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Community Interactions Competition Predation Symbiosis Figure Source:

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1 Community Interactions Competition Predation Symbiosis Figure Source:

2 3 Major Types of Community Interactions Recall: What is a community? Recall: What is a community? Community = assemblage of populations interacting with one another within the same environment Community = assemblage of populations interacting with one another within the same environment Organisms within a community interact with each other in 3 major ways: Organisms within a community interact with each other in 3 major ways: - Competition - Predation - Predation - Symbiosis - Symbiosis Let’s look at each of these interactions in more detail. Let’s look at each of these interactions in more detail.

3 What is Competition? Competition Competition Occurs when members of different species try to utilize a resource (such as light, space, or nutrients) that is in limited supply. Occurs when members of different species try to utilize a resource (such as light, space, or nutrients) that is in limited supply. Results in a winner and a loser. Results in a winner and a loser. Think of sports teams when they compete. Think of sports teams when they compete. Scenario #2 in our opening demonstration Scenario #2 in our opening demonstration Competitive Exclusion Principle Competitive Exclusion Principle No two species can occupy the same ecological niche in the same habitat at the same time. No two species can occupy the same ecological niche in the same habitat at the same time.

4 What is Predation? Predation Predation Occurs when one living organism feeds on another living organism. Occurs when one living organism feeds on another living organism. Involves predator and prey Involves predator and prey Predator = organism that feeds Predator = organism that feeds on another organism on another organism Prey = organism that is the food Prey = organism that is the food Example: Lynx and bunny Example: Lynx and bunny In today’s lab, we’ll examine a predator-prey relationship. In today’s lab, we’ll examine a predator-prey relationship. Figure Source: images/LynxAttackRabbit2.jpg

5 Mimicry- An Antipredator Defense 2 main types– Batesian & Mullerian 2 main types– Batesian & Mullerian Batesian Mimicry Batesian Mimicry A harmless species resembles a poisonous or distasteful species A harmless species resembles a poisonous or distasteful species The harmless mimic is protected b/c it is often mistaken to be its dangerous look-alike The harmless mimic is protected b/c it is often mistaken to be its dangerous look-alike Example: A king snake (nonpoisonous) resembles a coral snake (poisonous) Example: A king snake (nonpoisonous) resembles a coral snake (poisonous) King Snake Coral Snake King Snake Coral Snake

6 Mimicry- An Antipredator Defense Mullerian Mimicry Mullerian Mimicry When 2 or more dangerous or distasteful species look similar. When 2 or more dangerous or distasteful species look similar. Each species involved benefits b/c a predator that encounters an individual of 1 species will avoid similar individuals. Each species involved benefits b/c a predator that encounters an individual of 1 species will avoid similar individuals. Example: Bees & wasps have similar patterns of alternating yellow & black stripes. Example: Bees & wasps have similar patterns of alternating yellow & black stripes.

7 What is Symbiosis? Symbiosis Symbiosis Refers to the close interactions between members of two species. Refers to the close interactions between members of two species. 3 major types 3 major types ► Parasitism ► Parasitism ► Commensalism ► Commensalism ► Mutualism ► Mutualism Let’s look at each type… Let’s look at each type… Figure Source: birding/CattleEgret(JM).jpg

8 Parasitism What is it? What is it? A relationship in which one organism lives on or in another organism and gets its nourishment from it. A relationship in which one organism lives on or in another organism and gets its nourishment from it. One organism is harmed (host) and one organism benefits (parasite) One organism is harmed (host) and one organism benefits (parasite) Example: Example: Deer ticks on dogs Deer ticks on dogs Can you think of any others? Can you think of any others?

9 Commensalism What is it? What is it? Relationship in which one organism benefits and other organism is not hurt or helped. Relationship in which one organism benefits and other organism is not hurt or helped. One organism often provides a home and/or transport for the other organism. One organism often provides a home and/or transport for the other organism. Example: Example: Barnacles that attach themselves to backs of whales Barnacles that attach themselves to backs of whales The whale is not affected. The whale is not affected. The barnacles benefit from transportation and eat small food particles in the water. The barnacles benefit from transportation and eat small food particles in the water. Can you think of any others? Can you think of any others?

10 Mutualism What is it? What is it? A relationship in which both members benefit. A relationship in which both members benefit. Think of a “mutual agreement”  both parties benefit! Think of a “mutual agreement”  both parties benefit! Example: Example: Bees and flowers. Bees and flowers. Bee benefits because eats Bee benefits because eats nectar (food). nectar (food). Flower benefits because the bee Flower benefits because the bee spreads its pollen (reproduction). spreads its pollen (reproduction). Can you think of any others? Can you think of any others?

11 Symbiosis You can think of the various types of symbiosis as almost a continuum… You can think of the various types of symbiosis as almost a continuum… Parasitism Commensalism Mutualism ( + / - ) ( + / 0 ) ( + / + ) ( + / - ) ( + / 0 ) ( + / + )  An extreme  Helps one member  Hurts other member  In the middle  Helps one member  No affect on other member  An extreme  Helps both members

12 Checking your understanding– Quick Questions 1. What is a community? 2. What is the Competitive Exclusion Principle? 3. What is predation? 4. What is the name of the symbiotic relationship in which both organisms benefit? 5. What is the name of the symbiotic relationship in which one organism benefits and other is not helped or harmed? 6. What is the name of the symbiotic relationship in which one organism benefits but other is harmed?

13 Find an example Using a computer or a smart phone, please find one example of a predator/prey relationship, a symbiotic relationship (be able to determine the type: mutualism, commensalism or parasitism) Using a computer or a smart phone, please find one example of a predator/prey relationship, a symbiotic relationship (be able to determine the type: mutualism, commensalism or parasitism) Please find examples that we haven’t discussed in class. Please find examples that we haven’t discussed in class.

14 Homework for tonight: Read pages about biomes. Read pages about biomes. We will be playing biome bingo and doing an activity about biomes over the next two days. We will be playing biome bingo and doing an activity about biomes over the next two days. Unit 2 Test will be on Friday! 10/5 Unit 2 Test will be on Friday! 10/5 In class review on Thurs. 10/4 In class review on Thurs. 10/4


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