Course Content Unit 1 – From Kinetics to Equilibrium Unit 2 – Acids and Bases Unit 3 – Thermochemistry Unit 4 – Electrochemistry
Reactions occur at different rates. Compare the three reactions: 1.Oxidation of a copper penny. Cu (s) + ½ O 2(g) CuO (s) 2. Flash Bulb Very Fast Very slow rate 3. Coal Burning Steady rate, after initial lightning
Kinetics What is kinetics? Kinetics deals with the speed (or rate) at which chemical reactions occur, -the factors which affect this rate -the reaction mechanism or the actual steps and -energies involved in the overall reaction.
What is Reaction Rate? Reaction rate may be defined as the number of atoms, ions, or molecules which are being produced or that are reacting in a given time.
Iron rusts slowly, but wood burns quickly - different reactions occur at different speeds. The speed of a reaction also depends on the reactants. Sugar oxidizes (burns) rapidly in a flame, slowly in a living cell and not at all on a on a pantry shelf. We put food in the refrigerator to retard (slow) spoilage, and put catalytic converters on cars to speed up the conversion of pollutants into harmless gases. Having a knowledge of reaction rates enables us to apply the knowledge to better our lives.
When chemicals are synthesized in industry, the reaction conditions are carefully chosen to produce the maximum yield of product in the shortest period of time. Chemistry 3202 – Unit 1: From Kinetics to Equilibrium
Methods of Measuring Reaction Rate Measuring a change in the mass of a species (reactant or product) The change in colour of the reaction mixture The change in pH The change in volume