2Prokaryotic vs. Eukaryotic Notes Know these Greek word parts Pro – before Prokaryotic cells existed before eukaryotic cells. Eu – true A Eukaryotic cell has a true nucleus. Karyote – kernal or nut Referring to the nucleus
3Example Prokaryotic Cells One-celled organisms: Bacteria No organelles Few internal structuresUnicellular or colonialCell WallCell MembraneCircular ChromosomesNo nuclear membrane
4Prokaryotic CellsMicrobes live in the water we drink, the food we eat, and the air we breathe. Right now, billions of microbes are swimming in our digestive systems and crawling on our skin! But don't worry, over 95% of microbes are harmless. Microbes are single-cell organisms invisible to the eye that come in different shapes seen only with microscopes.
5Draw these three shapes in your booklet and label them. Prokaryotic CellsShapes of ProkaryotesDraw these three shapes in your booklet and label them.
6Example of spherical shaped Bacteria Prokaryotic CellsExample of spherical shaped BacteriaGroup A Streptococcus is a bacterium often found in the throat and on the skin. People may carry group A streptococci in the throat or on the skin and have no symptoms of illness. Most GAS infections are relatively mild illnesses such as "strep throat," or impetigo. Occasionally these bacteria can cause severe and even life-threatening diseases.
7Example of rod shaped Bacteria Prokaryotic CellsExample of rod shaped BacteriaEscherichia coli (E. coli) bacteria normally live in the intestines of healthy people and animals. Most varieties of E. coli are harmless or cause relatively brief diarrhea. But a few particularly nasty strains, such as E. coli O157:H7, can cause severe abdominal cramps, bloody diarrhea and vomiting.
8Example of spiral shaped Bacteria Prokaryotic CellsExample of spiral shaped BacteriaTreponema pallidum: The cause of syphilis, this is a microscopic bacterial organism called a spirochete, a worm-like spiral-shaped organism that wiggles vigorously when viewed under a microscope.
9Eukaryotic Contain organelles surrounded by membranes Contain a nucleusUnicellular or multicellularCell Wall (plants and fungi)Cell Membrane (all)Most living organismsLinear Chromosomes9
10Prokaryotic vs. Eukaryotic Notes Eukaryotic Cell divisionDue to their increased numbers of chromosomes, organelles and complexity, eukaryote cell division is more complicated, although the same processes of replication, segregation, and cytokinesis still occur.Eukaryotic cells form identical daughter cells by replicating and dividing the original chromosomes. This process, called Mitosis, is like making cellular xerox copies. Commonly the two processes of cell division are confused. Mitosis deals only with the segregation of the chromosomes and organelles into daughter cells.
11Prokaryotic vs. Eukaryotic Notes Prokaryotic Cell divisionThe usual method of prokaryote cell division is termed binary fission. The chromosome is a single DNA molecule first replicate, then attach each copy to a different part of the cell membrane. When the cell begins to pull apart, the replicated and original chromosomes are separated. Following cell splitting (cytokinesis), there are then two cells of identical genetic composition (except for the rare chance of a spontaneous mutation).One consequence of this asexual method of reproduction is that all organisms in a colony are genetic equals. When treating a bacterial disease, a drug that kills one bacteria (of a specific type) will also kill all other members of that clone (colony) it comes in contact with.
12Comparing The Size Prokaryotic vs. Eukaryotic Notes White blood cell ttacking bacterial cells.This is a picture of bacteria (the short, plump, curved rods) associated with a eukaryotic cell (upper right). The line on the bottom left represents 1 micrometer. Note the size comparison.um means micrometersProkaryotes: 0.2 to 2.0 umsmaller than eukaryotes (lesscomplicated; fewer structures)Eukaryotes: 10 – 100 umlarger and more compexmore internal structures.