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Ovarian cyst - is any collection of fluid, surrounded by a very thin wall, within an ovary. -Any ovarian that is larger than about two centimeters is termed.

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Presentation on theme: "Ovarian cyst - is any collection of fluid, surrounded by a very thin wall, within an ovary. -Any ovarian that is larger than about two centimeters is termed."— Presentation transcript:

1 Ovarian cyst - is any collection of fluid, surrounded by a very thin wall, within an ovary. -Any ovarian that is larger than about two centimeters is termed an ovarian cyst. An ovarian cyst can be as a pea to larger than an orange. -Most ovarian cysts are functional in nature, and harmless (benign) In the US, ovarian cysts are found in nearly all premenopausal women, and in up to 14.8% of postmenopausal women. -Ovarian cysts affect women of all ages.



4 Ovarian cyst Most types of ovarian cysts are harmless and go away without any treatment. They occur most often, however, during a woman's childbearing years. Some ovarian cysts cause problems, such as bleeding and pain. Surgery may be required to remove cysts larger than 5 centimeters in diameter.

5 What Causes Ovarian Cysts?
During the process of ovulation, a cyst-like structure called a follicle is formed inside the ovary. The mature follicle ruptures when an egg is released during ovulation.A corpus luteum forms from the empty follicle, and if pregnancy does not occur, the corpus luteum dissolves. Sometimes, however, this process does not conclude appropriately, causing the most common type of ovarian cyst.

6 Types of Ovarian cyst Follicular cyst:
this type of simple cyst can form when ovulation doesnot occur or when mature follicle collapses on itself. Corpus luteum cyst : this type of cyst occur after an egg has been released from a follicle Hemorrhagic cyst : this type occur when bleeding occur within acyst

7 Classification Functional form as a normal part of the menstrual cycle. There are several types of cysts: Follicular cyst, the most common type of ovarian cyst. In menstruating women, a follicle containing the ovum (unfertilized egg) will rupture during ovulation. If this does not occur, a follicular cyst of more than 2.5 cm diameter may-result.

8 Functional Corpus luteum cysts appear after ovulation,the corpus luteum is the remnant of the follicle after the ovum has moved out. A corpus lutem that is more than 3 cm is defined as cystic. Thecal cysts occur within the thecal layer of cells surrounding developing oocytes. is a type of bilateral functional ovarian cyst filled with clear, straw-colored fluid. To be classified a functional cyst, the mass must reach a diameter of at least three centimeters. These cysts originate when Beta-human chorionic gonadotropins (HCG) is elevated to an abnormally high level, which can occur due to multifetal gestations or molar pregnancies

9 Non-functional cysts may include the following:
An ovary with many cysts, which may be found in normal women, or within the setting of polycystic ovary syndrome. chocolate cysts , known as (endometriosis) Dermoid cyst Cyst adenoma Cysts These are ovarian cysts that develop from cells on the outer surface of the ovaries. Paraovarian cyst Polycystic Ovarian Disease This disease refers to cysts that form from a build up of follicles. These cysts cause the ovaries to enlarge and create a thick outer covering, which may prevent ovulation from occurring, and are often the cause of fertility problems.

10 A chocolate cyst also known as an endometrioma, endometrioid cyst, or endometrial cyst) is found in some infertile women who have endometriosis. One of the commonest sites this aberrant endometrial tissue can be found in is the ovary. With every menstrual period, this tissue grows, enlarges, bleeds, and sloughs off.  As the contents of this cyst are black, they resemble dark chocolate, hence the name come!

11 A chocolate cyst

12 Ultrasound scanning is an excellent way of diagnosing chocolate cysts and can pick up cysts, which are very small. On scanning, They have a typical ground glass appearance because they contain old blood. They can vary in size from a few mm to over 10 cm; and can be bilateral. However, it’s not possible to make a definitive diagnosis of endometriosis on ultrasound scanning, as many other conditions can also produce cysts in the ovary. The diagnosis can be confirmed either by aspirating the cyst under ultrasound guidance (and finding the typical dark old blood which is diagnostic of endometriosis); or by doing a laparoscopy.

13 Dermoid cyst Treatment for dermoid cyst is complete surgical removal
It frequently consists of skin, complete with hair follicles, and sweat glands. Other commonly found components include: clumps of long hair, pockets of sebum, blood, fat, bone, nails, teeth, eyes, cartilage, and thyroid tissue. Because it grows slowly and contains mature tissue, a dermoid cyst is almost always benign tumor Treatment for dermoid cyst is complete surgical removal

14 A polycystic: appearing ovary is diagnosed based on its enlarged size — usually twice normal —with small cysts present around the outside of the ovary. It can be found in "normal" women, and in women with endocrine disorders. An ultrasound is used to view the ovary in diagnosing the condition. Polycystic-appearing ovary is different from the polycystic ovarian syndrome, which includes other symptoms in addition to the presence of ovarian cysts.

15 symptoms of Ovarian cyst
Some or all of the following symptoms may be present, though it is possible not to experience any symptoms: severe, sudden, and sharp pain discomfort in the lower abdomen (one or both sides), pelvis, vagina, lower back, pain may be constant or intermittentthis common symptom Fullness, heaviness, pressure,  bloating in the abdomen Breast tenderness Pain during or shortly after beginning or end of menstrual period Irregular periods, or abnormal uterine bleeding or spotting Change in frequency or ease of urination (such as inability to fully empty the bladder) difficulty with bowel movements due to pressure on adjacent pelvic anatomy

16 Diagnosis annual pelvic examination. ultrasound CT scan Hormone level
Pregnancy test Culdocentesis taking fluid sample from the vaginal behind the cervix laparoscopy

17 Treatment Treatment -About 95% of ovarian cysts are benign, meaning they are not cancerous. Treatment for cysts depends on the size of the cyst and symptoms. For small, asymptomatic cysts, the wait and see approach with regular check-ups will most likely be recommended. Pain caused by ovarian cysts may be treated with: pain relievers including acetaminophen/paracetamol (Tylenol), no steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs such as ibuprofen (Motrin, Advil), or narcotic pain medicine (by prescription) may help reduce pelvic pain. NSAIDs usually work best when taken at the first signs of the pain.

18 2. a warm bath, or heating pad, or hot water bottle  applied to the lower abdomen near the ovaries can relax tense muscles and relieve cramping, lessen discomfort, and stimulate circulation and healing in the ovaries.  3. combined methods of hormonal contraception such as the combined oral contraceptive pill – the hormones in the pills may regulate the menstrual cycle, prevent the formation of follicles that can turn into cysts, and possibly shrink an existing cyst. 4. Also, limiting strenuous activity may reduce the risk of cyst rupture or torsion.





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