Presentation on theme: "T HE I MMUNE S YSTEM Just the basics Write the notes on the slides that have a star."— Presentation transcript:
T HE I MMUNE S YSTEM Just the basics Write the notes on the slides that have a star
P ARTS OF THE I MMUNE S YSTEM Cells and organs that fight against invaders Platelets – Clot blood Antibodies – helps white blood cells find invaders quickly, may disable invaders White Blood Cell – surrounds and destroys invaders B cells and T cells recognizes invaders (MHC proteins) Many, many types that specialize in different things Lymph Node Hold white blood cells Filters/Traps foreign particles http://health.howstuffworks.com/adam-200095.htm http://bcs.whfreeman.com/thelifewire/content/chp18/1802004.html
H OW THE I MMUNE S YSTEM F UNCTIONS Every cell has proteins on its surface Helps the body identify “self” from “enemy” Anything without the proteins (or sending unusual chemical signals) gets attacked http://highered.mcgraw-hill.com/sites/0072507470/student_view0/chapter22/animation__the_immune_response.html http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=lrYlZJiuf18
White blood cell (yellow) engulfing bacteria enemy (red)
I MMUNE R ESPONSES Inflammation = Increase in blood flow to an area + More white blood cells to fight – Swelling, closing passages Fever = Increased temperature + Faster recovery, may slows bacterial growth – Discomfort, may damage your cells Allergies The immune system is triggered by a harmless substance Limiting exposure to decreases the number of antibodies Allergy shots flood the immune system and desensitizes it Runny Nose Trying to clear itself of foreign material, tears draining Pus White blood cells that are fighting and dying protecting you
N UTRITION AND I MMUNE S YSTEM Malnutrition decreases immune system function. “Overnutrition” is liked to diabetes and obesity, which decrease immune function. Healthy immune system: Fresh fruits, Vegetables Some herbs might help (echinacea, licorice, ginseng, sage, garlic, honey, mushrooms, etc.) Undernourishment of a developing baby can cause a lifelong impairment of the immune system.
T HE I MMUNE S YSTEM IS NOT P ERFECT Takes time to respond! Allergies = your immune decides something harmless is an “invader” and responds Autoimmune = your body gets confused and starts attacking itself (many diseases) Can’t find invaders disguised to look like you (for example: HIV, some cancers) Fighting an illness takes a lot of energy You need rest! You need good food! (Calories)
F OUR P ATHOGENS (Organisms that you get that make you sick)
(1) B ACTERIA Simple cell Often clone, sometimes reproduce sexually Simple and different from you so it can be killed with antibiotics Strong ones survive the longest Take the entire dose or the strong ones survive and reproduce and the medicine won’t work anymore!
(2) P ARASITES Complex animals Avoid hanging out places where they’ll be found Can be killed if we find a toxin that poisons them without poisoning you The body has natural defenses (beneficial bacteria, digestive system that moves well) Poor diet decreases a body’s ability to protect (constipation, high sugar, alcohol kill beneficial bacteria, etc.)
1. The hookworm latches on the walls of the colon with its sharp teeth where it feeds on blood. 2. The tapeworm is the longest parasite. A mature adult can lay one million eggs per day. 3. Tapeworm eggs are embedded in the colon. 4. The roundworm can grow to 20 inches (50 cm) long and lay 200,000 eggs per day. 5. Pinworms migrate outside the colon during the night to lay their eggs around the anus. This causes the nightly itching of many unsuspecting victims
(3) P ROTOZOA Complex cells Sexually reproduce so generations change quickly We don’t have drugs that are very effective Toxoplasmosis, Giardia, Dysentery, Malaria
(4) V IRUSES Much smaller than a cell (DNA & protein) Insert into your cells and hijack your DNA Since they are in your cells they are hard for the immune system to find! Splicing DNA makes them change quickly Very poor anti-viral drugs