7Evidence & The Burden of Proof Burden of Proof – To produce credible evidence to prove the element of each crime charged.Why is considered credible evidence???The smoking gun…….The bloody knife…….?????
8Beyond a Reasonable Doubt What is beyond a reasonable doubt?Proof that leaves you firmly convincedIn a criminal case it is the standard used in which a defendant is convicted.Who’s responsibility is it to establish beyond a reasonable doubt?Why?
9What Burden does the Defense Has? Does the Defense have to prove beyond a reasonable doubt? No…..exceptAffirmative DefensesSelf-DefenseDuressIntoxicationEntrapmentInsanityThe Defense must “introduce" evidence.
10The Burden of Persuasion The defense can try to persuade a jury that the prosecution has not established the defendant’s guilt.“If the glove don’t fit, you must acquit”
11JudgeTrier of the lawJudge (referee) – decides what is evidence admissible (testimony, photos, etc.)Rules on questioning of witnessesObjection “sustained” or overruled”Uses prior case rulingsJudicial Discretion
12JuriesA jury is a body of persons convened to render a verdict (finding of fact) on a legal question officially submitted to them, or to set a penalty or judgment in a jury trial of a court of law
13Jury Trier of Facts The credibility of the witnesses The weight to be given to the testimony of each witnessHow the facts manage the definition of the crimeIf the prosecution has established the case beyond a reasonable doubtHas anyone in the class served on a jury?
14The History of Evidence The rules of evidence were designed to control the judge and juryIn the Middle Ages such abuses as:Star Chamber, Inquisition forcing the suspects to confessTorture chambers were designed to force confessions
15History of Juries Greek First to rely on the community to pass judgement on a variety of cases.Initially, the entire population was required to serve.Eventually, jurors were drawn from a cross section of the community. (dicastery)
16History of Juries Roman Relied on an early form of the jury system. Juries consisted of 35 – 75 members.Common law juries had the function of investigating crimes as well as conducting trials of the accused.
17The “Rules of Evidence” Each state has its separate rulesEach state enacts its own laws and rules of evidenceException:Cases involving or under the control of the U.S. Constitution
18Sources of Evidence Law U.S. ConstitutionU.S. Supreme CourtFederal CourtsFederal Rules of EvidenceState Rules of EvidenceState Case Law
19U.S. Constitution The Constitution has little bearing on evidence If there is a violation in the defendant’s constitutional rights can evidence obtained be used?The most significant Amendment that will impact this course is which?
20U.S. Supreme CourtThe final arbiter of the meaning of the U.S. ConstitutionVery selective in the cases they hearThe court supervises the federal court system.
21Federal Courts U.S. Court of Appeals (13) Hear cases involving violations of federal statutesWill hear final appeals prior to a death sentence
22Federal Rules of Evidence Laws governing the admission of evidenceEnacted by CongressComprehensive set of rules designed to work together as whole.
23State Rules of Evidence Each state can enact their own evidenceMany states follow the FREArizona & California combined their state rules with the federal rules
24State Case LawWhen they are not state laws present, the laws of other states (not binding) may influence a judge in a ruling.If argued persuasively, it can “informally” affect the outcome of a case.
25Impact of Case Law U.S. Supreme Court interprets the Constitution These rulings apply to the entire countryMiranda, Roe v. WadeState courts can also rule that a state law violates the U.S. ConstitutionThis ruling stands until the SCOTUS rules otherwise.
26Impact of Case Law Stare Decisis aka “Case Law” Prior decisions of appellate courts are considered binding on lower courts until:ReversedVacatedOverruled
27Review of Evidentiary Matters Issues regarding evidence must be raised in trial court in order to preserve them for appealWhat is a case “on all fours?”
28Under the following conditions: If an appellate court finds that a trial judge made an error, the “Harmless Error Rule”Under the following conditions:An error will not cause the case to be reversed on appeal unless the appellate court believes the error was likely to affect the outcome of the case.
29How is Legal Research Done? Law LibraryCD’sInternetfindlaw.comusscplus.comcourtinfo.ca.gov
30Review Questions Define the term evidence. Give Examples Explain the term burden of proof. What is the role of the U.S. Supreme Court in determining the rules of evidence for Federal courts and for state courts?Define what is meant by beyond a reasonable doubt.
31Review QuestionsIn a criminal trial, who is the trier of the law, who is the trier of the facts, and what are their respective roles?List three sources of law that governs evidence.explain how to find the opinion of the U.S. supreme court in Terry v. Ohio, 392 U.S. 1, 20 L.Ed. 2d 889, 88 S.Ct (1968).Explain the Harmless Error rule.