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Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings PowerPoint Lectures for Biology, Seventh Edition Neil Campbell and Jane Reece.

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Presentation on theme: "Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings PowerPoint Lectures for Biology, Seventh Edition Neil Campbell and Jane Reece."— Presentation transcript:

1 Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings PowerPoint Lectures for Biology, Seventh Edition Neil Campbell and Jane Reece Lectures by Chris Romero Chapter 1 Exploring Life

2 Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Overview: Biology’s Most Exciting Era Biology – Is the scientific study of life

3 Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings The phenomenon we call life – Defies a simple, one-sentence definition Figure 1.1

4 Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings We recognize life – By what living things do

5 Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings #1 on quiz!!! Some properties of life Figure 1.2 (c) Response to the environment (a) Order (d) Regulation (g) Reproduction (f) Growth and development (b) Evolutionary adaptation (e) Energy processing

6 Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Concept 1.1: Biologists explore life from the microscopic to the global scale The study of life – Extends from the microscope scale of molecules and cells to the global scale of the entire living planet

7 Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings A Hierarchy of Biological Organization The hierarchy of life – Extends through many levels of biological organization

8 Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings #2. biosphere, ecosystem, community, population, organism From the biosphere to organisms (#3) Figure The biosphere

9 Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings #2 cont. From cells to molecules (#4,5,6) Cell 8 Cells 6 Organs and organ systems 7 Tissues 10 Molecules 9 Organelles 50 µm 10 µm 1 µm Atoms Figure 1.3

10 Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings A Closer Look at Ecosystems Each organism – Interacts with its environment Both organism and environment – Are affected by the interactions between them

11 Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Ecosystem Dynamics The dynamics of any ecosystem include two major processes – Cycling of nutrients, in which materials acquired by plants eventually return to the soil – The flow of energy from sunlight to producers to consumers

12 Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Energy Conversion Activities of life – Require organisms to perform work, which depends on an energy source

13 Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings The exchange of energy between an organism and its surroundings – Often involves the transformation of one form of energy to another

14 Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Energy flows through an ecosystem (#8) – Usually entering as sunlight and exiting as heat Producers (plants and other photosynthetic organisms) Consumers (including animals) Sunlight Chemical energy Heat Ecosystem Figure 1.4

15 Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings A Closer Look at Cells The cell – Is the lowest level of organization that can perform all activities required for life 25 µm Figure 1.5

16 Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings The Cell’s Heritable Information Cells contain chromosomes made partly of DNA, the substance of genes Part of #9 – Which program the cells’ production of proteins and transmit information from parents to offspring Egg cell Sperm cell Nuclei containing DNA Fertilized egg with DNA from both parents Embyro’s cells with copies of inherited DNA Offspring with traits inherited from both parents Figure 1.6

17 Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Part of #9&10 The molecular structure of DNA – Accounts for it information-rich nature DNA Cell Nucleotide A C T A T A C C G G T A T A (b) Single strand of DNA. These geometric shapes and letters are simple symbols for the nucleotides in a small section of one chain of a DNA molecule. Genetic information is encoded in specific sequences of the four types of nucleotides (their names are abbreviated here as A, T, C, and G). (a) DNA double helix. This model shows each atom in a segment of DNA.Made up of two long chains of building blocks called nucleotides, a DNA molecule takes the three-dimensional form of a double helix. Figure 1.7 Nucleus

18 Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Two Main Forms of Cells All cells share certain characteristics – They are all enclosed by a membrane – They all use DNA as genetic information There are two main forms of cells – Eukaryotic – Prokaryotic

19 Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Eukaryotic cells – Are subdivided by internal membranes into various membrane-enclosed organelles

20 Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Prokaryotic cells – Lack the kinds of membrane-enclosed organelles found in eukaryotic cells EUKARYOTIC CELL Membrane Cytoplasm Organelles Nucleus (contains DNA) 1 µm PROKARYOTIC CELL DNA (no nucleus) Membrane Figure 1.8

21 Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Concept 1.2: Biological systems are much more than the sum of their parts A system – Is a combination of components that form a more complex organization

22 Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings The Emergent Properties of Systems Due to increasing complexity – New properties emerge with each step upward in the hierarchy of biological order – #11

23 Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings The Power and Limitations of Reductionism Reductionism – Involves reducing complex systems to simpler components that are more manageable to study

24 Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings The study of DNA structure, an example of reductionism – Has led to further study of heredity, such as the Human Genome Project Figure 1.9

25 Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Systems Biology Systems biology – Seeks to create models of the dynamic behavior of whole biological systems With such models – Scientists will be able to predict how a change in one part of a system will affect the rest of the system

26 Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings CELL Nucleus Cytoplasm Outer membrane and cell surface Figure 1.10

27 Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Systems biology – Is now taking hold in the study of life at the cellular and molecular levels – Includes three key research developments: high-throughput technology, bioinformatics, and interdisciplinary research teams

28 Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Feedback Regulation in Biological Systems A kind of supply-and-demand economy – Applies to some of the dynamics of biological systems

29 Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings In feedback regulation – The output, or product, of a process regulates that very process – Can also answer #11

30 Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings #12 Enzymes are organic catalysts In negative feedback see ex. P.11 for #14 – An accumulation of an end product slows the process that produces that product B A C D Enzyme 1 Enzyme 2 Enzyme 3 D D D D D D D D DD C B A Negative feedback Figure 1.11

31 Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings #13 EX. Once labor begins, contractions increase in intensity & frequency until deliver. In positive feedback – The end product speeds up production WW X Y Z Z Z Z Z Z Z Z Z Z Z ZZ Z ZZ Z Z Z Y X Enzyme 4 Enzyme 5 Enzyme 6 Enzyme 4 Enzyme 5 Enzyme 6 Positive feedback Figure 1.12

32 Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Concept 1.3: Biologists explore life across its great diversity of species Diversity is a hallmark of life #15. There are about 1.8 million identified & named species Figure 1.13

33 Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Grouping Species: The Basic Idea #16. Taxonomy – Is the branch of biology that names and classifies species according to a system of broader and broader groups

34 Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings #19. Classifying life Species Genus Family Order Class Phylum Kingdom Domain Mammalia Ursus ameri- canus (American black bear) Ursus Ursidae Carnivora Chordata Animalia Eukarya Figure 1.14

35 Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings The Three Domains of Life At the highest level, life is classified into three domains – Bacteria – Archaea – Eukarya

36 Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Domain Bacteria and domain Archaea – #17. Consist of prokaryotes #18. Domain Eukarya, the eukaryotes – #20. Includes the various protist kingdoms and the kingdoms Plantae, Fungi, and Animalia

37 Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Life’s three domains Figure µm 0.5 µm 4 µm Bacteria are the most diverse and widespread prokaryotes and are now divided among multiple kingdoms. Each of the rod-shaped structures in this photo is a bacterial cell. Protists (multiple kingdoms) are unicellular eukaryotes and their relatively simple multicellular relatives.Pictured here is an assortment of protists inhabiting pond water. Scientists are currently debating how to split the protists into several kingdoms that better represent evolution and diversity. Kingdom Plantae consists of multicellula eukaryotes that carry out photosynthesis, the conversion of light energy to food. Many of the prokaryotes known as archaea live in Earth‘s extreme environments, such as salty lakes and boiling hot springs. Domain Archaea includes multiple kingdoms. The photo shows a colony composed of many cells. Kindom Fungi is defined in part by the nutritional mode of its members, such as this mushroom, which absorb nutrientsafter decomposing organic material. Kindom Animalia consists of multicellular eukaryotes that ingest other organisms. DOMAIN ARCHAEA

38 Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Unity in the Diversity of Life As diverse as life is – There is also evidence of remarkable unity Cilia of Paramecium. The cilia of Paramecium propel the cell through pond water. Cross section of cilium, as viewed with an electron microscope 15 µm 1.0 µm 5 µm Cilia of windpipe cells. The cells that line the human windpipe are equipped with cilia that help keep the lungs clean by moving a film of debris-trapping mucus upward. Figure 1.16

39 Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Concept 1.4: Evolution accounts for life’s unity and diversity The history of life – Is a saga of a changing Earth billions of years old Figure 1.17

40 Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings The evolutionary view of life – Came into sharp focus in 1859 when Charles Darwin published On the Origin of Species by Natural Selection Figure 1.18

41 Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings The Origin of Species articulated two main points – Descent with modification – Natural selection Figure 1.19

42 Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings #21. Natural Selection Darwin proposed natural selection – As the mechanism for evolutionary adaptation of populations to their environments Population of organisms Hereditary variations Differences in reproductive success Evolution of adaptations in the population Overproduction and struggle for existence Figure 1.20

43 Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings #22. Natural selection is the evolutionary process that occurs – When a population’s heritable variations are exposed to environmental factors that favor the reproductive success of some individuals over others 1 Populations with varied inherited traits 2 Elimination of individuals with certain traits. 3 Reproduction of survivors. 4 Increasing frequency of traits that enhance survival and reproductive success. Figure 1.21

44 Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Helps answer #23. The products of natural selection – Are often exquisite adaptations of organisms to the special circumstances of their way of life and their environment Figure 1.22

45 Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings The Tree of Life Many related organisms – Have very similar anatomical features, adapted for their specific ways of life Such examples of kinship – Connect life’s “unity in diversity” to Darwin’s concept of “descent with modification”

46 Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Darwin proposed that natural selection – Could enable an ancestral species to “split” into two or more descendant species, resulting in a “tree of life ” Large ground finch Small ground finch Geospiza magnirostris Seed eater Sharp-beaked ground finch Camarhynchus psitacula Green warbler finch Large tree finch Large cactus ground finch Ground finches Tree finches Insect eaters Bud eater Warbler finches Common ancestor from South American mainland Gray warbler finch Certhidea olivacea Certhidea fusca Geospiza difficilis Cactus flower eater Geospiza scandens Seed eater Geospiza conirostris Geospiza fortis Medium ground finch Geospiza fuliginosa Mangrove finch Cactospiza heliobates Cactospiza pallida Woodpecker finch Medium tree finch Camarhynchus pauper Small tree finch Vegetarian finch Camarhynchus parvulus Platyspiza crassirostris Cactus ground finch Figure 1.23

47 Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Each species is on twig of a branching tree of life – Extending back in time through ancestral species more and more remote All of life – Is connected through its long evolutionary history

48 Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Concept 1.5: Biologists use various forms of inquiry to explore life At the heart of science is inquiry – A search for information and explanation, often focusing on specific questions Biology blends two main processes of scientific inquiry – Discovery science – Hypothesis-based science

49 Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Discovery Science Discovery science – Describes natural structures and processes as accurately as possible through careful observation and analysis of data

50 Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Types of Data Data – Are recorded observations – Can be quantitative or qualitative Figure 1.24

51 Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Induction in Discovery Science In inductive reasoning – Scientists derive generalizations based on a large number of specific observations

52 Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Hypothesis-Based Science In science, inquiry that asks specific questions – Usually involves the proposing and testing of hypothetical explanations, or hypotheses

53 Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings The Role of Hypotheses in Inquiry In science, a hypothesis – #24. Is a tentative answer to a well-framed question, an explanation on trial – Makes predictions that can be tested

54 Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Helps answer #26. We all use hypotheses in solving everyday problems Observations Questions Hypothesis # 1: Dead batteries Hypothesis # 2: Burnt-out bulb Prediction: Replacing batteries will fix problem Prediction: Replacing bulb will fix problem Test prediction Test does not falsify hypothesis Test prediction Test falsifies hypothesis Figure 1.25

55 Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Deduction: The “If…then” Logic of Hypothesis-Based Science In deductive reasoning25.stated as an If… then – The logic flows from the general to the specific If a hypothesis is correct – Then we can expect a particular outcome

56 Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings A Closer Look at Hypotheses in Scientific Inquiry A scientific hypothesis must have two important qualities – It must be testable – It must be falsifiable

57 Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings The Myth of the Scientific Method The scientific method – Is an idealized process of inquiry Very few scientific inquiries – Adhere to the “textbook” scientific method – #27. A controlled experiment is one in which there are at least 2 groups, one which does NOT receive the experimental treatment.

58 Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings In mimicry – A harmless species resembles a harmful species Flower fly (non-stinging) Honeybee (stinging) Figure 1.26 A Case Study in Scientific Inquiry: Investigating Mimicry in Snake Populations

59 Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings In this case study – Mimicry in king snakes is examined – The hypothesis predicts that predators in non–coral snake areas will attack king snakes more frequently than will predators that live where coral snakes are present Scarlet king snake Key Range of scarlet king snake Range of eastern color snake Eastern coral snake North Carolina South Carolina Figure 1.27

60 Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Field Experiments with Artificial Snakes To test this mimicry hypothesis – Researchers made hundreds of artificial snakes, an experimental group resembling king snakes and a control group of plain brown snakes (a) Artificial king snake (b) Brown artificial snake that has been attackedFigure 1.28

61 Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings After a given period of time – The researchers collected data that fit a key prediction Figure 1.29 In areas where coral snakes were present, most attacks were on artificial king snakes Key % of attacks on artificial king snakes % of attacks on brown artificial snakes Field site with artificial snakes 17% 83% North Carolina South Carolina X X X X X X X X X X X X X X In areas where coral snakes were absent, most attacks were on artificial king snakes 84% 16% Key

62 Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Designing Controlled Experiments Experiments must be designed to test – #28. The effect of one variable by testing control groups and experimental groups in a way that cancels the effects of unwanted variables

63 Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Limitations of Science Science cannot address supernatural phenomena – Because hypotheses must be testable and falsifiable and experimental results must be repeatable

64 Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Theories in Science A scientific theory – Is broad in scope – Generates new hypotheses – Is supported by a large body of evidence

65 Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Model Building in Science Models of ideas, structures, and processes – Help us understand scientific phenomena and make predictions To lungs To body Right artium Right ventricle From lungs From body Figure 1.30

66 Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings The Culture of Science Science is a social activity – Characterized by both cooperation and competition Figure 1.31

67 Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Science, Technology, and Society Technology – Applies scientific knowledge for some specific purpose Figure 1.32

68 Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Concept 1.6: A set of themes connects the concepts of biology Underlying themes – Provide a framework for understanding biology

69 Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Eleven themes that unify biology Table 1.1


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