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Thursday Lecture – Spices & Herbs Reading: Textbook, Chapter 8.

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1 Thursday Lecture – Spices & Herbs Reading: Textbook, Chapter 8

2 Artificial Sweeteners High Intensity Sweeteners – much more sweet than sucrose, so only a little bit needed -often a “bulking agent” such as maltodextrin added for “mouth feel” Stevia – banned in US by FDA until 2008, from plant of same name Aspartame (Equal, Nutrasweet) Sucralose (Splenda) – heat stable Neotame Acesulfame potassium Saccharin (Sweet n low) – rat cancers FDA – regulates these as “food additives”, so must be shown to be safe GRAS = “generally recognized as safe” – applies to substances naturally available and widely used before 1958

3 Quiz

4 1.Sugar cane is a member of which family of plants (common name or scientific name)? 2. What is the general name for the series of events that led to re-establishment of contact between Europe and the Middle East in the 11 th -13 th centuries that resulted in products such as sugar and spices to be introduced into Europe?

5 Plant Flavors - More Terms CulinaryBotanicalMedicinal Herb

6 Plant Flavors - More Terms CulinaryBotanicalMedicinal Herbleafy flavoring used in cooking

7 Plant Flavors - More Terms CulinaryBotanicalMedicinal Herbleafy flavoringnon-woody used in cookingplant

8 Plant Flavors - More Terms CulinaryBotanicalMedicinal Herbleafy flavoringnon-woody plant used in used in cookingplantmedicine

9 Plant Flavors - More Terms CulinaryBotanicalMedicinal Herbleafy flavoringnon-woody plant used in used in cookingplantmedicine Spiceflavoring derived---- from non-leaf part of tropical/subtropical plant

10 Some Plant Chemistry Essential oil – [no single, precise definition] an aromatic liquid – responsible for flavors/odors Figure 8.2, p. 194

11 Some Plant Chemistry Essential oil – [no single, precise definition] an aromatic liquid – responsible for flavors/odors Synonym – volatile oil Figure 8.2, p. 194

12 Some Plant Chemistry Essential oil – [no single, precise definition] an aromatic liquid – responsible for flavors/odors Synonym – volatile oil Mostly terpenes, but some other compounds - Volatile - Organic Figure 8.2, p. 194

13 Some Plant Chemistry Essential oil – [no single, precise definition] an aromatic liquid – responsible for flavors/odors Synonym – volatile oil Mostly terpenes, but some other compounds - Volatile - Organic Compounds are usually present as a mixture in natural materials Figure 8.2, p. 194

14 Location in Plants of Essential Oils Typically occur in specialized cells, glands or vessels Figure 8.3, p. 196

15 Location in Plants of Essential Oils Typically occur in specialized cells, glands or vessels Figure 8.3, p. 196 Lavender (Lavendula)

16 Location in Plants of Essential Oils Typically occur in specialized cells, glands or vessels Figure 8.3, p. 196 Lavender (Lavendula) Peppermint (Mentha)

17 Location in Plants of Essential Oils Typically occur in specialized cells, glands or vessels Tomato leaf – glands and hairs Figure 8.3, p. 196 Lavender (Lavendula) Peppermint (Mentha)

18 History of Use of Spices & Herbs 5200 yrs BPEmbalming practiced in Egypt Figure 8.5, p. 198

19 History of Use of Spices & Herbs 5200 yrs BPEmbalming practiced in Egypt 4500 yrs BPUse of garlic and onions Figure 8.5, p. 198

20 History of Use of Spices & Herbs 5200 yrs BPEmbalming practiced in Egypt 4500 yrs BPUse of garlic and onions 3400 yrs BPTrade routes already established across Asia Figure 8.5, p. 198

21 History of Use of Spices & Herbs II 2400 yrs bp – Greeks used spices in medicine and food Figure 8.6, p. 199

22 History of Use of Spices & Herbs II 2400 yrs bp – Greeks used spices in medicine and food 2000 yrs bp – Roman empire had widespread use of spices Figure 8.6, p. 199

23 History of Use of Spices & Herbs II 2400 yrs bp – Greeks used spices in medicine and food 2000 yrs bp – Roman empire had widespread use of spices AD – Dark Ages, European use of spices reduced Figure 8.6, p. 199

24 History of Use of Spices & Herbs II 2400 yrs bp – Greeks used spices in medicine and food 2000 yrs bp – Roman empire had widespread use of spices AD – Dark Ages, European use of spices reduced 1096 AD – Crusades, spices rediscovered by Europeans Figure 8.6, p. 199

25 History of Use of Spices & Herbs II 2400 yrs bp – Greeks used spices in medicine and food 2000 yrs bp – Roman empire had widespread use of spices AD – Dark Ages, European use of spices reduced 1096 AD – Crusades, spices rediscovered by Europeans 1400s – search for new trade routes and sources for spices Figure 8.6, p. 199

26 History of Use of Spices & Herbs II 2400 yrs bp – Greeks used spices in medicine and food 2000 yrs bp – Roman empire had widespread use of spices AD – Dark Ages, European use of spices reduced 1096 AD – Crusades, spices rediscovered by Europeans 1400s – search for new trade routes and sources for spices – Dutch dominate spice trade Figure 8.6, p. 199

27 Mediterranean Herbs & Spices Lamiaceae (=Labiatae) – Mint Family Figs. 8.7, 8.8, p

28 Mediterranean Herbs & Spices Lamiaceae (=Labiatae) – Mint Family Figs. 8.7, 8.8, p

29 Mediterranean Herbs & Spices Figs. 8.7, 8.8, p

30 Mediterranean Herbs & Spices Figure 8.10, p. 203 Apiaceae (=Umbelliferae) – Carrot Family

31 Are you going to Scarborough Fair? Parsley, sage, rosemary and thyme, Remember me to one who lives there, For once she was a true love of mine. Have her make me a cambric shirt, Parsley, sage, rosemary and thyme, Without a seam or fine needle work, And then she'll be a true love of mine. Have her wash it in yonder dry well, Parsley, sage, rosemary and thyme, Where ne'er a drop of water e'er fell. And then she'll be a true love of mine. Have her find me an acre of land Parsley, sage, rosemary and thyme, Between the sea and over the sand, And then she'll be a true love of mine…

32 “Language” of flowers: Parsley – removes bitterness Sage – Strength Rosemary – Faithfulness Thyme - Courage

33 Apiaceae - Dill Figure 8.11, p. 204

34 Apiaceae – “Seeds” anisecaraway Figure 8.11, p. 204

35 Brassicaceae Black mustardWhite mustard Figure 7.12, p. 167

36 Brassicaceae Armoracia rusticana – horseradish Figure 8.12, p. 205

37 Brassicaceae Armoracia rusticana – horseradish Figure 8.12, p. 205 Wasabia japonica – Japanese horseradish

38 Glucosinolates Organic compounds, contain sulfur

39 Glucosinolates Organic compounds, contain sulfur In plant – combined with glucose (sugar)  harmless

40 Glucosinolates Organic compounds, contain sulfur In plant – combined with glucose (sugar)  harmless When cells rupture – mix with enzyme/water  produce isothiocyanate = “mustard oil” (note, is not “mustard gas”, which contains Cl also)

41 Glucosinolates Organic compounds, contain sulfur In plant – combined with glucose (sugar)  harmless When cells rupture – mix with enzyme/water  produce isothiocyanate = “mustard oil” (note, is not “mustard gas”, which contains Cl also) 1. How cabbage butterflies find your cole crops - isothiocyanates

42 Glucosinolates Organic compounds, contain sulfur In plant – combined with glucose (sugar)  harmless When cells rupture – mix with enzyme/water  produce isothiocyanate = “mustard oil” (note, is not “mustard gas”, which contains Cl also) 1. How cabbage butterflies find your cole crops - isothiocyanates

43 Glucosinolates 2. Why overcooked broccoli tastes/smells bad: Sinigrin --> allyl isothiocyanate --> H 2 S (hydrogen sulfide) Organic compounds, contain sulfur In plant – combined with glucose (sugar)  harmless When cells rupture – mix with enzyme/water  produce isothiocyanate = “mustard oil” (note, is not “mustard gas”, which contains Cl also) 1. How cabbage butterflies find your cole crops - isothiocyanates

44 Cooking herbs - Eurasia Artemisia - tarragon Laurus – Bay leaf Figure 8.13, p. 205

45 Asiatic Spices - Cinnamon Figures 8.15, 8.26, 8.27, p

46 Asiatic Spices – Black Pepper Piper nigrum – Piperaceae Pepper – drupe, dried and processed Black pepper – fermented, dried (“peppercorn”) White pepper – mesocarp allowed to rot Green pepper – pickled in brine or vinegar Figure 8.24, p. 210

47 New World Spices - Capsicum Capsicum – Solanaceae C. annuum – Sweet, bell peppers C. frutescens – hot peppers C. chinense – hot peppers Figure 8.27, p. 211

48 How hot is hot? – Scoville Scale Successive dilutions  no more heat detected

49 How hot is hot? – Scoville Scale Successive dilutions  no more heat detected Bell pepper – 0 (no heat at all)

50 How hot is hot? – Scoville Scale Successive dilutions  no more heat detected Bell pepper – 0 (no heat at all) Banana pepper – Jalapeno pepper – 2,500-8,000

51 How hot is hot? – Scoville Scale Successive dilutions  no more heat detected Bell pepper – 0 (no heat at all) Banana pepper – Jalapeno pepper – 2,500-8,000

52 Grains of Paradise – still another Pepper Aframomum melegueta – member of ginger family, Zingiberaceae Native to subsaharan Africa “Melegueta pepper” – used by Romans, Europeans as peppery spice

53 Tuesday Lecture – Vegetable Oils and Waxes Reading: Textbook, Chapter 9


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