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Animals. Animal Types All animals are grouped as either an invertebrate or a vertebrate. – 95% of all animals are invertebrate organisms. The animals.

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Presentation on theme: "Animals. Animal Types All animals are grouped as either an invertebrate or a vertebrate. – 95% of all animals are invertebrate organisms. The animals."— Presentation transcript:

1 Animals

2 Animal Types All animals are grouped as either an invertebrate or a vertebrate. – 95% of all animals are invertebrate organisms. The animals do not have a backbone or vertebral column. – 5% of all animals are vertebrates. These animals do have a backbone.

3 Invertebrate groups

4 Porifera – ex. Sponge Osculum of Sponge

5 Porifera Oldest of the animal phyla No symmetry or consistent body shape Water flows through its body which is full of canals Spicules act as a skeleton to give it structure No locomotion (stationary animals) Contain specialized cells but they are not organized into tissues, organs, or organ systems

6 Cnidaria – ex. Sea Anenome Tentacles of Sea Anemone

7 7 More Cnidarians Brain Coral Red jellyfish

8 Cnidarians First phyla to have a nervous system – Contain a nerve net: interconnected neurons without a brain or cephalization Some have stinging cells called nematocysts for stunning prey Live in two forms: free swimming medusa or non- swimming polyp Digestive tract with the entrance being the exit Tentacles are used for obtaining food

9 Platyhelminthes – ex. flatworms Planarian Marine Flatworm

10 Platyhelminthes Hemaphroditic – worms have both male and female parts Simplest animals with bilateral symmetry Tubular mouth of pharynx for taking in food Digestive tract with the entrance being the exit Most members are parasitic Light sensitive cells make up their “eyes” called eyespots A group of nerve cells for a ganglia which acts like a brain

11 Nematoda – ex. roundworms Nematode

12 Nemotoda Have flattened bodies with bilateral symmetry Many are parasitic Breathe through their skin Digestive tract with two ends: mouth and anus

13 Annelida – ex. Segmented worms Leech (segmented worm)

14 Annelida Bilateral symmetry and segmented bodies Complete digestive tract with two ends: mouth and anus Fluid filled skeleton (hydrostatic skeleton) helps them move Closed circulatory system with 5 “hearts” Hair-like bristles on each segment help them move

15 Mollusca (With and Without Shells) snail scallop nautilus nudibranch octopus

16 Mollusca Feeding device like a toothed, scraping tongue called a radula Most have a calcium based shell Muscular foot can allow the animal to slide, dig, or jump Some propel themselves in the water using their siphon as a jet Mantle of tissue covers the body and secretes calcium Digestive tract with two ends: mouth and anus

17 Arthropoda (insects, spiders, crustaceans, horseshoe crab) Dung beetle Horseshoe crab crayfish spider

18 Arthropoda Jointed segmented body Nervous system with a brain Exoskeleton made of chitin Tend to metamorphasize/molt Largest animal phyla

19 Echinoderms Sea cucumber Sand dollar starfish Brittle star Sea fan (crinoid)

20 Echinodermata Five part radial symmetry in adults Tube feet directed by a water vascular system help them move and eat Hard but flexible bodies with plates of calcium under the skin All members are marine – live in ocean The name means “spiny skin” Digestive tract with two ends: mouth and anus

21 Vertebrate Groups

22 All vertebrates belong to Phylum Chordata Have a notochord which develops into vertebrae that protect the spinal cord Have an internal skeleton that allows them to grow without molting Made up of fish and tetrapods (land-dwelling animals with legs)

23 Fish lancelet ray anglerfish damselfish

24 Amphibia toad newt frog salamander

25 Reptilia Turtle Snake Alligator Lizard

26 Birds - Aves hummingbird ostrich lovebirds

27 Mammalia

28 Section 26-1 havearecarry out withsuch as What do animals do to survive? All Animals FeedingRespirationCirculationExcretionResponseMovementReproduction Eukaryotic cells Heterotrophs Essential functions No cell walls

29 In order to survive, animals need to maintain homeostasis Homeostasis is the balance between the internal environment and the changing external conditions This is achieved through feedback – the control of a process or system by its results

30 – In positive feedback, the results of the process make it happen: a “chain reaction”. – In negative feedback, the process is shut down by its products.

31 In mammals such as humans, homeostasis is maintained through interactions between organ systems Atoms make up biomolecules Biomolecules make up organelles Organelles make up cells Cells make up tissues Tissues make up organs Organs make up organ systems Organ systems make up organisms

32 Early Development During the early development of animal embryos, cells divide to produce a hollow ball of cells called a blastula. The cells continue to divide to form three germ layers: – Ectoderm: forms skin, nerves, and sense organs – Mesoderm: forms muscles and other systems – Endoderm: forms liver and lungs

33 Nervous and Endocrine Systems The nervous system and the endocrine system provide the means by which organ systems communicate The body’s communication systems help maintain homeostasis

34 The nervous system controls thoughts, movement, and emotion. The endocrine system controls growth, development, and digestion.

35 Nervous System The nervous system works quickly, using chemical and electrical signals. – interconnected network of cells – signals move through cells – divided into central nervous system (CNS) and peripheral nervous system (PNS)

36 Endocrine System The endocrine system works more slowly. – only chemical signals (hormones) – signals move through bloodstream (circulatory system) – physically unconnected organs

37 Worksheets Nervous system – p. 838, Endocrine system – p

38 Circulatory and Respiratory Systems The respiratory and circulatory systems work together to maintain homeostasis. The respiratory system moves gases into and out of the blood. Oxygen-poor blood Oxygen-rich blood nose sinus mouth epiglottis trachea lungs

39 The circulatory system transports blood and other materials – Brings supplies to cells – Carries away wastes – Separates oxygen-poor and oxygen-rich blood The respiratory system is where gas exchange occurs – Pick up oxygen from inhaled air – Expels carbon dioxide and water

40

41 Gas Exchange Oxygen and carbon dioxide are carried by the blood to and from the alveoli. – oxygen diffuses from alveoli into capillary – oxygen binds to hemoglobin in red blood cells – carbon dioxide diffuses from capillary into alveoli

42 Blood Flow Pulmonary circulation occurs between the heart and the lungs. – oxygen-poor blood enters lungs – excess carbon dioxide and water expelled – blood picks up oxygen – oxygen-rich blood returns to heart

43 Systemic circulation occurs between the heart and the rest of the body. – oxygen-rich blood goes to organs, extremities by through arteries – oxygen-poor blood returns to heart through veins

44 Worksheets Respiratory – p Circulatory – p

45 Digestive and Excretory Systems The digestive system breaks down food into simpler molecules, and the excretory system removes wastes and helps maintain homeostasis. – The digestive system breaks down food into energy cells can use. – After digestion is complete, nutrients are absorbed and transported to all cells. – Undigested materials are eliminated as liquid and solid wastes through the excretory system.

46 Digestive System Digestion of carbohydrates begins in the mouth. Digestion of proteins occurs in the stomach. Digestion of fats and sugars occur in the small intestine. Digestion is completed in the small intestine. – Pancreas helps digest fat and protein – Bile from the liver/gallbladder helps digest fats

47 Digestion Peristalsis moves food through the organs esophagus muscles contract muscles relax food stomach

48 Villi increase surface area for absorption of nutrients.

49 Excretory System In addition to removing waste produced from the digestive system, the excretory system removes nonsolid waste. Nonsolid wastes are eliminated through lungs, skin, and kidneys. Lungs exhale carbon dioxide and water vapor. Sweat glands in skin release excess water and salts. Kidneys filter and clean the blood to produce urine.

50 The excretory system helps maintain homeostasis by controlling water loss and filtering the blood. – Dialysis is used to filter blood in people with damaged kidneys

51 Other systems protect, support, and move the body. The skeletal system allow for movements, supports the body, and protects tissues. The muscular system moves substances throughout the body. – bones of the skeletal system – food through digestive system – blood through circulatory system – fluids through excretory system The integumentary system (hair, skin, oil glands, etc.) surrounds the body and organs and removes substances (water, salt, and urea).

52 Immune System The immune system is the body system that fights off infection and pathogens. Many other tissues and systems help the immune system. – Skin is a physical barrier to infection. – Mucous membranes trap pathogens entering the body. – The circulatory system transports immune cells.

53 Cells and proteins fight the body’s infections. White blood cells attack infections inside the body. – Phagocytes engulf and destroy pathogens. – T cells destroy infected cells. – B cells produce antibodies. Three types of proteins fight off invading pathogens. – Complement proteins weaken pathogen membranes. – Antibodies make pathogens ineffective. – Interferons prevent viruses from infecting healthy cells. antibody pathogens

54 Immunity prevents a person from getting sick. Passive immunity occurs without an immune response. – Mother’s milk – Genetics Active immunity occurs after a specific immune response Vaccines produce acquired immunity – stimulates a specific immune response – allows immune system to respond quickly to infection – causes memory cells to be produced – has such a fast response, a person will not get sick

55 Allergies occur when the immune system responds to harmless anitgens. Allergies are caused by allergens. – Allergens are antigens that cause an allergic reaction. – Allergens cause inflammation responses. – May be food, airborne, or chemical – Can cause anaphylaxis

56 In autoimmune diseases, white blood cells attack the body’s healthy cells. Autoimmune diseases are failures of the immune system. – White blood cells cannot recognize healthy cells. – White blood cells attack healthy body cells. – Tissues fail because of attack.


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