Presentation on theme: "Monday 4/21 RAP—on next page Today: Holocaust PPT SWBAT describe the different stages of the Holocaust. SWBAT explain a form of resistance by Jews and."— Presentation transcript:
Monday 4/21 RAP—on next page Today: Holocaust PPT SWBAT describe the different stages of the Holocaust. SWBAT explain a form of resistance by Jews and others during the Holocaust.
Have you ever…? In your notes title—Have you ever…? Answer truthfully. This is for your eyes only. 1.Overheard a joke that made fun of a person of different ethnic background, race, religion, gender or sexual orientation? 2. Been the target of name calling because of your ethnic group, race, religion, gender or sexual orientation? 3.Made fun of someone different from you? 4.Left someone out of an activity because they are different from you? 5.Were not invited to attend an activity or social function because many of the people there are different from you?
Questions Why do you think people tell ethnic jokes about other groups, insult others, or exclude them socially? Why would these differences cause a person to “put down” someone else? Where do people learn to disrespect people who seem different? Can you give examples of a prejudice you have learned through the media?
Case Study—”Whispering and laughing” In one school, a group of four boys began whispering and laughing about another boy in their school that they thought was gay. They began making comments when they walked by him in the hall. Soon, they started calling the boy insulting anti-gay slurs. By the end of the month, they had taken their harassment to another level, tripping him when he walked by and pushing him into a locker while they yelled slurs. Some time during the next month, they increased the seriousness of their conduct– they surrounded him and two boys held his arms while the others hit and kicked him. Eventually, one of the boys threatened to bring his father’s gun into school the next day to kill the boy. At this point another student overheard the threat and the police were notified.
Questions Could something similar to this happen at this school? How do you think a situation like this could affect the entire school? What could have been done to stop the situation from escalating? This situation started out as “whispering and laughing” and became more intense, escalating to violence. One visual representation is called the Pyramid of Hate.
Based on the case study Where would you place “whispering and laughing” on the pyramid? Why do you think that something which, at first, seemed harmless, progressed into violence? Even if it seemed harmless to the perpetrators and bystanders, do you think it felt harmless to the victim? How do you think he felt? At what level of the pyramid do you think it would be easiest for someone to intervene? What would be some possible ways to intervene? Can you think of examples of genocide that occurred due to race, national origin, religion, sexual orientation, etc.
HOLOCAUST The Holocaust was the systematic, bureaucratic annihilation of six million Jews by the Nazi regime and their collaborators as a central act of state during World War II. Drawing on long-embedded prejudices in European culture, Nazism’s assault on Judaism encompassed individuals, institutions, and governments throughout occupied Europe and drew into the process many non- German perpetrators on whose help the Nazis could count. The targets of Nazi policy were many and varied, including Jews, Gypsies, Poles, communists, homosexuals, Jehovah Witnesses, Africans, and others. The scope of Nazi “success” in its central aim – to rid the European world of its Jews – is staggering in that two thirds of European Jews were killed during the era of Nazi power.
Standing against this onslaught were some people of conscience and faith, both Jews and non-Jews, who resisted Nazi policies in a variety of ways. More celebrated acts of resistance include armed struggles: the dramatic blowing up of a crematorium in Auschwitz, the pitched battle of the Warsaw Ghetto, the partisan struggle outside Bialystok. Lesser known, but similarly important, resistance acts included organizational attempts to make life livable in seemingly intolerable conditions, to instill values and faith, and to promote dignity and hope. Resistance, then, is a larger, more complex construct than one symbolized by a gun or Molotov cocktail alone.
Genocide Genocide as defined by the United Nations in 1948 means any of the following acts committed with intent to destroy, in whole or in part, a national, ethnic, racial, or religious group, including: –Killing members of the group –Causing serious bodily or mental harm to members of the group –Deliberately inflicting on the group conditions to bring about its physical destructions in whole or in part –Imposing measures intended to prevent births within the group –Forcibly transferring children of the group to another group.
Stages of the Holocaust Timeline Create a timeline in your notes from 1933 – 1945 in one year increments; i.e. 1933, 1934, 1935… 1.Boycott of Jewish Businesses (1933) 1.Hitler announces a boycott of all Jewish businesses. This isolates Jews both socially and economically from German society.
Nuremburg Laws (1935) Laws are passed depriving German Jews of their citizenship and banning marriages between Jews and non- Jews. All Jews forced to wear a yellow Star of David so they can be easily identified. Jews not wanted here.
Kristallnacht (1938) On November 10, 1938, Nazi officials unleash a savage nationwide campaign of terror against Germany’s Jewish population. Many Jews are killed and hundreds of Jewish shops and synagogues are destroyed. 30,000 Jews are arrested and sent to prison camps.
Jewish Ghettos (1939) Ghettos, or confined areas within a city, are established in occupied eastern Europe. Jews from throughout Europe are forced from their homes and required to live in ghettos. Warsaw Ghetto
Deportation Throughout Europe (1942-1945) Nazis systematically round up Jews throughout Europe and transport them to death camps in Eastern Europe.
Final Solution (1942-1945) Nazi officials agree to move forward with a plan to kill all European Jews. Death camps are built specifically for this purpose; deportations of Jews throughout Europe begin. Six million Jews are killed.
Liberation ( 1944-1945) Allied troops liberate, or free, approximately 300,000 Jews from the concentration and death camps.
Dona On a wagon bound for market Lies a calf with a mournful eye High above him, there’s a swallow Flying freely through the sky How the winds are laughing They laugh with all their might Laugh and laugh the whole day through And half the winter’s night Chorus: Dona dona dona dona, dona dona dona doe “Stop complaining!” says the farmer “Who told you a calf to be? Why don’t you have wings to fly with Like that swallow, proud and free?” Chorus: Dona dona dona dona, dona dona dona doe Calves are easily bound and slaughtered Never knowing the reasons why But whoever treasures freedom Like the swallow will learn to fly Chorus: Dona dona dona dona, dona dona dona doe
Dona –Originally written by Aaron Zeitlin, a famous Yiddish poet, for a 1940 theatrical production in New York called Esterkeh. –Is associated with the Holocaust because Zeitlin was a refugee from Poland who, had he not come to New York to work on Esterkeh, undoubtedly would have been sent to the Warsaw ghetto and killed, like the rest of his family was, in the Holocaust. –This vastly popular song is a parable (moral or religious story), and, as such, is enigmatic (hard to understand) and open to interpretation. It has been viewed as a metaphor for the difficulty of being Jewish during the Holocaust as well as a call to resistance – to be like the swallow, “proud and free,” not like the calf, “easily bound and slaughtered.”
The Holocaust Objective: SWBAT Describe stages of the Holocaust. Define key terms. Discuss the role of bystander during the Holocaust. Understand the United States role in the Holocaust by reading and discussing how much people knew about the Holocaust at the time.
TERMS 1.Holocaust The systematic, bureaucratic annihilation of six million Jews by the Nazi regime during WWII. Over six million people of the Jewish heritage and approximately 6,000,000 others including Roma Gypsies, Serbs, Polish intelligents, resistance fighters, and opponents of Nazism, homosexuals, Jehovah’s Witnesses, habitual criminals, the physically and mentally disabled, and the poor and homeless were killed.
2.Genocide means any of the following acts committed with intent to destroy, in whole or in part, a national, ethnical, racial or religious group, as such: (a) Killing members of the group; (b) Causing serious bodily or mental harm to members of the group; (c) Deliberately inflicting on the group conditions of life calculated to bring about its physical destruction in whole or in part; (d) Imposing measures intended to prevent births within the group; (e) Forcibly transferring children of the group to another group. (geno-, from the Greek word for race or tribe, with -cide, from the Latin word for killing)
TERMS cont. 3. Anti-Semitism- –Policies, views, or actions that harm or discriminate against Jews. –Has plagued the world for more than 2,000 years.
TERMS cont. 4.Indifference / Bystander- somebody who is indifferent or nearby but not involved – during WWII many people stood by watching the campaign against Jews and others without trying to help prevent the murder of millions. Why?
United Nations on Genocide United Nations— Pledged to never let this happen again. The Convention confirms that genocide, whether committed in time of peace or war, is a crime under international law which parties to the Convention undertake “to prevent and to punish” (article 1). The primary responsibility to prevent and stop genocide lies with the State in which this crime takes place.
Individually come up with three ways the Allies could have lessened or prevented the Holocaust. In groups of two or three, please write down what you feel is the best way the Allies could have lessened or prevented the Holocaust. Explain. What do you think individuals, communities, countries, and the world should do, if anything, to prevent genocides from continuing to happen.
Stories of Resistance In your groups of three or four, you will read about resistance at one stage of the Holocaust and then create a Poster to present to the class. –You will create a poster based on your handout tomorrow. –Make sure you answer the questions in the poster. –Also, please make sure you address these two prompts in your poster. Describe What happened during this stage. What we learned about resistance in this stage.