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CAMPBELL BIOLOGY IN FOCUS © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Urry Cain Wasserman Minorsky Jackson Reece Lecture Presentations by Kathleen Fitzpatrick and Nicole Tunbridge 41 Species Interactions
© 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Overview: Communities in Motion A biological community is an assemblage of populations of various species living close enough for potential interaction For example, the “carrier crab” carries a sea urchin on its back for protection against predators
© 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Concept 41.1: Interactions within a community may help, harm, or have no effect on the species involved Ecologists call relationships between species in a community interspecific interactions Examples are competition, predation, herbivory, symbiosis (parasitism, mutualism, and commensalism), and facilitation Interspecific interactions can affect the survival and reproduction of each species, and the effects can be summarized as positive ( ), negative (−), or no effect (0)
© 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Competition Interspecific competition (−/− interaction) occurs when species compete for a resource that limits their growth or survival
© 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Competitive Exclusion Strong competition can lead to competitive exclusion, local elimination of a competing species The competitive exclusion principle states that two species competing for the same limiting resources cannot coexist in the same place
© 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Ecological Niches and Natural Selection Evolution is evident in the concept of the ecological niche, the specific set of biotic and abiotic resources used by an organism An ecological niche can also be thought of as an organism’s ecological role Ecologically similar species can coexist in a community if there are one or more significant differences in their niches
© 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. A species’ fundamental niche is the niche potentially occupied by that species A species’ realized niche is the niche actually occupied by that species As a result of competition, a species’ fundamental niche may differ from its realized niche For example, the presence of one barnacle species limits the realized niche of another species
© 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 41.3 Ocean Chthamalus Low tide Experiment Low tide High tide Ocean Balanus realized niche Chthamalus realized niche Chthamalus fundamental niche Results
© 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Predation Predation ( /− interaction) refers to an interaction in which one species, the predator, kills and eats the other, the prey Some feeding adaptations of predators are claws, teeth, stingers, and poison
© 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Prey display various defensive adaptations Behavioral defenses include hiding, fleeing, forming herds or schools, and active self-defense Animals also have morphological and physiological defense adaptations Cryptic coloration, or camouflage, makes prey difficult to spot Video: Sea Horses
© 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 41.5 (a) Cryptic coloration Canyon tree frog (b) Aposematic coloration (c) Batesian mimicry: A harmless species mimics a harmful one. (d) Müllerian mimicry: Two unpalatable species mimic each other. Poison dart frog Nonvenomous hawkmoth larva Venomous green parrot snake Cuckoo bee Yellow jacket
© 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 41.5a (a) Cryptic coloration Canyon tree frog
© 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Animals with effective chemical defenses often exhibit bright warning coloration, called aposematic coloration Predators are particularly cautious in dealing with prey that display such coloration
© 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 41.5b (b) Aposematic coloration Poison dart frog
© 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. In some cases, a prey species may gain significant protection by mimicking the appearance of another species In Batesian mimicry, a palatable or harmless species mimics an unpalatable or harmful model
© 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 41.5c (c) Batesian mimicry: A harmless species mimics a harmful one. Nonvenomous hawkmoth larva Venomous green parrot snake
© 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. In Müllerian mimicry, two or more unpalatable species resemble each other
© 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 41.5d (d) Müllerian mimicry: Two unpalatable species mimic each other. Cuckoo bee Yellow jacket
© 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Herbivory Herbivory ( /− interaction) refers to an interaction in which an herbivore eats parts of a plant or alga In addition to behavioral adaptations, some herbivores may have chemical sensors or specialized teeth or digestive systems Plant defenses include chemical toxins and protective structures
© 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Symbiosis Symbiosis is a relationship where two or more species live in direct and intimate contact with one another
© 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Parasitism In parasitism ( /− interaction), one organism, the parasite, derives nourishment from another organism, its host, which is harmed in the process Parasites that live within the body of their host are called endoparasites Parasites that live on the external surface of a host are ectoparasites
© 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Mutualism Mutualistic symbiosis, or mutualism ( / interaction), is an interspecific interaction that benefits both species In some mutualisms, one species cannot survive without the other In other mutualisms, both species can survive alone Mutualisms sometimes involve coevolution of related adaptations in both species Video: Clownfish and Anemone
© 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Commensalism In commensalism ( /0 interaction), one species benefits and the other is neither harmed nor helped Commensal interactions are hard to document in nature because any close association likely affects both species
© 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Facilitation Facilitation ( / or 0/ ) is an interaction in which one species has positive effects on another species without direct and intimate contact For example, the black rush makes the soil more hospitable for other plant species
© 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Species Diversity Species diversity of a community is the variety of organisms that make up the community It has two components: species richness and relative abundance Species richness is the number of different species in the community Relative abundance is the proportion each species represents of all individuals in the community
© 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure Community 2 B: 5% A: 80%C: 5% D: 10% Community 1 B: 25%A: 25% C: 25% D: 25% DCBA
© 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Communities with higher diversity are More productive and more stable in their productivity Able to produce biomass (the total mass of all individuals in a population) more consistently than single species plots Better able to withstand and recover from environmental stresses More resistant to invasive species, organisms that become established outside their native range
© 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Trophic Structure Trophic structure is the feeding relationships between organisms in a community It is a key factor in community dynamics Food chains link trophic levels from producers to top carnivores
© 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure Quaternary consumers: carnivores Tertiary consumers: carnivores Secondary consumers: carnivores Primary consumers: herbivores and zooplankton Primary producers: plants and phytoplankton
© 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. A food web is a branching food chain with complex trophic interactions Species may play a role at more than one trophic level Video: Shark Eating a Seal
© 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure Smaller toothed whales Sperm whales Baleen whales Crab- eater seals Elephant seals Leopard seals Birds Carnivorous plankton Humans Fishes Squids Krill Phyto- plankton Copepods
© 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Dominant species are those that are most abundant or have the highest biomass One hypothesis suggests that dominant species are most competitive in exploiting resources Another hypothesis is that they are most successful at avoiding predators and disease
© 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Keystone species exert strong control on a community by their ecological roles, or niches In contrast to dominant species, they are not necessarily abundant in a community Field studies of sea stars illustrate their role as a keystone species in intertidal communities
© 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure Experiment Results Year Number of species present ’64 Without Pisaster (experimental) With Pisaster (control) 5 ’66’65’67’69’68’70’72’71’73
© 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Bottom-Up and Top-Down Controls The bottom-up model of community organization proposes a unidirectional influence from lower to higher trophic levels In this case, the presence or absence of mineral nutrients determines community structure, including the abundance of primary producers
© 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. The bottom-up model can be represented by the equation where N mineral nutrients V plants H herbivores P predators NVHPNVHP
© 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. The top-down model, also called the trophic cascade model, proposes that control comes from the trophic level above In this case, predators control herbivores, which in turn control primary producers NVHPNVHP
© 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Ecological Succession Ecological succession is the sequence of community and ecosystem changes after a disturbance Primary succession occurs where no soil exists when succession begins Secondary succession begins in an area where soil remains after a disturbance
© 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Early-arriving species and later-arriving species may be linked in one of three processes Early arrivals may facilitate the appearance of later species by making the environment favorable Early species may inhibit the establishment of later species Later species may tolerate conditions created by early species, but are neither helped nor hindered by them
© 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Retreating glaciers provide a valuable field research opportunity for observing succession Succession on the moraines in Glacier Bay, Alaska, follows a predictable pattern of change in vegetation and soil characteristics 1.The exposed moraine is colonized by pioneering plants, including liverworts, mosses, fireweed, Dryas, and willows
© 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure Spruce stage Alder stage Pioneer stage Dryas stage Alaska Glacier Bay Kilometers
© 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Community Ecology and Zoonotic Diseases Zoonotic pathogens have been transferred from other animals to humans The transfer of pathogens can be direct or through an intermediate species called a vector Many of today’s emerging human diseases are zoonotic
© 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 41.UN03
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