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Interaction of Electric and Magnetic Fields With a Human Body Ján Jakuš.

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Presentation on theme: "Interaction of Electric and Magnetic Fields With a Human Body Ján Jakuš."— Presentation transcript:

1 Interaction of Electric and Magnetic Fields With a Human Body Ján Jakuš

2 Electricity - - results from elmg. forces between + protons and – charged electrons - in a wire it depends on a movement of free elec- trons - - in solutions it depends on a flow of a negatively charged - Anions, which are repealed by a negati- vely charged – Cathode, and attracted by a positi- vely charged + Anode. - However, the direction of electric current was ge- nerally aknowledged from the + Anode to – Catho- de

3 Electric Units () is measured in Electric Energy (power supply-U) is measured in VOLTS (V) in ) Electric Current (intensity-I) in AMPERES (A) in ) Electric Resistance (R) in OHMS (Ω) OHM´S Law is a relationship between: I= U/R, U=I.R, R=U/I Metals - the best electric conductors (of 1 st order) Living bodies are 2 nd order electric conductors, contain salt solutions

4 Types of Electric Currents – half wave shaped current. Sources are batteries and rectifiers. Direct Current (DC) – half wave shaped current. Sources are batteries and rectifiers. Alternating Current (AC)– sinusoidally shaped, 220V, 50Hz ( in Slovakia) USA: 120V, 60Hz

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6 Human Body and Electricity Body is a non-uniform space conductor where an electric current flows according to electric tissue conductivity.Body tissues have diffe- rent resistances (impedances), and therefore different conductances. The highest el. resistance (Impedance) have the fat and bone tissues (R = Ω/m) The lowest el. resistance (Impedance) have a blood, liquor, lymphatic fluid (R = 0.8 Ω/m) El. resistance for dry skin is high (R=1000 Ω/m) El. resist. for moistured skin is low (R=50 Ω/m)

7 Impedance, Resistance and Reactance

8 Biological Effects of Electric Currents on Human Body Both DC and AC Currents have 3 main effects : Both DC and AC Currents have 3 main effects : Stimulatory, Electrolytic, Thermal. I. Stimulatory – is typical for AC current with f = Hz, but also for DC current Max. harmless AC current is 5 mA, and for DC current is 25 mA Stimulatory effects of DC current (a) and AC (b) are used in: a) a) Chronaximetry (e.g. chronaxia for sceletal mus- cle is 1.0 msec, but for nerve is 0.1 ms. Thus, an excitability of nerve tissue is 10-times higher than that one for muscle tissue) b) b) Therapy with stimulatory (diadynamic) currents

9 Stimulatory Currents in Medicine mostly used for stimu- lation of muscles and nerves in rehabilitation 1.Rectangular DC Currents mostly used for stimu- lation of muscles and nerves in rehabilitation used for stimulation of sceletal muscles ( muscle twitch, summation, superposition, tetanus) 2.Faradic (Triangle) Currents used for stimulation of sceletal muscles ( muscle twitch, summation, superposition, tetanus) 3. Sinusoidally shaped AC current relieve a pain 4.Sinusoidally modulated AC currents- relieve a pain

10 Methods of Electric Stimulation with AC Currents (see also Therapeutic Methods) 1.Electroconvulsive therapy (electroshocks) 2. Defibrilation (Cardioversion) and in They are used in Psychiatry and in Emer- gency Medicine Point: Condenser current 2-5 kV / 2-5 ms is used. Effects: Re-set of either 1. brain function or the 2. heart action

11 Methods of Electric Stimulation with DC Current Pacemaking It is a useful method of treatment “ (i.e. the is not working properly, and as a result bradycardia and collapse may appear in patient. It is a useful method of treatment „sick sinus syndrome“ (i.e. the sinoatrial (SA) node is not working properly, and as a result bradycardia and collapse may appear in patient. Point: (battery operated generator of DC current) is sewed under the skin around a clavi- cula, or abdomen. Under X-ray method the wires with hook electrodes are introduced through into the or into both the right atrium and the right ventricle it works (stimulates the heart) only when SA node is silent. Point: A pacemaker device (battery operated generator of DC current) is sewed under the skin around a clavi- cula, or abdomen. Under X-ray method the wires with hook electrodes are introduced through caval veins into the heart right atrium, or into both the right atrium and the right ventricle ON DEMAND pacemaker- it works (stimulates the heart) only when SA node is silent.

12 Heart Pacemaker

13 II. Electrolytic Effect Is a typical feature for Is a typical feature for DC current, when passing the salt solution E.g.: NaCl when dissolved in water brea- kes to ions E.g.: NaCl when dissolved in water brea- kes to Na + + Cl - ions When current passes such solution, then run towards the –. Similarly run towar- ds the + When DC electric current passes such solution, then Na + cations run towards the – Cathode. Similarly Cl – anions run towar- ds the + ANODE

14 Methods that use Electrolytic Effect of DC Current (see also Therapeutic methods) is a method of an introducing of drugs dissolved in water to the eye, knee, joints, skin.. IONOPHORESIS is a method of an introducing of drugs dissolved in water to the eye, knee, joints, skin.. : The method based on the fact that ions with the. Point: The method based on the fact that ions with the same charges are repelled. Contrary, the ions with the opposite charges are attracted. E.g. Drugs as anesthetics when dissolved in water create Cations +. Thus, when Anodal + Current is app- lied, then drugs are electrically pushed to the body. Or drugs as antibiotics, aspirine or iodine salts create Anions -. When Cathodal - Current passes the solution then dissolved drugs are pushed to the body.

15 III. Thermal Effect This effect is typical for mainly at frequencies. This effect is typical for AC current, mainly at frequencies above 100 kHz. As a result- is produced in tissues - this property of H is used in thermotherapeutical method named- As a result- a heat is produced in tissues - this property of High Frequency AC Currents is used in thermotherapeutical method named- Diathermy. Types: Types: short wave (27 MHz) ultra short wave (434 MHz) microwave (2400 MHz)

16 Magnetic Fields as Earth (it results of rotation of hot magma within the Earth core) Permanent (stable) magnets as Earth (it results of rotation of hot magma within the Earth core) Non-stable artificial magnetic fields – arise in a vicinity of wire (within a coil) under electricity Magnetic fields with low frequency - increase the excitability of brain, decrease the blood flow in vessels with a high diameter - aorta (this in turn, may decrease the blood pressure) Magnetic fields with high frequency- have mainly thermal effects (used in Diathermy) Both types of fields are used in the Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Scanning (NMRS)

17 Electromagnetic Field

18 Patient Protection Against Electric Shock –Basic Rules 1. At a time of (e.g. ENG, EKG..) or at a time of do not ground a patient. 1. At a time of Recording (e.g. ENG, EKG..) or at a time of Defibrilation remember: do not ground a patient. 2. For diagnostic and treatment goals doctors must use only devices approved for their use in Medicine, being equipped with „ 2. For diagnostic and treatment goals doctors must use only devices approved for their use in Medicine, being equipped with „sepa- ratory“ transformes. Hence, in the time of an accident i.e. „a short circuit“- the transformer is able to disconnect the primary el. circuit, 220V, from the secondary (patient) circuit.

19 on on the and the The harmful effect of electricity on a living body depends on Intensity of el. current, on the impedance and the insulation of the body against the ground. Electric shock is caused only by Electric Cu- rent, which is determined both by a Volta- ge and body Resistance.

20 With love, prof. Jakus Wishing You Merry Christmas and Very Happy and Prosperous New Year With love, prof. Jakus

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