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Chapter 1 Exploring Life.

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Presentation on theme: "Chapter 1 Exploring Life."— Presentation transcript:

1 Chapter 1 Exploring Life

2 Overview: Biology’s Most Exciting Era Biology
Is the scientific study of life

3 The phenomenon we call life
Defies a simple, one-sentence definition Figure 1.1

4 We recognize life By what living things do

5 Some properties of life
#1 on quiz!!! Some properties of life Figure 1.2 (c) Response to the environment (a) Order (d) Regulation (g) Reproduction (f) Growth and development (b) Evolutionary adaptation (e) Energy processing

6 Concept 1.1: Biologists explore life from the microscopic to the global scale
The study of life Extends from the microscope scale of molecules and cells to the global scale of the entire living planet

7 A Hierarchy of Biological Organization
The hierarchy of life Extends through many levels of biological organization

8 #2. biosphere, ecosystem, community, population, organism
From the biosphere to organisms (#3) Figure 1.3 1 The biosphere

9 6 Organs and organ systems
#2 cont. From cells to molecules (#4,5,6) Cell 8 Cells 6 Organs and organ systems 7 Tissues 10 Molecules 9 Organelles 50 µm 10 µm 1 µm Atoms Figure 1.3

10 A Closer Look at Ecosystems
Each organism Interacts with its environment Both organism and environment Are affected by the interactions between them

11 The dynamics of any ecosystem include two major processes
Ecosystem Dynamics The dynamics of any ecosystem include two major processes Cycling of nutrients, in which materials acquired by plants eventually return to the soil The flow of energy from sunlight to producers to consumers

12 Energy Conversion Activities of life
Require organisms to perform work, which depends on an energy source

13 The exchange of energy between an organism and its surroundings
Often involves the transformation of one form of energy to another

14 Energy flows through an ecosystem (#8)
Usually entering as sunlight and exiting as heat Producers (plants and other photosynthetic organisms) Consumers (including animals) Sunlight Chemical energy Heat Ecosystem Figure 1.4

15 A Closer Look at Cells The cell
Is the lowest level of organization that can perform all activities required for life 25 µm Figure 1.5

16 The Cell’s Heritable Information
Cells contain chromosomes made partly of DNA, the substance of genes Part of #9 Which program the cells’ production of proteins and transmit information from parents to offspring Egg cell Sperm cell Nuclei containing DNA Fertilized egg with DNA from both parents Embyro’s cells with copies of inherited DNA Offspring with traits inherited from Figure 1.6

17 The molecular structure of DNA
Part of #9&10 The molecular structure of DNA Accounts for it information-rich nature DNA Cell Nucleotide A C T G (b) Single strand of DNA. These geometric shapes and letters are simple symbols for the nucleotides in a small section of one chain of a DNA molecule Genetic information is encoded in specific sequences of the four types of nucleotides (their names are abbreviated here as A, T, C, and G). (a) DNA double helix. This model shows each atom in a segment of DNA.Made up of two long chains of building blocks called nucleotides, a DNA molecule takes the three-dimensional form of a double helix. Figure 1.7 Nucleus

18 All cells share certain characteristics
Two Main Forms of Cells All cells share certain characteristics They are all enclosed by a membrane They all use DNA as genetic information There are two main forms of cells Eukaryotic Prokaryotic

19 Eukaryotic cells Are subdivided by internal membranes into various membrane-enclosed organelles

20 Nucleus (contains DNA)
Prokaryotic cells Lack the kinds of membrane-enclosed organelles found in eukaryotic cells EUKARYOTIC CELL Membrane Cytoplasm Organelles Nucleus (contains DNA) 1 µm PROKARYOTIC CELL DNA (no nucleus) Figure 1.8

21 Concept 1.2: Biological systems are much more than the sum of their parts
A system Is a combination of components that form a more complex organization

22 The Emergent Properties of Systems
Due to increasing complexity New properties emerge with each step upward in the hierarchy of biological order #11

23 The Power and Limitations of Reductionism
Involves reducing complex systems to simpler components that are more manageable to study

24 The study of DNA structure, an example of reductionism
Has led to further study of heredity, such as the Human Genome Project Figure 1.9

25 Systems Biology Systems biology With such models
Seeks to create models of the dynamic behavior of whole biological systems With such models Scientists will be able to predict how a change in one part of a system will affect the rest of the system

26 Outer membrane and cell surface
Nucleus Cytoplasm Outer membrane and cell surface Figure 1.10

27 Systems biology Is now taking hold in the study of life at the cellular and molecular levels Includes three key research developments: high-throughput technology, bioinformatics, and interdisciplinary research teams

28 Feedback Regulation in Biological Systems
A kind of supply-and-demand economy Applies to some of the dynamics of biological systems

29 In feedback regulation
The output, or product, of a process regulates that very process Can also answer #11

30 #12 Enzymes are organic catalysts
In negative feedback see ex. P.11 for #14 An accumulation of an end product slows the process that produces that product B A C D Enzyme 1 Enzyme 2 Enzyme 3 Negative feedback Figure 1.11

31 #13 EX. Once labor begins, contractions increase in intensity & frequency until deliver.
In positive feedback The end product speeds up production W X Y Z Enzyme 4 Enzyme 5 Enzyme 6 Positive feedback Figure 1.12

32 Diversity is a hallmark of life
Concept 1.3: Biologists explore life across its great diversity of species Diversity is a hallmark of life #15. There are about 1.8 million identified & named species Figure 1.13

33 Grouping Species: The Basic Idea
#16. Taxonomy Is the branch of biology that names and classifies species according to a system of broader and broader groups

34 #19. Classifying life Figure 1.14
Species Genus Family Order Class Phylum Kingdom Domain Mammalia Ursus ameri- canus (American black bear) Ursus Ursidae Carnivora Chordata Animalia Eukarya Figure 1.14

35 The Three Domains of Life
At the highest level, life is classified into three domains Bacteria Archaea Eukarya

36 Domain Bacteria and domain Archaea
#17. Consist of prokaryotes #18. Domain Eukarya, the eukaryotes #20. Includes the various protist kingdoms and the kingdoms Plantae, Fungi, and Animalia

37 Life’s three domains Figure 1.15 DOMAIN ARCHAEA 4 µm 100 µm 0.5 µm
Bacteria are the most diverse and widespread prokaryotes and are now divided among multiple kingdoms. Each of the rod-shaped structures in this photo is a bacterial cell. Protists (multiple kingdoms) are unicellular eukaryotes and their relatively simple multicellular relatives.Pictured here is an assortment of protists inhabiting pond water. Scientists are currently debating how to split the protists into several kingdoms that better represent evolution and diversity. Kingdom Plantae consists of multicellula eukaryotes that carry out photosynthesis, the conversion of light energy to food. Many of the prokaryotes known as archaea live in Earth‘s extreme environments, such as salty lakes and boiling hot springs. Domain Archaea includes multiple kingdoms. The photo shows a colony composed of many cells. Kindom Fungi is defined in part by the nutritional mode of its members, such as this mushroom, which absorb nutrientsafter decomposing organic material. Kindom Animalia consists of multicellular eukaryotes that ingest other organisms. DOMAIN ARCHAEA

38 Unity in the Diversity of Life
As diverse as life is There is also evidence of remarkable unity Cilia of Paramecium. The cilia of Paramecium propel the cell through pond water. Cross section of cilium, as viewed with an electron microscope 15 µm 1.0 µm 5 µm Cilia of windpipe cells. The cells that line the human windpipe are equipped with cilia that help keep the lungs clean by moving a film of debris-trapping mucus upward. Figure 1.16

39 Concept 1.4: Evolution accounts for life’s unity and diversity
The history of life Is a saga of a changing Earth billions of years old Figure 1.17

40 The evolutionary view of life
Came into sharp focus in 1859 when Charles Darwin published On the Origin of Species by Natural Selection Figure 1.18

41 The Origin of Species articulated two main points
Descent with modification Natural selection Figure 1.19

42 Darwin proposed natural selection
As the mechanism for evolutionary adaptation of populations to their environments Population of organisms Hereditary variations Differences in reproductive success Evolution of adaptations in the population Overproduction and struggle for existence Figure 1.20

43 #22. Natural selection is the evolutionary process that occurs
When a population’s heritable variations are exposed to environmental factors that favor the reproductive success of some individuals over others 1 Populations with varied inherited traits 2 Elimination of individuals with certain traits. 3 Reproduction of survivors. 4 Increasing frequency of traits that enhance survival and reproductive success. Figure 1.21

44 The products of natural selection
Helps answer #23. The products of natural selection Are often exquisite adaptations of organisms to the special circumstances of their way of life and their environment Figure 1.22

45 Many related organisms
The Tree of Life Many related organisms Have very similar anatomical features, adapted for their specific ways of life Such examples of kinship Connect life’s “unity in diversity” to Darwin’s concept of “descent with modification”

46 Darwin proposed that natural selection
Could enable an ancestral species to “split” into two or more descendant species, resulting in a “tree of life” Large ground finch Small ground finch Geospiza magnirostris Seed eater Sharp-beaked ground finch Camarhynchus psitacula Green warbler finch Large tree finch Large cactus Ground finches Tree finches Insect eaters Bud eater Warbler finches Common ancestor from South American mainland Gray warbler finch Certhidea olivacea Certhidea fusca difficilis Cactus flower eater Geospiza scandens conirostris fortis Medium ground Geospiza fuliginosa Mangrove finch Cactospiza heliobates Cactospiza pallida Woodpecker Medium tree finch Camarhynchus pauper Small tree finch Vegetarian finch Camarhynchus parvulus Platyspiza crassirostris Cactus ground finch Figure 1.23

47 Each species is on twig of a branching tree of life
Extending back in time through ancestral species more and more remote All of life Is connected through its long evolutionary history

48 Concept 1.5: Biologists use various forms of inquiry to explore life
At the heart of science is inquiry A search for information and explanation, often focusing on specific questions Biology blends two main processes of scientific inquiry Discovery science Hypothesis-based science

49 Discovery Science Discovery science
Describes natural structures and processes as accurately as possible through careful observation and analysis of data

50 Types of Data Data Are recorded observations
Can be quantitative or qualitative Figure 1.24

51 Induction in Discovery Science
In inductive reasoning Scientists derive generalizations based on a large number of specific observations

52 Hypothesis-Based Science
In science, inquiry that asks specific questions Usually involves the proposing and testing of hypothetical explanations, or hypotheses

53 The Role of Hypotheses in Inquiry
In science, a hypothesis #24. Is a tentative answer to a well-framed question, an explanation on trial Makes predictions that can be tested

54 We all use hypotheses in solving everyday problems
Helps answer #26. We all use hypotheses in solving everyday problems Observations Questions Hypothesis # 1: Dead batteries Hypothesis # 2: Burnt-out bulb Prediction: Replacing batteries will fix problem Replacing bulb Test prediction Test does not falsify hypothesis Test falsifies hypothesis Figure 1.25

55 Deduction: The “If…then” Logic of Hypothesis-Based Science
In deductive reasoning25.stated as an If… then The logic flows from the general to the specific If a hypothesis is correct Then we can expect a particular outcome

56 A Closer Look at Hypotheses in Scientific Inquiry
A scientific hypothesis must have two important qualities It must be testable It must be falsifiable

57 The Myth of the Scientific Method
Is an idealized process of inquiry Very few scientific inquiries Adhere to the “textbook” scientific method #27. A controlled experiment is one in which there are at least 2 groups, one which does NOT receive the experimental treatment.

58 A Case Study in Scientific Inquiry: Investigating Mimicry in Snake Populations
In mimicry A harmless species resembles a harmful species Flower fly (non-stinging) Honeybee (stinging) Figure 1.26

59 In this case study Mimicry in king snakes is examined
The hypothesis predicts that predators in non–coral snake areas will attack king snakes more frequently than will predators that live where coral snakes are present Scarlet king snake Key Range of scarlet king snake Range of eastern color snake Eastern coral snake North Carolina South Carolina Figure 1.27

60 Field Experiments with Artificial Snakes
To test this mimicry hypothesis Researchers made hundreds of artificial snakes, an experimental group resembling king snakes and a control group of plain brown snakes (a) Artificial king snake (b) Brown artificial snake that has been attacked Figure 1.28

61 After a given period of time
The researchers collected data that fit a key prediction Figure 1.29 In areas where coral snakes were present, most attacks were on artificial king snakes Key % of attacks on artificial king snakes % of attacks on brown artificial snakes Field site with artificial snakes 17% 83% North Carolina South Carolina X In areas where coral snakes were absent, most attacks were on artificial king snakes 84% 16%

62 Designing Controlled Experiments
Experiments must be designed to test #28. The effect of one variable by testing control groups and experimental groups in a way that cancels the effects of unwanted variables

63 Limitations of Science
Science cannot address supernatural phenomena Because hypotheses must be testable and falsifiable and experimental results must be repeatable

64 Theories in Science A scientific theory Is broad in scope
Generates new hypotheses Is supported by a large body of evidence

65 Model Building in Science
Models of ideas, structures, and processes Help us understand scientific phenomena and make predictions To lungs To body Right artium Right ventricle Right ventricle From lungs From body Figure 1.30

66 Science is a social activity
The Culture of Science Science is a social activity Characterized by both cooperation and competition Figure 1.31

67 Science, Technology, and Society
Applies scientific knowledge for some specific purpose Figure 1.32

68 Concept 1.6: A set of themes connects the concepts of biology
Underlying themes Provide a framework for understanding biology

69 Eleven themes that unify biology
Table 1.1

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