2Animal TypesAll animals are grouped as either an invertebrate or a vertebrate.95% of all animals are invertebrate organisms.The animals do not have a backbone or vertebral column.5% of all animals are vertebrates.These animals do have a backbone.
5Porifera Oldest of the animal phyla No symmetry or consistent body shapeWater flows through its body which is full of canalsSpicules act as a skeleton to give it structureNo locomotion (stationary animals)Contain specialized cells but they are not organized into tissues, organs, or organ systems
6Cnidaria – ex. Sea Anenome Tentacles of Sea Anemone
8Cnidarians First phyla to have a nervous system Contain a nerve net: interconnected neurons without a brain or cephalizationSome have stinging cells called nematocysts for stunning preyLive in two forms: free swimming medusa or non-swimming polypDigestive tract with the entrance being the exitTentacles are used for obtaining food
10Platyhelminthes Hemaphroditic – worms have both male and female parts Simplest animals with bilateral symmetryTubular mouth of pharynx for taking in foodDigestive tract with the entrance being the exitMost members are parasiticLight sensitive cells make up their “eyes” called eyespotsA group of nerve cells for a ganglia which acts like a brain
14Annelida Bilateral symmetry and segmented bodies Complete digestive tract with two ends: mouth and anusFluid filled skeleton (hydrostatic skeleton) helps them moveClosed circulatory system with 5 “hearts”Hair-like bristles on each segment help them move
15Mollusca (With and Without Shells) scallopsnailnudibranchoctopusnautilus
16MolluscaFeeding device like a toothed, scraping tongue called a radulaMost have a calcium based shellMuscular foot can allow the animal to slide, dig, or jumpSome propel themselves in the water using their siphon as a jetMantle of tissue covers the body and secretes calciumDigestive tract with two ends: mouth and anus
18Arthropoda Jointed segmented body Nervous system with a brain Exoskeleton made of chitinTend to metamorphasize/moltLargest animal phyla
19Echinoderms Sea fan (crinoid) starfish Brittle star Sand dollar Sea cucumber
20Echinodermata Five part radial symmetry in adults Tube feet directed by a water vascular system help them move and eatHard but flexible bodies with plates of calcium under the skinAll members are marine – live in oceanThe name means “spiny skin”Digestive tract with two ends: mouth and anus
22All vertebrates belong to Phylum Chordata Have a notochord which develops into vertebrae that protect the spinal cordHave an internal skeleton that allows them to grow without moltingMade up of fish and tetrapods (land-dwelling animals with legs)
28What do animals do to survive? Section 26-1AllAnimalshavearecarry outEukaryotic cellsHeterotrophsEssential functionswithsuch asNo cell wallsFeedingRespirationCirculationExcretionResponseMovementReproduction
29In order to survive, animals need to maintain homeostasis Homeostasis is the balance between the internal environment and the changing external conditionsThis is achieved through feedback – the control of a process or system by its results
30In positive feedback, the results of the process make it happen: a “chain reaction”. In negative feedback, the process is shut down by its products.
31In mammals such as humans, homeostasis is maintained through interactions between organ systems Atoms make up biomoleculesBiomolecules make up organellesOrganelles make up cellsCells make up tissuesTissues make up organsOrgans make up organ systemsOrgan systems make up organisms
32Early DevelopmentDuring the early development of animal embryos, cells divide to produce a hollow ball of cells called a blastula.The cells continue to divide to form three germ layers:Ectoderm: forms skin, nerves, and sense organsMesoderm: forms muscles and other systemsEndoderm: forms liver and lungs
33Nervous and Endocrine Systems The nervous system and the endocrine system provide the means by which organ systems communicateThe body’s communication systems help maintain homeostasis
34The nervous system controls thoughts, movement, and emotion. The endocrine system controls growth, development, and digestion.
35Nervous SystemThe nervous system works quickly, using chemical and electrical signals.interconnected network of cellssignals move through cellsdivided into central nervous system (CNS) and peripheral nervous system (PNS)
36Endocrine System The endocrine system works more slowly. only chemical signals (hormones)signals move through bloodstream (circulatory system)physically unconnected organs
37Worksheets Nervous system – p. 838, 847 - 852 Endocrine system – p
38Circulatory and Respiratory Systems The respiratory and circulatory systems work together to maintain homeostasis.The respiratory system moves gases into and out of the blood.Oxygen-poor bloodOxygen-rich bloodnosesinusmouthepiglottistrachealungs
39The circulatory system transports blood and other materials Brings supplies to cellsCarries away wastesSeparates oxygen-poor and oxygen-rich bloodThe respiratory system is where gas exchange occursPick up oxygen from inhaled airExpels carbon dioxide and water
41Gas ExchangeOxygen and carbon dioxide are carried by the blood to and from the alveoli.oxygen diffuses from alveoli into capillaryoxygen binds to hemoglobin in red blood cellscarbon dioxide diffuses from capillary into alveoli
42Blood FlowPulmonary circulation occurs between the heart and the lungs.oxygen-poor blood enters lungsexcess carbon dioxide and water expelledblood picks up oxygenoxygen-rich blood returns to heart
43Systemic circulation occurs between the heart and the rest of the body. oxygen-rich blood goes to organs, extremities by through arteriesoxygen-poor blood returns to heart through veins
45Digestive and Excretory Systems The digestive system breaks down food into simpler molecules, and the excretory system removes wastes and helps maintain homeostasis.The digestive system breaks down food into energy cells can use.After digestion is complete, nutrients are absorbed and transported to all cells.Undigested materials are eliminated as liquid and solid wastes through the excretory system.
46Digestive System Digestion of carbohydrates begins in the mouth. Digestion of proteins occurs in the stomach.Digestion of fats and sugars occur in the small intestine.Digestion is completed in the small intestine.Pancreas helps digest fat and proteinBile from the liver/gallbladder helps digest fats
47Digestion Peristalsis moves food through the organs esophagus muscles contractmuscles relaxfoodstomach
48Villi increase surface area for absorption of nutrients.
49Excretory SystemIn addition to removing waste produced from the digestive system, the excretory system removes nonsolid waste.Nonsolid wastes are eliminated through lungs, skin, and kidneys.Lungs exhale carbon dioxide and water vapor.Sweat glands in skin release excess water and salts.Kidneys filter and clean the blood to produce urine.
50The excretory system helps maintain homeostasis by controlling water loss and filtering the blood. Dialysis is used to filter blood in people with damaged kidneys
51Other systems protect, support, and move the body. The skeletal system allow for movements, supports the body, and protects tissues.The muscular system moves substances throughout the body.bones of the skeletal systemfood through digestive systemblood through circulatory systemfluids through excretory systemThe integumentary system (hair, skin, oil glands, etc.) surrounds the body and organs and removes substances (water, salt, and urea).
52Immune SystemThe immune system is the body system that fights off infection and pathogens.Many other tissues and systems help the immune system.Skin is a physical barrier to infection.Mucous membranes trap pathogens entering the body.The circulatory system transports immune cells.
53Cells and proteins fight the body’s infections. White blood cells attack infections inside the body.Phagocytes engulf and destroy pathogens.T cells destroy infected cells.B cells produce antibodies.Three types of proteins fight off invading pathogens.Complement proteins weaken pathogen membranes.Antibodies make pathogens ineffective.Interferons prevent viruses from infecting healthy cells.antibodypathogens
54Immunity prevents a person from getting sick. Passive immunity occurs without an immune response.Mother’s milkGeneticsActive immunity occurs after a specific immune responseVaccines produce acquired immunitystimulates a specific immune responseallows immune system to respond quickly to infectioncauses memory cells to be producedhas such a fast response, a person will not get sick
55Allergies occur when the immune system responds to harmless anitgens. Allergies are caused by allergens.Allergens are antigens that cause an allergic reaction.Allergens cause inflammation responses.May be food, airborne, or chemicalCan cause anaphylaxis
56In autoimmune diseases, white blood cells attack the body’s healthy cells. Autoimmune diseases are failures of the immune system.White blood cells cannot recognize healthy cells.White blood cells attack healthy body cells.Tissues fail because of attack.