all examples of possible cultural differences and traditions. yielding In Mexico it is customary for the arriving person to greet the others. For instance, someone who walks into a group of people eating would say provecho (enjoy your meal). In Chile, women often greet both other women and men with a kiss on the cheek. In Russia women often walk arm in arm with their female friends. Paying

73 attention to customs and cultural differences can give someone outside that culture a better chance of assimilation or acceptanceattention to customs and cultural differences can give someone outside that culture a better chance of assimilation or acceptance. Ignoring these can get an unsuspecting person into trouble. There are cultural and ideological differences and it is good to have an understanding about a culture’s customs and ways. Aaron Pun, a Canadian ODCnet correspondent, wrote: “In studying cross-cultural2 differences, we are not looking at individuals but a comparison of one ethnic group against others. Hence, we are comparing two bell curves3 and generalizations cannot be avoided.” Another correspondent explained the human need to categorize. True and true,There are cultural and ideological differences and it is good to have an understanding about a culture’s customs and wayscorrespondentIn studying cross-cultural2 differences, we are not looking at individuals but a comparison of one ethnic group against others. Hence, we are comparing two bell curves3 and generalizations cannot be avoided

74 but the danger comes when we act on some of these generalizations, especially when they are based on faulty observations. Acting on generalizations about such matters as eye contact, personal space, touch, and interest in participation can have serious negative consequences.based on Acting on (781 words)

75 representative n. —a person who has been chosen to act in place of one or more others Example Members of Parliament are the elected representatives of the British people.Members of Parliament are the elected representatives of the British people. Who is your group’s representative to give a presentation to the class? Who is your group’s representative to give a presentation to the class?

76 tutor v. —give instructions to Example Children are routinely tutored for hours after school.Children are routinely tutored for hours after school. He tutored us in English. He tutored us in English. More to learn More to learn

77 tutor n. —a teacher who works with one student or a small group, either at a college or university or in the home of a child or youngster Example His tutor encouraged him to read widely.His tutor encouraged him to read widely. Many poor college students earn their tuition fees by working as a tutor. Many poor college students earn their tuition fees by working as a tutor.

78 interpreter n. —a person who puts something spoken in one language into the words of another language Example At a press conference an interpreter should translate quickly and accurately.At a press conference an interpreter should translate quickly and accurately. An interpreter can play an important role in negotiations. An interpreter can play an important role in negotiations.

79 courtesy n. —polite behavior; good manners; polite remarks or actions Example You might get on better with your roommate if you show him some courtesy.You might get on better with your roommate if you show him some courtesy. The young salesman displayed a complete lack of courtesy to his customer until one day a lady complained to the management. The young salesman displayed a complete lack of courtesy to his customer until one day a lady complained to the management.

80 Sometime during my third trip I was politely disabused of my notion disabuse v. — conceive sb that their idea is wrong; free sb from a wrong belief Examples He thought that all women liked fashionable clothes, but she soon disabused him of that idea.He thought that all women liked fashionable clothes, but she soon disabused him of that idea. I must disabuse you of the idea that all women are weak.I must disabuse you of the idea that all women are weak. More to learn More to learn

81 Sometime during my third trip I was politely disabused of my notion When I went to Russia for the third time a Russian politely corrected my wrong notion. When I went to Russia for the third time a Russian politely corrected my wrong notion.

82 embarrass v. —cause to feel anxious and uncomfortable Example She embarrassed the opponent by posing awkward questions at the most unexpected moments.She embarrassed the opponent by posing awkward questions at the most unexpected moments. I felt embarrassed that I didn’t pass the examination. I felt embarrassed that I didn’t pass the examination.

83 Some well meaning articles and presentations on cultural differences have a potential to do more harm than good and may not be as amusing. potential n. — abilities and determination to develop, achieve or succeed; possibility to develop in a certain way or have a certain effect Examples Yao Ming is a young basketball player with great potential.Yao Ming is a young basketball player with great potential. We should make full use of our potential.We should make full use of our potential. More to learn More to learn

84 Some well meaning articles and presentations on cultural differences have a potential to do more harm than good and may not be as amusing. potential a. — that may happen or become so, although not actually existing at present Examples The first and foremost of the CIA’s jobs is assessing the long-term potential threat to the United States by other countries.The first and foremost of the CIA’s jobs is assessing the long-term potential threat to the United States by other countries. Social security is facing potential financial difficulties.Social security is facing potential financial difficulties. More to learn More to learn

85 Some well meaning articles and presentations on cultural differences have a potential to do more harm than good and may not be as amusing. Some articles and lectures aim to help readers and audience to understand about cultural differences, but in fact, are likely to mislead them, meanwhile they are not interesting.

86 distort v. —give an intentionally false or dishonest, or exaggerated account of Example Information on the Web can be distorted to influence what people think about the world and what they do.Information on the Web can be distorted to influence what people think about the world and what they do. Cognitive therapists believe that irrational beliefs or distorted thinking patterns can cause a variety of serious problems, including depression and chronic anxiety. Cognitive therapists believe that irrational beliefs or distorted thinking patterns can cause a variety of serious problems, including depression and chronic anxiety.

87 participate in v. —take part in Example We actively participate in the mass sports activities such as the city marathon.We actively participate in the mass sports activities such as the city marathon. Prisoners may participate in work or educational activities outside of prison under certain conditions. Prisoners may participate in work or educational activities outside of prison under certain conditions.

88 accompany v. —be provided or exist at the same time as something; go with, esp. on a journey Example Let me accompany you to the restaurant.Let me accompany you to the restaurant. Accompanying these temperature variations were some periods of rather heavy precipitation. Accompanying these temperature variations were some periods of rather heavy precipitation.

89 recommendation n. —advice or suggestion Example My teacher wrote me a letter of recommendation to support my job application.My teacher wrote me a letter of recommendation to support my job application. The famous scientist put forward two very controversial recommendations concerning environmental protection. The famous scientist put forward two very controversial recommendations concerning environmental protection.

90 Differences between people within any given nation or culture are much greater than differences between groups. The differences between people in one country or one culture are much greater than those between two countries or two cultures.

91 affection n. —a fond feeling for Example Mrs. Waters had, in truth, not only a good opinion of Tom, but a very great affection for him.Mrs. Waters had, in truth, not only a good opinion of Tom, but a very great affection for him. Iranians of the same sex will often kiss each other on the cheek as a greeting and sign of affection. Iranians of the same sex will often kiss each other on the cheek as a greeting and sign of affection.

92 get down to v. —begin to give serious attention to Example It’s hard to get down to work after a long holiday.It’s hard to get down to work after a long holiday. I really must get down to my studies. I’ve dillydallied for too long.I really must get down to my studies. I’ve dillydallied for too long.

93 tolerance n. —willingness to accept or allow different or questionable behavior, beliefs, customs Example Thomas E. Dewey, who consistently advocated the promotion of tolerance and liberty.Thomas E. Dewey, who consistently advocated the promotion of tolerance and liberty. Many countries that practice linguistic tolerance find that they can accommodate people of different languages in harmony with each other. Many countries that practice linguistic tolerance find that they can accommodate people of different languages in harmony with each other.

94 yield v. —allow others to have; give up Example He was forced to yield the post of general manager.He was forced to yield the post of general manager. Neither Congress nor the Supreme Court should yield to pressure from the media.Neither Congress nor the Supreme Court should yield to pressure from the media. More to learn More to learn

95 yield v. —supply or produce Example That tree yields a lot of fruit.That tree yields a lot of fruit. The empty house yielded us shelter.The empty house yielded us shelter.

96 Paying attention to customs and cultural differences can give someone outside that culture a better chance of assimilation or acceptance If they pay attention to the customs and cultural differences those who come from another culture have a better chance of being accepted by the local people.

97 There are cultural and ideological differences and it is good to have an understanding about a culture’s customs and ways In another country, the cultural and political beliefs are different from ours, therefore it’s helpful to know its customs and ways.

98 correspondent n. —someone employed by a newspaper, television station etc., to report news from a certain area or about a certain topic Example American correspondents in the European theatre accused the military of delaying, coloring and suppressing news.American correspondents in the European theatre accused the military of delaying, coloring and suppressing news. ABC network correspondent Bill Stewart, covering the civil war in Nicaragua, was murdered by a member of the Somoza government’s National Guard. ABC network correspondent Bill Stewart, covering the civil war in Nicaragua, was murdered by a member of the Somoza government’s National Guard.

99 In studying cross-cultural differences, we are not looking at individuals but a comparison of one ethnic group against others. Hence, we are comparing two bell curves3 and generalizations cannot be avoided. hence ad. — that is the reason or explanation for; therefore Examples Hence, the dogs had learned to associate a certain cue with food.Hence, the dogs had learned to associate a certain cue with food. A better working environment improves people’s performance, and hence productivity.A better working environment improves people’s performance, and hence productivity. More to learn More to learn

100 In studying cross-cultural differences, we are not looking at individuals but a comparison of one ethnic group against others. Hence, we are comparing two bell curves3 and generalizations cannot be avoided. When we study the differences between different cultures we are comparing the collective culture rather than individuals from each culture. Therefore we focus on their general differences which will not be true of everyone within those cultures. When we study the differences between different cultures we are comparing the collective culture rather than individuals from each culture. Therefore we focus on their general differences which will not be true of everyone within those cultures.

101 base …on v. —make (something) using (something else) as the starting point Example This film is based on the novel written by Hemingway.This film is based on the novel written by Hemingway. His arguments are based on facts. His arguments are based on facts.

102 act on v. —do something according to Example You should act on this letter at once or it will be too late.You should act on this letter at once or it will be too late. Acting on your recommendation I plan to apply for the job. Acting on your recommendation I plan to apply for the job.


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