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Foundations in Microbiology Seventh Edition

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1 Foundations in Microbiology Seventh Edition
Lecture PowerPoint to accompany Foundations in Microbiology Seventh Edition Talaro Chapter 5 Eukaryotic Cells and Microorganisms Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.

2 5.1 The History of Eukaryotes
They first appeared approximately 2 billion years ago Evidence suggests evolution from prokaryotic organisms by symbiosis Organelles originated from prokaryotic cells trapped inside them





7 5.2 External Structures Locomotor appendages Flagella Cilia
Long, sheathed cylinder containing microtubules in a 9+2 arrangement Covered by an extension of the cell membrane 10X thicker than prokaryotic flagella Function in motility Cilia Similar in overall structure to flagella, but shorter and more numerous Found only on a single group of protozoa and certain animal cells Function in motility, feeding, and filtering


9 Figure 5.4 Structure and locomotion in ciliates

10 External Structures Glycocalyx
An outermost boundary that comes into direct contact with environment Usually composed of polysaccharides Appears as a network of fibers, a slime layer or a capsule Functions in adherence, protection, and signal reception Beneath the glycocalyx Fungi and most algae have a thick, rigid cell wall Protozoa, a few algae, and all animal cells lack a cell wall and have only a membrane

11 External Boundary Structures
Cell wall Rigid, provides structural support and shape Fungi have thick inner layer of polysaccharide fibers composed of chitin or cellulose and a thin layer of mixed glycans Algae – varies in chemical composition; substances commonly found include cellulose, pectin, mannans, silicon dioxide, and calcium carbonate

12 External Boundary Structures
Cytoplasmic (cell) membrane Typical bilayer of phospholipids and proteins Sterols confer stability Serves as selectively permeable barrier in transport Eukaryotic cells also contain membrane-bound organelles that account for 60-80% of their volume

13 5.3 Internal Structures Nucleus
Compact sphere, most prominent organelle of eukaryotic cell Nuclear envelope composed of two parallel membranes separated by a narrow space and is perforated with pores Contains chromosomes Nucleolus – dark area for rRNA synthesis and ribosome assembly

14 Figure 5.5 The nucleus

15 Figure 5.6 Mitosis

16 Internal Structures Endoplasmic reticulum – two types:
Rough endoplasmic reticulum (RER) – originates from the outer membrane of the nuclear envelope and extends in a continuous network through cytoplasm; rough due to ribosomes; proteins synthesized and shunted into the ER for packaging and transport; first step in secretory pathway Smooth endoplasmic reticulum (SER) – closed tubular network without ribosomes; functions in nutrient processing, synthesis, and storage of lipids

17 Figure 5.7 Rough endoplasmic reticulum

18 Internal Structures Golgi apparatus
Modifies, stores, and packages proteins Consists of a stack of flattened sacs called cisternae Transitional vesicles from the ER containing proteins go to the Golgi apparatus for modification and maturation Condensing vesicles transport proteins to organelles or secretory proteins to the outside

19 Figure 5.8 Golgi apparatus

20 Figure 5.9 nucleus  RER  Golgi  vesicles  secretion

21 Internal Structures Lysosomes Vacuoles
Vesicles containing enzymes that originate from Golgi apparatus Involved in intracellular digestion of food particles and in protection against invading microbes Participate in digestion Vacuoles Membrane bound sacs containing particles to be digested, excreted, or stored Phagosome – vacuole merged with a lysosome

22 Figure 5.10

23 Internal Structures Mitochondria Function in energy production
Consist of an outer membrane and an inner membrane with folds called cristae Cristae hold the enzymes and electron carriers of aerobic respiration Divide independently of cell Contain DNA and prokaryotic ribosomes

24 Figure 5.11 Structure of mitochondrion

25 Internal Structures Chloroplast
Convert the energy of sunlight into chemical energy through photosynthesis Found in algae and plant cells Outer membrane covers inner membrane folded into sacs, thylakoids, stacked into grana Larger than mitochondria Contain photosynthetic pigments Primary producers of organic nutrients for other organisms

26 Figure 5.12

27 Internal Structures Ribosomes Composed of rRNA and proteins
Scattered in cytoplasm or associated with RER Larger than prokaryotic ribosomes Function in protein synthesis

28 Internal Structures Cytoskeleton
Flexible framework of proteins, microfilaments and microtubules form network throughout cytoplasm Involved in movement of cytoplasm, amoeboid movement, transport, and structural support

29 Figure 5.13 A model of the cytoskeleton



32 Survey of Eukaryotic Microbes
Fungi Algae Protozoa Parasitic worms

33 5.4 Kingdom Fungi 100,000 species divided into 2 groups:
Macroscopic fungi (mushrooms, puffballs, gill fungi) Microscopic fungi (molds, yeasts) Majority are unicellular or colonial; a few have cellular specialization

34 Microscopic Fungi Exist in two morphologies:
Yeast – round ovoid shape, asexual reproduction Hyphae – long filamentous fungi or molds Some exist in either form – dimorphic – characteristic of some pathogenic molds

35 Figure 5.15

36 Figure 5.16c

37 Fungal Nutrition All are heterotrophic
Majority are harmless saprobes living off dead plants and animals Some are parasites, living on the tissues of other organisms, but none are obligate Mycoses – fungal infections Growth temperature 20o-40oC Extremely widespread distribution in many habitats

38 Figure 5.17 Nutritional sources for fungi

39 Fungal Organization Most grow in loose associations or colonies
Yeast – soft, uniform texture and appearance Filamentous fungi – mass of hyphae called mycelium; cottony, hairy, or velvety texture Hyphae may be divided by cross walls – septate Vegetative hyphae – digest and absorb nutrients Reproductive hyphae – produce spores for reproduction

40 Figure 5.18

41 Fungal Reproduction Primarily through spores formed on reproductive hyphae Asexual reproduction – spores are formed through budding or mitosis; conidia or sporangiospores

42 Figure 5.19

43 Fungal Reproduction Sexual reproduction – spores are formed following fusion of two different strains and formation of sexual structure Zygospores, ascospores, and basidiospores Sexual spores and spore-forming structures are one basis for classification

44 Figure 5.20 Formation of zygospores

45 Figure 5.21 Production of ascospores

46 Figure 5.22 Formation of basidiospores in a mushroom

47 Fungal Classification
Kingdom Eumycota is subdivided into several phyla based upon the type of sexual reproduction: Zygomycota – zygospores; sporangiospores and some conidia Ascomycota – ascospores; conidia Basidiomycota – basidiospores; conidia Chytridomycota – flagellated spores Fungi that produce only Asexual Spores (Imperfect)

48 Fungal Identification
Isolation on specific media Macroscopic and microscopic observation of: Asexual spore-forming structures and spores Hyphal type Colony texture and pigmentation Physiological characteristics Genetic makeup

49 Roles of Fungi Adverse impact Beneficial impact
Mycoses, allergies, toxin production Destruction of crops and food storages Beneficial impact Decomposers of dead plants and animals Sources of antibiotics, alcohol, organic acids, vitamins Used in making foods and in genetic studies


51 5.5 Kingdom Protista Algae - eukaryotic organisms, usually unicellular and colonial, that photosynthesize with chlorophyll a Protozoa - unicellular eukaryotes that lack tissues and share similarities in cell structure, nutrition, life cycle, and biochemistry


53 Algae Photosynthetic organisms
Microscopic forms are unicellular, colonial, filamentous Macroscopic forms are colonial and multicellular Contain chloroplasts with chlorophyll and other pigments Cell wall May or may not have flagella


55 Algae Most are free-living in fresh and marine water – plankton
Provide basis of food web in most aquatic habitats Produce large proportion of atmospheric O2 Dinoflagellates can cause red tides and give off toxins that cause food poisoning with neurological symptoms Classified according to types of pigments and cell wall Used for cosmetics, food, and medical products


57 Protozoa Diverse group of 65,000 species
Vary in shape, lack a cell wall Most are unicellular; colonies are rare Most are harmless, free-living in a moist habitat Some are animal parasites and can be spread by insect vectors All are heterotrophic – lack chloroplasts Cytoplasm divided into ectoplasm and endoplasm Feed by engulfing other microbes and organic matter

58 Protozoa Most have locomotor structures – flagella, cilia, or pseudopods Exist as trophozoite – motile feeding stage Many can enter into a dormant resting stage when conditions are unfavorable for growth and feeding – cyst All reproduce asexually, mitosis or multiple fission; many also reproduce sexually – conjugation

59 Figure 5.27

60 Protozoan Identification
Classification is difficult because of diversity Simple grouping is based on method of motility, reproduction, and life cycle Mastigophora – primarily flagellar motility, some flagellar and amoeboid; sexual reproduction Sarcodina – primarily amoeba; asexual by fission; most are free-living Ciliophora – cilia; trophozoites and cysts; most are free-living, harmless Apicomplexa – motility is absent except male gametes; sexual and asexual reproduction; complex life cycle – all parasitic

61 Figure 5.28

62 Figure 5.29

63 Figure 5.30

64 Figure 5.31

65 Important Protozoan Pathogens
Pathogenic flagellates Trypanosomes – Trypanosoma T. brucei – African sleeping sickness T. cruzi – Chaga’s disease; South America Infective amoebas Entamoeba histolytica – amebic dysentery; worldwide

66 Figure 5.32

67 Figure 5.33


69 Parasitic Helminths Multicellular animals, organs for reproduction, digestion, movement, protection Parasitize host tissues Have mouthparts for attachment to or digestion of host tissues Most have well-developed sex organs that produce eggs and sperm Fertilized eggs go through larval period in or out of host body

70 Major Groups of Parasitic Helminths
Flatworms – flat, no definite body cavity; digestive tract a blind pouch; simple excretory and nervous systems Cestodes (tapeworms) Trematodes or flukes, are flattened, nonsegmented worms with sucking mouthparts Roundworms (nematodes) – round, a complete digestive tract, a protective surface cuticle, spines and hooks on mouth; excretory and nervous systems poorly developed

71 Helminths Acquired through ingestion of larvae or eggs in food; from soil or water; some are carried by insect vectors Afflict billions of humans

72 Figure 5.34 Parasitic Flatworms

73 Figure 5.35

74 Helminth Classification and Identification
Classify according to shape, size, organ development, presence of hooks, suckers, or other special structures, mode of reproduction, hosts, and appearance of eggs and larvae Identify by microscopic detection of adult worm, larvae, or eggs

75 Distribution and Importance of Parasitic Worms
Approximately 50 species parasitize humans Distributed worldwide; some restricted to certain geographic regions with higher incidence in tropics

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