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Common Problems in Laboratory Animals Nirah H Shomer, DVM PhD Dip. ACLAM.

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Presentation on theme: "Common Problems in Laboratory Animals Nirah H Shomer, DVM PhD Dip. ACLAM."— Presentation transcript:

1 Common Problems in Laboratory Animals Nirah H Shomer, DVM PhD Dip. ACLAM

2 Barbering Normal grooming behaviorNormal grooming behavior Usually, but not always, one unmarked barberUsually, but not always, one unmarked barber Barber is usually dominantBarber is usually dominant Usually harmless, but can precipitate conjunctivitis, ulcerative dermatitisUsually harmless, but can precipitate conjunctivitis, ulcerative dermatitis Barber

3 Periocular irritation (secondary to barbering)

4 Fight Wounds Characteristic wound locations on fleeing mice: Tails, rear feet, genitalsTails, rear feet, genitals

5 There is typically a dominant aggressive mouse Even if you remove the aggressor, another mouse may take his place.Even if you remove the aggressor, another mouse may take his place. Fights are almost exclusively between malesFights are almost exclusively between males In some strains, even littermates raised together will fight (BALB/c, SJL)In some strains, even littermates raised together will fight (BALB/c, SJL)

6 Fight wounds (fatal) Mice may die, rapidly, of septicemiaMice may die, rapidly, of septicemia Treat with broad spectrum antibioticsTreat with broad spectrum antibiotics

7 Ulcerative Dermatitis

8 UlcerativeDermatitis

9 Skin lesions EtiologyPatternTreatment EtiologyPatternTreatment Barbering Normal groomingany (same all mice)remove barber Fight Wounds Fightingtail, back, genitalsremove aggressor Ulcerative Dermatitis Unknownnape of neck, none under armsointments pain drugs Linked to C57BL2° infection commonantibiotics Linked to C57BL2° infection commonantibiotics

10 Emaciation Look for underlying causeLook for underlying cause Report objectively using Body Condition ScoreReport objectively using Body Condition Score

11 These are littermates. What is the mouse on the right? Runt What should you check for?

12 Malocclusion Rodent incisors grow continuouslyRodent incisors grow continuously Can be maintained by weekly clippingCan be maintained by weekly clipping

13 Malocclusion is heritable

14 Diarrhea Mouse diarrhea is usually very subtleMouse diarrhea is usually very subtle All you see is bedding stuck to pellets and anusAll you see is bedding stuck to pellets and anus

15 Rabbit feces Normal pellets Diarrhea True or False: diarrhea is normal in rabbits False: they do have “night feces”, cecotrophs, which are usually eaten directly from the anus

16 Hamster with “wet tail” Bacterial infection (Lawsonia intracellularis)- proliferative ileitisBacterial infection (Lawsonia intracellularis)- proliferative ileitis Clostridial overgrowth (spontaneous, age- or stress-related)Clostridial overgrowth (spontaneous, age- or stress-related) Antibiotic toxicity (causes clostridial overgrowth)Antibiotic toxicity (causes clostridial overgrowth)

17 Rectal Prolapse Rectum protrudes through anusRectum protrudes through anus Associated with diarrhea, Helicobacter infectionAssociated with diarrhea, Helicobacter infection

18 Seizures

19 Dystocia (difficult birth) Damneonatepup from last litter

20 What’s wrong with this mouse?

21 Inguinal Hernia Protrusion of an organ (e.g. gut) through a natural opening (e.g. inguinal canal) or unnatural rent (e.g. diaphragmatic rupture) in a body wall. Note that this mass is reducible.

22 Why is this rabbit matted? Obesity

23 “Hunched” “Scruffy” Non-specific sign indicating mouse is too ill to groom itself.

24 Tumor Size/dimensionsSize/dimensions1.5x2.5x2.5cm ShapeShapeirregular/lobulated LocationLocationscapular/right flank ColorColormottled TextureTexturefirm/fluctuant UlcerationUlceration ulcerated

25 Zymbals Gland Tumor

26

27 Porphyrin staining Pigment comes from Harderian glandsPigment comes from Harderian glands Increased in stress, respiratory disease, sialodacryoadenitis virus (SDA) infectionIncreased in stress, respiratory disease, sialodacryoadenitis virus (SDA) infection Prominent in rats and gerbils, not in miceProminent in rats and gerbils, not in mice Found around eyes, nares, paws (from grooming face)Found around eyes, nares, paws (from grooming face)

28 Conjunctivitis Inflammation of the conjunctival tissues; aka pink-eye. Usually bacterial, may not respond well to antibiotics.

29 Proptosis Bulging or protruding eyeBulging or protruding eye Causes include tumor, abscess, retroorbital bleed/hematoma, glaucomaCauses include tumor, abscess, retroorbital bleed/hematoma, glaucoma Secondary effects include keratitis, loss of eyeSecondary effects include keratitis, loss of eye

30 Paralysis Theiler’s mouse encephalomyelitis virus (TMEV strain GD VII)Theiler’s mouse encephalomyelitis virus (TMEV strain GD VII) Spontaneous or iatrogenic traumaSpontaneous or iatrogenic trauma Experimental Allergic Encephalitis (EAE) (multiple sclerosis model)Experimental Allergic Encephalitis (EAE) (multiple sclerosis model)

31 Find the barber X

32 Pop Quiz

33 1. What’s wrong with these mice?

34 2. List all rule-outs for this condition

35 3. Describe this mouse

36 4. Which mouse should you remove from the cage, and why?

37 5. What’s wrong with this rabbit?

38 6. What is wrong with this mouse?

39 7. Name the condition.

40 8. What is wrong with this rat?

41 1. What’s wrong with these mice? Barbering

42 2. List rule-outs for this condition Fight woundsFight wounds Ectromelia (pox virus)Ectromelia (pox virus) Footpad injection (swollen feet)Footpad injection (swollen feet) Tail bleeding/overheating (tail lesions)Tail bleeding/overheating (tail lesions)

43 3. Describe this mouse EmaciatedEmaciated Also nude (but this is not a problem)Also nude (but this is not a problem)

44 4. Which mouse should you remove from the cage, and why? These are fight wounds. Remove the aggressor. Hint: he is the one without lesions

45 5. What’s wrong with this rabbit? Malocclusion

46 6. What is wrong with this mouse? Tumor. Most common tumor in this area=? Mammary tumor

47 7. Name the condition. Head tilt

48 8. What is wrong with this rat? Reddish discharge around eyes What is this substance? Porphyrin

49 The End

50 What’s wrong with this frog? normal Xenopus normal Xenopus Severe emaciation Skin lesions

51 What’s wrong with this frog? Emaciation chronic kidney diseasechronic kidney disease Mycobacteria spp. chronic bacterial infection, zoonoticMycobacteria spp. chronic bacterial infection, zoonotic

52 Skin lesions No patternNo pattern Pseudocapillaroides xenopi (nematode parasite)Pseudocapillaroides xenopi (nematode parasite) Fungal infectionFungal infection DiscolorationDiscoloration

53

54 Mastitis

55 E. coli Mastitis in a ferret


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