Presentation on theme: "Southeast Asian Religions Buddhism Hindusim Confucianism Islam Christianity Animism."— Presentation transcript:
Southeast Asian Religions Buddhism Hindusim Confucianism Islam Christianity Animism
Hinduism Beliefs and practices of Vedic age (1500-500 B.C.E) and the Aryan occupation of Indus Valley. Gods of Vedic pantheon represented forces of nature. Examples: Agni-fire, Indra-war/firmament, Maruts-wind, Varuna – sky. Brahmin priests emerged who could “control” Vedic gods thru sacrificial rites. Brahmins became a closed, hereditary order as guardians of the powers of sacred ritual.
Hinduism (Cont’d) Epic Literature –The Mahabharata containing the Bhagavad- Gita spoken by Lord Krishna to Arjuna on the battlefield of Kurukshetra –The Ramayana about the adventures of Lord Rama, the 7 th incarnation of Vishnu. Hindu Scripture –Vedas, Brahmanas, Upanishads. Krishna
Hinduism (Cont’d) Central Hindu gods: –Brahman – the universal spirit. –Brahma – the creator. –Vishnu – the preserver. –S(h)iva – the destroyer. –Siva’s wife: Parvati or Uma – goddess of Motherhood. Durga or Kali – goddess of destruction. Major Casts: –Brahmins – teachers & priests. –Kshatriyas – warriors, kings & administrators. –Vaishyas – farmers, merchants, herdsmen & businessmen –Shudras – servants and laborers.
Hinduism (Cont’d) Concepts. –Karma – consequences –Dharma – moral law –Atman – soul –Brahman – universal spirit. –Samsara – cycle of rebirth & transmigration –Maksha – union with the divine, release from samsara Equivalent to Nirvana in Buddhism. Rama
Hindu Cosmos The world consists of a circular central continent, Jambudvipa (land of humans), surrounded by seven annular oceans and seven annular continents. Mount Meru, the center (axis) of the world rises from Jambudvipa. The sun, moon and stars revolve around it. The city of the gods, Sardasana, is at the summit, surrounded by eight Lakapals (guardian gods).
Buddhism The historical Buddha: –Guatama Sakyamuni (Siddhartha of the Shakya clan, a Kshatriya of Mongolian extraction.) –Born a prince in Nepal in 563,died 483 B.C.E –Married at age of 16; had one son, Rahula. –At 29 his life was changed by four visions: An old man, a sick man, a corpse & a holy man. –He renounced his throne & abandoned his family.
Buddhism (Cont’d) Siddhartha became an ascetic recluse for 6 years. –Sought the wisest teachers. –Practiced extremes of asceticism and self- mortification. –Achieved enlightenment while under the Bodhi tree. The four noble truths: 1. All life is suffering. 2. Suffering comes from yearning. 3. Freedom from suffering lies in the cessation of yearning, Nirvana, the end of rebirth.
Buddhism (Cont’d) 4. There is a path to freedom from suffering, the eightfold path of RIGHT: –knowledge (Dharma) –intention (to resist evil) –speech (harmless) –livelihood (harmless) –effort (respect life) –mindfulness (free of evil) –thoughts (control feelings) –meditation (internal quietness)
Buddhism (Cont’d) The three pillars of Buddhism: –The Buddha – enlightened one. –Dharma – Knowledge of middle way. –The Sangha – community or monastery. Spread after adoption by King Ashoka of India, 218 years after Guatama’s death. Major schools: –Theravada/Hinayana- Montrayana –Mahayana- Zen –Nicherin Bodhisattvas belong to the Mahayana school.
Confucianism Kung Fu Zi born in Lu. Lived 551-479 B.C.E., a period of great social and political turmoil. The Analects and the Spring And Autumn Annals express his ideas. Believed man to be inherently good but required refinement. Li (ritual) and music were principal means.
Confucianism (Cont’d) Saw social order as the product of proper relationship: father and son, ruler and minister, husband and wife, elder brother and younger brother, friend and friend. Idealized the Duke of Zhou as Junzi (true gentleman). A model of the past to be emulated. Placed great weight on the importance of Ren (human heartedness). Emphasis on ritual and propriety (which reflected past practices) led to legitimization of ancestor worship. Role of eldest son.
Confucianism (Cont’d) Legalism was the competing system. Strict laws and punishments vs. cultivating love of virtue and self-control. Still a powerful influence in Asia, particularly Singapore and South Korea.
Islam Founded by the prophet Mohammad in 622 C.E. The Five Pillars of Islam: –Profession of faith in Allah and in Mohammed, his prophet. –Pray five times a day. –Give alms secretly. –Fast during month of Ramadan. –Make at least one pilgrimage to Mecca.
Islam (Cont’d) Faith Pillars: –Believe in Allah –Believe in Angels –Believe in previous Holy Books –Believe in previous Prophets. –Believe in the hereafter. –Believe that the good and bad incidents of life are Allah’s will and accept them.
Questions In its earliest form, what did Hindu gods represent? Could they be controlled? What are the two major epics of the Hindu religion? Which one contains the Bhagavad-Gita? Who is Shiva’s wife? What are her names? What are the four major casts? What is karma? What is samsara? What is the significance of Mount Meru? What is Buddha’s name?
More Questions What are the four noble truths? Who was the first major ruler to adopt Buddhism? Name two major forms of Buddhism? During which historical period did Confucius live? Confucius believed social order was the product of _____ _____. Confucius believed man required refinement through ______. What are the five pillars of Islam?