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41 Species Interactions.

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Presentation on theme: "41 Species Interactions."— Presentation transcript:

1 41 Species Interactions

2 Overview: Communities in Motion
A biological community is an assemblage of populations of various species living close enough for potential interaction For example, the “carrier crab” carries a sea urchin on its back for protection against predators 2

3 Concept 41.1: Interactions within a community may help, harm, or have no effect on the species involved Ecologists call relationships between species in a community interspecific interactions Examples are competition, predation, herbivory, symbiosis (parasitism, mutualism, and commensalism), and facilitation Interspecific interactions can affect the survival and reproduction of each species, and the effects can be summarized as positive (), negative (−), or no effect (0) 3

4 Competition Interspecific competition (−/− interaction) occurs when species compete for a resource that limits their growth or survival 4

5 Competitive Exclusion
Strong competition can lead to competitive exclusion, local elimination of a competing species The competitive exclusion principle states that two species competing for the same limiting resources cannot coexist in the same place 5

6 Ecological Niches and Natural Selection
Evolution is evident in the concept of the ecological niche, the specific set of biotic and abiotic resources used by an organism An ecological niche can also be thought of as an organism’s ecological role Ecologically similar species can coexist in a community if there are one or more significant differences in their niches 6

7 A species’ fundamental niche is the niche potentially occupied by that species
A species’ realized niche is the niche actually occupied by that species As a result of competition, a species’ fundamental niche may differ from its realized niche For example, the presence of one barnacle species limits the realized niche of another species 7

8 Experiment High tide Chthamalus Balanus Chthamalus realized niche
Figure 41.3 Experiment High tide Chthamalus Balanus Chthamalus realized niche Balanus realized niche Ocean Low tide Results High tide Figure 41.3 Inquiry: Can a species’ niche be influenced by interspecific competition? Chthamalus fundamental niche Ocean Low tide 8

9 Predation Predation (/− interaction) refers to an interaction in which one species, the predator, kills and eats the other, the prey Some feeding adaptations of predators are claws, teeth, stingers, and poison 9

10 Prey display various defensive adaptations
Behavioral defenses include hiding, fleeing, forming herds or schools, and active self-defense Animals also have morphological and physiological defense adaptations Cryptic coloration, or camouflage, makes prey difficult to spot Video: Sea Horses 10

11 (c) Batesian mimicry: A harmless species mimics a harmful one.
Figure 41.5 (a) Cryptic coloration (b) Aposematic coloration Canyon tree frog Poison dart frog (c) Batesian mimicry: A harmless species mimics a harmful one. Nonvenomous hawkmoth larva (d) Müllerian mimicry: Two unpalatable species mimic each other. Venomous green parrot snake Cuckoo bee Yellow jacket Figure 41.5 Examples of defensive coloration in animals 11

12 (a) Cryptic coloration Canyon tree frog Figure 41.5a
Figure 41.5a Examples of defensive coloration in animals (part 1: cryptic coloration) 12

13 Animals with effective chemical defenses often exhibit bright warning coloration, called aposematic coloration Predators are particularly cautious in dealing with prey that display such coloration 13

14 (b) Aposematic coloration Poison dart frog Figure 41.5b
Figure 41.5b Examples of defensive coloration in animals (part 2: aposematic coloration) 14

15 In some cases, a prey species may gain significant protection by mimicking the appearance of another species In Batesian mimicry, a palatable or harmless species mimics an unpalatable or harmful model 15

16 (c) Batesian mimicry: A harmless species mimics a harmful one.
Figure 41.5c (c) Batesian mimicry: A harmless species mimics a harmful one. Nonvenomous hawkmoth larva Venomous green parrot snake Figure 41.5c Examples of defensive coloration in animals (part 3: Batesian mimicry) 16

17 In Müllerian mimicry, two or more unpalatable species resemble each other

18 (d) Müllerian mimicry: Two unpalatable species mimic each other.
Figure 41.5d (d) Müllerian mimicry: Two unpalatable species mimic each other. Cuckoo bee Yellow jacket Figure 41.5d Examples of defensive coloration in animals (part 4: Müllerian mimicry) 18

19 Herbivory Herbivory (/− interaction) refers to an interaction in which an herbivore eats parts of a plant or alga In addition to behavioral adaptations, some herbivores may have chemical sensors or specialized teeth or digestive systems Plant defenses include chemical toxins and protective structures 19

20 Symbiosis Symbiosis is a relationship where two or more species live in direct and intimate contact with one another 20

21 Parasitism In parasitism (/− interaction), one organism, the parasite, derives nourishment from another organism, its host, which is harmed in the process Parasites that live within the body of their host are called endoparasites Parasites that live on the external surface of a host are ectoparasites 21

22 Mutualism Mutualistic symbiosis, or mutualism (/ interaction), is an interspecific interaction that benefits both species In some mutualisms, one species cannot survive without the other In other mutualisms, both species can survive alone Mutualisms sometimes involve coevolution of related adaptations in both species Video: Clownfish and Anemone 22

23 Commensalism In commensalism (/0 interaction), one species benefits and the other is neither harmed nor helped Commensal interactions are hard to document in nature because any close association likely affects both species 23

24 Facilitation Facilitation (/ or 0/) is an interaction in which one species has positive effects on another species without direct and intimate contact For example, the black rush makes the soil more hospitable for other plant species 24

25 Species Diversity Species diversity of a community is the variety of organisms that make up the community It has two components: species richness and relative abundance Species richness is the number of different species in the community Relative abundance is the proportion each species represents of all individuals in the community 25

26 A B C D Community 1 Community 2 A: 25% B: 25% C: 25% D: 25% A: 80%
Figure 41.10 A B C D Community 1 Community 2 Figure Which forest is more diverse? A: 25% B: 25% C: 25% D: 25% A: 80% B: 5% C: 5% D: 10% 26

27 Communities with higher diversity are
More productive and more stable in their productivity Able to produce biomass (the total mass of all individuals in a population) more consistently than single species plots Better able to withstand and recover from environmental stresses More resistant to invasive species, organisms that become established outside their native range 27

28 Trophic Structure Trophic structure is the feeding relationships between organisms in a community It is a key factor in community dynamics Food chains link trophic levels from producers to top carnivores 28

29 Quaternary consumers: carnivores
Figure 41.13 Quaternary consumers: carnivores Tertiary consumers: carnivores Secondary consumers: carnivores Figure Examples of terrestrial and marine food chains Primary consumers: herbivores and zooplankton Primary producers: plants and phytoplankton 29

30 A food web is a branching food chain with complex trophic interactions
Species may play a role at more than one trophic level Video: Shark Eating a Seal 30

31 Humans Smaller toothed whales Baleen whales Sperm whales Elephant
Figure 41.14 Humans Smaller toothed whales Baleen whales Sperm whales Elephant seals Crab- eater seals Leopard seals Birds Fishes Squids Figure An Antarctic marine food web Carnivorous plankton Copepods Krill Phyto- plankton 31

32 Dominant species are those that are most abundant or have the highest biomass
One hypothesis suggests that dominant species are most competitive in exploiting resources Another hypothesis is that they are most successful at avoiding predators and disease 32

33 Keystone species exert strong control on a community by their ecological roles, or niches
In contrast to dominant species, they are not necessarily abundant in a community Field studies of sea stars illustrate their role as a keystone species in intertidal communities 33

34 Number of species present
Figure 41.15 Experiment Results 20 15 With Pisaster (control) Number of species present Figure Inquiry: Is Pisaster ochraceus a keystone predator? 10 Without Pisaster (experimental) 5 1963’64 ’65 ’66 ’67 ’68 ’69 ’70 ’71 ’72 ’73 Year 34

35 Bottom-Up and Top-Down Controls
The bottom-up model of community organization proposes a unidirectional influence from lower to higher trophic levels In this case, the presence or absence of mineral nutrients determines community structure, including the abundance of primary producers 35

36 The bottom-up model can be represented by the equation
where N  mineral nutrients V  plants H  herbivores P  predators N V H P 36

37 The top-down model, also called the trophic cascade model, proposes that control comes from the trophic level above In this case, predators control herbivores, which in turn control primary producers N V H P 37

38 Ecological Succession
Ecological succession is the sequence of community and ecosystem changes after a disturbance Primary succession occurs where no soil exists when succession begins Secondary succession begins in an area where soil remains after a disturbance 38

39 Early-arriving species and later-arriving species may be linked in one of three processes
Early arrivals may facilitate the appearance of later species by making the environment favorable Early species may inhibit the establishment of later species Later species may tolerate conditions created by early species, but are neither helped nor hindered by them 39

40 Retreating glaciers provide a valuable field research opportunity for observing succession
Succession on the moraines in Glacier Bay, Alaska, follows a predictable pattern of change in vegetation and soil characteristics The exposed moraine is colonized by pioneering plants, including liverworts, mosses, fireweed, Dryas, and willows 40

41 1941 1907 1 Pioneer stage 1860 2 Dryas stage Glacier Bay Alaska 1760 4
Figure 1941 1907 1 Pioneer stage 1860 2 Dryas stage Glacier Bay Alaska Figure Glacial retreat and primary succession at Glacier Bay, Alaska (step 5) 1760 Kilometers 4 Spruce stage 3 Alder stage 41

42 Community Ecology and Zoonotic Diseases
Zoonotic pathogens have been transferred from other animals to humans The transfer of pathogens can be direct or through an intermediate species called a vector Many of today’s emerging human diseases are zoonotic 42

43 Figure 41.UN03 Figure 41.UN03 Summary of key concepts: species interactions 43

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