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Mia Johnson Curriculum Specialist Catawba County Schools June 20, 2013.

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1 Mia Johnson Curriculum Specialist Catawba County Schools June 20, 2013

2 Times are changing…

3 What is Literacy? Work at your table and jot one thought at a time on Literacy…

4 1) Students should spend the bulk of their time reading continuous text. 2) Students need to read high-quality texts to build a reading process. 3) Students need to read a variety of texts to build a reading process. 4) Students need to read a large quantity of texts to build a reading process. 5) Students need to read different texts for different purposes.

5 6) Students need to hear many texts read aloud. 7) Students need different levels of support at different times. 8) “Level” means different things in different instructional contexts 9) The more students read for authentic purposes, the more likely they are to make a place for reading in their lives. 10) Students need to see themselves as readers with tastes and preferences.

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7 I take it you already know Of tough and bough and cough and dough? Others may stumble but not you, On hiccough, thorough, laugh, and through. Well done! And now you wish, perhaps, To learn of less familiar traps? Beware of heard, a dreadful word That looks like beard and sounds like bird, And dead: it’s said like bed, not bead — For goodness’ sake don’t call it “deed”! Watch out for meat and great and threat (They rhyme with suite and straight and debt.) A moth is not a moth in mother Nor both in bother, broth in brother, And here is not a match for there Nor dear and fear for bear and pear And then there’s dose and rose and lose — Just look them up—and good and choose, And cork and work and card and ward, And font and front and word and sword, And do and go and thwart and cart — Come, come, I’ve hardly made a start! A dreadful language? Man alive. I’d mastered it when I was five. I take it you already know Of tough and bough and cough and dough? Others may stumble but not you, On hiccough, thorough, laugh, and through. Well done! And now you wish, perhaps, To learn of less familiar traps? Beware of heard, a dreadful word That looks like beard and sounds like bird, And dead: it’s said like bed, not bead — For goodness’ sake don’t call it “deed”! Watch out for meat and great and threat (They rhyme with suite and straight and debt.) A moth is not a moth in mother Nor both in bother, broth in brother, And here is not a match for there Nor dear and fear for bear and pear And then there’s dose and rose and lose — Just look them up—and good and choose, And cork and work and card and ward, And font and front and word and sword, And do and go and thwart and cart — Come, come, I’ve hardly made a start! A dreadful language? Man alive. I’d mastered it when I was five.

8 Balanced Literacy Balanced literacy is a structured framework designed to help all students learn to read and write effectively. Using a balanced literacy structure ensures all students can learn to read and write. This balance between reading and writing allows students to receive the individualized instruction appropriate to their strengths and needs in literacy.

9 Balanced Literacy Student-Centered Classroom Daily reading opportunities Daily writing opportunities Variety of group settings: whole group, small group, individual Focus on different types of reading Focus on different types of writing Employs the Gradual Release of Responsibility Model Student-Centered Classroom Daily reading opportunities Daily writing opportunities Variety of group settings: whole group, small group, individual Focus on different types of reading Focus on different types of writing Employs the Gradual Release of Responsibility Model

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11 Turn and Talk

12 Classroom Library Literacy development is facilitated by rich, organized classroom libraries. Classroom libraries have different sets of books for different purposes. Literacy development is facilitated by rich, organized classroom libraries. Classroom libraries have different sets of books for different purposes. Preparing for a Science Read-Aloud by Michael C. McKenna and Sharon Walpole

13 Big books allow teachers to model concepts about print and to engage children in shared reading. Predictable texts provide emergent readers opportunities to learn and apply concepts of print even before they understand the alphabetic principle. Decodable texts provide beginning readers with opportunities to apply their growing understanding of the alphabetic system to texts specially designed for that purpose; they maximize both support and challenge. Sets of leveled readers and trade books allow teachers to gauge and support fluency development. Electronic texts, in the form of Web sites and online resources, allow readers the chance to develop strategies for searching and synthesizing and to access and evaluate new ideas as they are needed. Big books allow teachers to model concepts about print and to engage children in shared reading. Predictable texts provide emergent readers opportunities to learn and apply concepts of print even before they understand the alphabetic principle. Decodable texts provide beginning readers with opportunities to apply their growing understanding of the alphabetic system to texts specially designed for that purpose; they maximize both support and challenge. Sets of leveled readers and trade books allow teachers to gauge and support fluency development. Electronic texts, in the form of Web sites and online resources, allow readers the chance to develop strategies for searching and synthesizing and to access and evaluate new ideas as they are needed.

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15 Note Taking Balanced Literacy Shared Reading Shared Writing Guided Reading Interactive Writing Independent Reading Guided Writing Word Study Independent Writing Read Aloud Modeled Writing

16 …is a time when the teacher reads quality text aloud to the whole class and stops at planned points to ask questions that elicit student response. Students learn to think deeply about text, to listen to others, and to grow their own ideas.

17 acquaint children with a variety of genres and text structures, foster their comprehension proficiency both by relieving the burden of decoding and by scaffolding their thinking, model prosody, build vocabulary and knowledge, and create positive beliefs about and attitudes toward reading. acquaint children with a variety of genres and text structures, foster their comprehension proficiency both by relieving the burden of decoding and by scaffolding their thinking, model prosody, build vocabulary and knowledge, and create positive beliefs about and attitudes toward reading. Preparing for a Science Read-Aloud by Michael C. McKenna and Sharon Walpole

18 – Reading aloud in the classroom can lessen the oral language gap between children who were read to by parents and those who were not. – Reading aloud to children increases language and literacy development when teachers are intentional and purposeful about why they read, what they read, and how books are read. – Reading aloud includes strengthening cognitive development and instilling a sense of story structure and organization. – Reading aloud in the classroom can lessen the oral language gap between children who were read to by parents and those who were not. – Reading aloud to children increases language and literacy development when teachers are intentional and purposeful about why they read, what they read, and how books are read. – Reading aloud includes strengthening cognitive development and instilling a sense of story structure and organization.

19 What can I use for a read aloud: Fiction Magazine Articles Biographies Poetry Non-Fiction Newspaper Articles Autobiographies Primary Source Documents Complex Text

20 Selecting Read-Aloud Texts selected for their language structures, their content coverage, or their text structures – are the most flexible texts of all free from many of the constraints, they don’t have to be matched to children’s decoding and fluency skills; complex text they can be chosen to link and integrate the content areas (bringing math, science, and social studies content into the language arts; linking goals in comprehension with goals in composition) and they don’t have to be purchased in multiple copies they can come from school and public libraries selected for their language structures, their content coverage, or their text structures – are the most flexible texts of all free from many of the constraints, they don’t have to be matched to children’s decoding and fluency skills; complex text they can be chosen to link and integrate the content areas (bringing math, science, and social studies content into the language arts; linking goals in comprehension with goals in composition) and they don’t have to be purchased in multiple copies they can come from school and public libraries Preparing for a Science Read-Aloud by Michael C. McKenna and Sharon Walpole

21 Where do I find appropriate titles to read aloud?

22 Important points to consider: Make sure you preview the book before reading it aloud to the students. Select books that are engaging, purposeful and will spark student’s interests. Students shouldn’t be just passive listeners — they should be involved throughout the process as active listeners. Make sure students understand your expectations for behavior during reading time. Make sure you preview the book before reading it aloud to the students. Select books that are engaging, purposeful and will spark student’s interests. Students shouldn’t be just passive listeners — they should be involved throughout the process as active listeners. Make sure students understand your expectations for behavior during reading time.

23 Text Talk, a discussion forum that makes use of open-ended questions during read-alouds with young students. “Engaging students in discussion after smaller segments of text rather than after reading the entire text provides opportunities for students to carefully consider ideas, clarify misconceptions, and grasp subtleties implied in the text.” Beck and McKeown (2001)

24 Text Talks Text Dependent Questions and Academic Vocabulary

25 A Different Point of View… Recently, there has been heightened interest in using informational text with young children (Kletzien & Dreher, 2004; Pappas, 1993; Smolkin & Donovan, 2001). Studies have revealed the educational potential of read-alouds as a vehicle for exposing children to informational text (Duke & Kays, 1998; Smolkin & Donovan, 2001). Teacher-led read-alouds can provide the necessary support as children encounter potentially difficult content, text features, and challenging vocabulary often found in informational trade books. Webster (2009) found that reading informational text aloud to first graders had positive effects on their understanding of scientific ideas. Before-, during-, and after-reading activities promoted active engagement in the read-aloud sessions, resulting in students' deeper understanding of concepts such as hurricanes. Introducing Science Concepts to Primary Students Through Read-Alouds: Interactions and Multiple Texts Make the Difference By: Natalie Heisey and Linda Kucan

26 Content Areas The first step in planning a science/social studies read-aloud is to appraise the book carefully. Start by reading the book from beginning to end for content. Self-assess your own understanding – It is vital that you resolve any difficulties you may have encountered so that you have a thorough understanding of the content. – What portions of the book are hard to understand and why? – You alone are in the best position to judge whether there is an appropriate match between the book and your students. The first step in planning a science/social studies read-aloud is to appraise the book carefully. Start by reading the book from beginning to end for content. Self-assess your own understanding – It is vital that you resolve any difficulties you may have encountered so that you have a thorough understanding of the content. – What portions of the book are hard to understand and why? – You alone are in the best position to judge whether there is an appropriate match between the book and your students.

27 Once you judge the book to be an appropriate choice and have learned the content, read it again, this time attempting to empathize with your students. What knowledge does the author assume your students have, but that they probably lack? What new technical vocabulary is introduced and how is it linked to your essential standards in science/social studies? How has the author organized the book? – Are there text features that represent complex patterns that might present difficult choices about what to read next? – What graphics are included and how useful are they? – Are the graphics stand-alone or are they referred to in the text? Once you judge the book to be an appropriate choice and have learned the content, read it again, this time attempting to empathize with your students. What knowledge does the author assume your students have, but that they probably lack? What new technical vocabulary is introduced and how is it linked to your essential standards in science/social studies? How has the author organized the book? – Are there text features that represent complex patterns that might present difficult choices about what to read next? – What graphics are included and how useful are they? – Are the graphics stand-alone or are they referred to in the text?

28 When we prioritize Read Aloud time across grade levels: We are helping our students achieve the following: Learn what fluid and expressive reading sounds like, prosody. Learn how to think aloud. Make connections to other pieces of literature. Think critically and construct knowledge. When we prioritize Read Aloud time across grade levels: We are helping our students achieve the following: Learn what fluid and expressive reading sounds like, prosody. Learn how to think aloud. Make connections to other pieces of literature. Think critically and construct knowledge.

29 Let’s Talk About It! Choose a story card from your table. Find a partner that has a card from the same story. Discuss how you may use Read Alouds differently in light of the Common Core.

30 …is a type of focus lesson in which either enlarged print is utilized, or all students have the text to “share” the reading process. The teacher uses this time, explicitly modeling reading strategies and skills that the students need to learn. The responsibility for reading is “shared” between the teacher and the students, although the teacher reads most of the text.

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32 Strategies taught during Shared Reading K-2 Strategies Directionality One-to-one matching Locating known words and letters Application of a phonics skill Predict and confirm Self-correction strategies Visualization Vocabulary strategies Making connections Setting a purpose Text features K-2 Strategies Directionality One-to-one matching Locating known words and letters Application of a phonics skill Predict and confirm Self-correction strategies Visualization Vocabulary strategies Making connections Setting a purpose Text features 3-6 Strategies Fix-up strategies Predict and confirm Self-correction strategies Visualization Vocabulary strategies Making connections Setting a purpose Text features Asking questions Determining text importance Graphic organizers 3-6 Strategies Fix-up strategies Predict and confirm Self-correction strategies Visualization Vocabulary strategies Making connections Setting a purpose Text features Asking questions Determining text importance Graphic organizers

33 Prior to Shared Reading Select a more difficult text than one you would use for guided reading but simpler than one you would read during a teacher read- aloud. Choose text based on relevant criteria such as print features, patterns in the text, and comprehension opportunities. Secure a copy of the text for each student because the heart of shared reading involves all students and the teacher looking at the text while reading together. (Morgan, Wilcox, & Eldredge, 2000). Preread the text, identifying your teaching points. Focus on a comprehension purpose, and direct the experience toward that purpose. Shared reading is highly useful for teaching about print and for illustrating strategies of cross-checking and monitoring. Plan carefully for these teaching moments to identify the lesson’s most important points. Select a more difficult text than one you would use for guided reading but simpler than one you would read during a teacher read- aloud. Choose text based on relevant criteria such as print features, patterns in the text, and comprehension opportunities. Secure a copy of the text for each student because the heart of shared reading involves all students and the teacher looking at the text while reading together. (Morgan, Wilcox, & Eldredge, 2000). Preread the text, identifying your teaching points. Focus on a comprehension purpose, and direct the experience toward that purpose. Shared reading is highly useful for teaching about print and for illustrating strategies of cross-checking and monitoring. Plan carefully for these teaching moments to identify the lesson’s most important points.

34 During Shared Reading Support fluent shared reading in which you read the text aloud while students read aloud at the same time, with periodic stops to discuss content. (In kindergarten, shared reading often involves an enlarged text that everyone reads together, while upper grade students engage in shared reading with partners or in small groups). Engage in a think-aloud, modeling the strategies that are your instructional focus for the lesson. Support students in concentrating their energies on that focus. For example, a third-grade class can practice using context clues to determine the meanings of words. Regardless of grade level, shared reading should engage students in a discussion of the text. Support students in thinking deeply about their reading and in discovering things in the text. Support fluent shared reading in which you read the text aloud while students read aloud at the same time, with periodic stops to discuss content. (In kindergarten, shared reading often involves an enlarged text that everyone reads together, while upper grade students engage in shared reading with partners or in small groups). Engage in a think-aloud, modeling the strategies that are your instructional focus for the lesson. Support students in concentrating their energies on that focus. For example, a third-grade class can practice using context clues to determine the meanings of words. Regardless of grade level, shared reading should engage students in a discussion of the text. Support students in thinking deeply about their reading and in discovering things in the text.

35 After Reading Revisit the text during other group reading times. Provide students with their own copies of the text that they can carry into their independent reading/partner reading. If the text remains difficult for some students, let them practice with more teacher support in a small-group, shared reading experience. Revisit the text during other group reading times. Provide students with their own copies of the text that they can carry into their independent reading/partner reading. If the text remains difficult for some students, let them practice with more teacher support in a small-group, shared reading experience.

36 Shared Reading Across Content Areas Timeline Extension!

37 Shared Reading Activity Recall with your shoulder partner, the steps of the lesson in which you participated. What process do you think you put into practice? What standards were taught? How could we extend this lesson, using this text? Close Reading of Complex Text Social Studies, Reading Informational Text Primary Source Documents: Original Patent, Constitution-Article 8, Compare and Contrast other sources, Historical impact on agriculture (Science)

38 Additional Resources: Integrated lesson plans Literacy, Math, Science, Social Studies

39 Let’s take a peak into a classroom…

40 Reflect… What did you notice in that video? What did you like about it? What questions do you have? Share your thoughts with your table…. What did you notice in that video? What did you like about it? What questions do you have? Share your thoughts with your table….

41 … is the component in which the teacher meets with a small group that needs to work on a specific strategy or that has a similar reading level. Each student has a copy of the text and reads it quietly. The teacher uses this time to explicitly teach and to have students practice the strategy they need to learn while providing immediate feedback.

42 Lesson Design Plan for Odd Numbered Lessons 3-5 minutesRereading Books 3-5 minutesPhonics/Word Work minutesNew Book (Instructional Level) Plan for Even Numbered Lessons 3-5 minutes Rereading Books/ Assessment 3-5 minutes Phonics/Word Work 10 minutesWriting About Reading 3-5 minutes New Book (Independent Level)

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44 What are my other students doing? 3 rd graders must be able to read and understand one million words on their own! Give students responsibility for reading text independently! Word Study Practice! Independent Writing opportunity!

45 …is a time when students read text (either self-selected or teacher recommended) at their Independent Reading level to practice reading strategies, develop fluency and automaticity. The teacher confers with students one-on-one, prompts the use of the strategies, discusses various aspects of the text, and learns about each student as a reader. Students may respond to the text in meaningful ways through writing, discussing, or sketching.

46 …is the component that allows students work with words through fun and engaging lessons. Through word study, students learn letters and the sounds they make. They then move on to root words, suffixes and prefixes, and how to derive meaning of words.

47 Word Study Instruction in Writing includes: phonics spelling grammar Word Study Instruction in Writing includes: phonics spelling grammar Word Study Instruction in Reading includes: phonemic awareness phonics vocabulary Word Study Instruction in Reading includes: phonemic awareness phonics vocabulary Focus on how words work

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49 phonemic and phonological awareness and letter- sound knowledge in kindergarten and first grade; alphabetic knowledge, and blending and sound/symbol correspondence, structural analysis, contextual clues, and high frequency words; spelling; comprehension strategies in order to evaluate, synthesize, analyze, connect, infer, and inquire; vocabulary instruction. phonemic and phonological awareness and letter- sound knowledge in kindergarten and first grade; alphabetic knowledge, and blending and sound/symbol correspondence, structural analysis, contextual clues, and high frequency words; spelling; comprehension strategies in order to evaluate, synthesize, analyze, connect, infer, and inquire; vocabulary instruction. A critical component of balanced reading instruction is direct explicit instruction in:

50 Stand Up, Hand Up, Pair Up! When the music begins, stand up, walk around the room. When the music stops, put your hand up, pair up with someone closest to you. High five and greet your partner. You will have 1 minute share ways in which you plan to or already use the reading components of balanced literacy in your classroom. When the music begins, stand up, walk around the room. When the music stops, put your hand up, pair up with someone closest to you. High five and greet your partner. You will have 1 minute share ways in which you plan to or already use the reading components of balanced literacy in your classroom.

51 … is the teacher being an active writer. The teacher models the selection of topics; demonstrates the skills of gathering and organizing information; shows the need to clarify meaning; and models the ways in which information can be reordered, reoriented, changed, or deleted. Thinking aloud is critical in this component.

52 “ It’s much better if teachers of writing do write themselves. At one stroke, it puts you both in the same world.” - J. R. Gentry

53 What does a modeled writing session look like? The teacher is modeling not only the words that go down on paper or the specific focus of the lesson, but the teacher is also modeling the thoughts that go with the writing. The teacher is “thinking aloud” while writing. Often the teacher is writing slowly and saying the words a few ahead of what he/she is writing. Verbalizing when stuck and rereading what is written. The teacher is modeling not only the words that go down on paper or the specific focus of the lesson, but the teacher is also modeling the thoughts that go with the writing. The teacher is “thinking aloud” while writing. Often the teacher is writing slowly and saying the words a few ahead of what he/she is writing. Verbalizing when stuck and rereading what is written.

54 How does a teacher model writing? Use chart paper, document camera, dry erase board, or SchoolPad to model writing. Children benefit from this method since they can see the teacher forming letters, words, and sentences on a large scale directly in front of them.

55 Topic Selection Teachers need to model how to select a topic, how to give reasons for topic selection, and how to write on a variety of topics. It is also beneficial for students to see their teacher keeping a topic list.

56 Writing in a Variety of Text Types Teachers need to model the usefulness of drawing pictures or diagrams, making graphic organizers, jotting in margins, and note-taking. Teachers need to model the usefulness of drawing pictures or diagrams, making graphic organizers, jotting in margins, and note-taking.

57 Writing in a variety of Text Types In order for children to write in a variety of forms, they need to hear and see the variations. A variety of genres should be read aloud to students. The teacher should discuss the variety of genres and then model writing that genre. In order for children to write in a variety of forms, they need to hear and see the variations. A variety of genres should be read aloud to students. The teacher should discuss the variety of genres and then model writing that genre.

58 Editing and Revising Teachers need to model ways that writing can be changed, rearranged, or deleted. At this point, teacher “think aloud” is imperative.

59 …is an instructional approach to teach writing by writing with your students. Teaching writing through the writing process allows the teacher to employ a “write aloud” opportunity. The teacher scribes while the students contribute ideas.

60 During shared writing, the teacher transcribes the entire text while engaging students in a rich discussion about how the text should be composed. Shared writing is taught to small groups or a whole class in briskly paced, 5- to 20-minute lessons. Plan lessons for types of writing that present particular challenges to your students. During shared writing, the teacher transcribes the entire text while engaging students in a rich discussion about how the text should be composed. Shared writing is taught to small groups or a whole class in briskly paced, 5- to 20-minute lessons. Plan lessons for types of writing that present particular challenges to your students.

61 Shared Writing Process Establish a purpose for the writing. Write the entire text yourself in front of students Model processes needed by your students Demonstrate in-the-moment revision Establish a purpose for the writing. Write the entire text yourself in front of students Model processes needed by your students Demonstrate in-the-moment revision

62 Reread the text to students from time to time. Read the completed text to students. Post the text in an accessible spot in the classroom, and provide opportunities for students to read or use the text multiple times over the next several days or weeks Reread the text to students from time to time. Read the completed text to students. Post the text in an accessible spot in the classroom, and provide opportunities for students to read or use the text multiple times over the next several days or weeks Shared Writing Process

63 Benefits of Shared Writing Reinforces and supports reading as well as writing Makes is possible for all students to participate Encourages close examination of texts, words, and options of authors Demonstrates the conventions of writing, spelling, punctuations and grammar Focuses on composing and leaves transcribing to the teacher Helps build motivation and increases confidence in struggling readers Step towards independent writing Reinforces and supports reading as well as writing Makes is possible for all students to participate Encourages close examination of texts, words, and options of authors Demonstrates the conventions of writing, spelling, punctuations and grammar Focuses on composing and leaves transcribing to the teacher Helps build motivation and increases confidence in struggling readers Step towards independent writing Regie Routman

64 … is a collaborative writing experience for beginning writers in which the teacher guides students in the group- writing of a large-print text. Students participate in the composition and construction of the text by sharing the pen, physically and figuratively, with the teacher. The composition is read and reread by the group to make the reading and writing connection.

65 “Interactive writing is a dynamic literacy event in which reading and writing come together.” - Andrea McCarrier

66 Interactive Writing Process Teacher sets the purpose for the interactive writing lesson. Teacher and students brainstorm ideas together. Teacher elicits students ideas. Teacher and students compose the text by “sharing” the pen. – Teacher models the writing process, specific element of writing, and revising with the students. Class reads aloud writing together and revisits the text as it is posted in the room. Teacher sets the purpose for the interactive writing lesson. Teacher and students brainstorm ideas together. Teacher elicits students ideas. Teacher and students compose the text by “sharing” the pen. – Teacher models the writing process, specific element of writing, and revising with the students. Class reads aloud writing together and revisits the text as it is posted in the room.

67 Implement your own informational (science/social studies) writing activity Start by choosing a shared experience and then continue on with the following steps. – Do the activity together. – Ask questions to elicit responses about the information that the children have learned. – For young children, you might simply have them tell you something new that they have learned. – For older children, it is appropriate to help them organize what they learned into main ideas. – Write the children’s responses. – Read the responses with the children to make sure that they say what you all want them to. – Work together to make any changes needed. Start by choosing a shared experience and then continue on with the following steps. – Do the activity together. – Ask questions to elicit responses about the information that the children have learned. – For young children, you might simply have them tell you something new that they have learned. – For older children, it is appropriate to help them organize what they learned into main ideas. – Write the children’s responses. – Read the responses with the children to make sure that they say what you all want them to. – Work together to make any changes needed.

68 “The strength of the interactive writing procedure demands two levels of expertise. First, teachers need to know how to use the technique at a procedural level. Next, teachers need to refine the technique by making on-the- spot teaching decisions that are based on the immediate needs of the students with whom they are working.” Voices on Word Matters, Fountas, 1999, p.26

69 When should Interactive Writing be used? Interactive writing is a powerful tool for beginning writers. Emergent Early Writers and Emergent Transitional Writers (generally grades K-1) should experience interactive writing frequently. Students learn concepts of print, spelling, phonics, and strategies for reading and writing. As students become Early Transitional Writers (generally late first-grade and second grade), they become more adept at writing independently. At this time, interactive writing may be used for specific purposes to meet the challenges of more complex writing (i.e., complex punctuation, complex sentence structure, vocabulary). The teacher may also use interactive writing to establish a community of writers (i.e., group thank-you letter). Interactive Writing, McCarrier, 2000, p.73. Interactive writing is a powerful tool for beginning writers. Emergent Early Writers and Emergent Transitional Writers (generally grades K-1) should experience interactive writing frequently. Students learn concepts of print, spelling, phonics, and strategies for reading and writing. As students become Early Transitional Writers (generally late first-grade and second grade), they become more adept at writing independently. At this time, interactive writing may be used for specific purposes to meet the challenges of more complex writing (i.e., complex punctuation, complex sentence structure, vocabulary). The teacher may also use interactive writing to establish a community of writers (i.e., group thank-you letter). Interactive Writing, McCarrier, 2000, p.73.

70 How can I use Interactive Writing? Writers need a purpose for writing and an audience. Use the learning experiences of the students to establish a purpose and audience to create written text collaboratively. Create a shopping list. Compose a group story. Create a sign. Write a letter. Compose a set of directions. Respond to a survey question. Summarize or extend a story read in guided reading. Summarize or extend a story that has been read aloud. Label art or a classroom item. Record information from an experiment. Record information from a class study or research. Writers need a purpose for writing and an audience. Use the learning experiences of the students to establish a purpose and audience to create written text collaboratively. Create a shopping list. Compose a group story. Create a sign. Write a letter. Compose a set of directions. Respond to a survey question. Summarize or extend a story read in guided reading. Summarize or extend a story that has been read aloud. Label art or a classroom item. Record information from an experiment. Record information from a class study or research.

71 So what’s the difference? Modeled Writing Shared Writing Interactive Writing

72 …is a time when the teacher is focused tightly on a small group of learners. During this small group time, the teacher can reteach minilessons shared with the whole class and give an opportunity for the writers to engage with the minilesson concepts while the teacher is close by to guide and support. This small group time might be an opportunity to stretch and expand the writing skills of gifted students, to reteach key writing skills for struggling students, or to demonstrate an informational text feature a group of students would find helpful in their content writing. As in guided reading, this time is built upon learner needs. Groups are small, flexible and short term.

73 Getting Started with Guided Writing Prior to beginning guided writing, train your students to form peer critique groups. They can help each other while you work with a small group. Do not allow students to interrupt your lesson unless it is a true emergency.

74 Before pulling your group together, formatively assess student understanding and development in the writing process. Select students based on a common need: sentences combining, capitalization, adding details This is your opportunity for a quick mini-lesson with a small, flexible group. Meet with one or two groups during each writing session. *Try to include every student in a guided writing group at least once every couple of weeks Your talented writers need special attention as well. They may benefit from learning a new writing technique the rest of the class isn’t ready to tackle yet. Before pulling your group together, formatively assess student understanding and development in the writing process. Select students based on a common need: sentences combining, capitalization, adding details This is your opportunity for a quick mini-lesson with a small, flexible group. Meet with one or two groups during each writing session. *Try to include every student in a guided writing group at least once every couple of weeks Your talented writers need special attention as well. They may benefit from learning a new writing technique the rest of the class isn’t ready to tackle yet.

75 Ways to Implement Guided Writing o Guided Writing as an extension to Guided Reading o Guided Writing within Writer’s Workshop o Guided Writing in Content Areas o Guided Writing as an extension to Guided Reading o Guided Writing within Writer’s Workshop o Guided Writing in Content Areas

76 Guided Writing as an Extension of Guided Reading Guided writing fits naturally as an extension of a guided reading lesson, taking students into the world of the writer in response to their reading. Ask students to revisit their guided reading selection and think with the eyes of an informational author. – What do we notice about this author’s word choice, use of bullets in a list, use of captions, or conventions such as bold face headings. – How did these help us as readers? – How might we use those tools in our own informational writing? The next step would be for students to begin writing or revising their own informational piece. Guided writing fits naturally as an extension of a guided reading lesson, taking students into the world of the writer in response to their reading. Ask students to revisit their guided reading selection and think with the eyes of an informational author. – What do we notice about this author’s word choice, use of bullets in a list, use of captions, or conventions such as bold face headings. – How did these help us as readers? – How might we use those tools in our own informational writing? The next step would be for students to begin writing or revising their own informational piece. Linda Hoyt

77 Guided Writing Within Writers Workshop Guided writing can offer instructional power during writers workshop. Groups could be regularly scheduled where students know they have guided writing with you every Monday or … It could also be much more flexible in that you could use that allocated guided writing time to gather students in flexible needs groups to do some reteaching of a whole class minilesson or to teach an advanced lesson on voice in informational text. Linda Hoyt

78 Guided Writing in Content Areas Math, science, and social studies all offer rich opportunities to gather small guided writing groups for explicit instruction and support on writing in the content areas. Even a brief session can heighten learner awareness and bring increased skill to their written communications. Linda Hoyt

79 Let’s pull it all together… The Year of the Snake, Time for Kids Guided Reading, Interactive Read Aloud and Writing, Guided Writing, Independent Reading and Writing… Speaking and Listening with questioning! The Year of the Snake, Time for Kids Guided Reading, Interactive Read Aloud and Writing, Guided Writing, Independent Reading and Writing… Speaking and Listening with questioning!

80 …is the component that affords students an opportunity to write about self-selected topics. They apply skills and strategies that are learned during shared writing, interactive writing, guided writing, and word study. The teacher uses this time to confer individually with students to assess their strengths and needs.

81 Independent Writing Independent writing should occur daily! Can be part of your guided reading stations ex. Work on Writing within Daily 5 structure Students can: – Respond to text – Journal – Work on drafts – Publish work Independent writing should occur daily! Can be part of your guided reading stations ex. Work on Writing within Daily 5 structure Students can: – Respond to text – Journal – Work on drafts – Publish work

82 Writing Samples

83 Narrative Writing I went to Disneyland. We went through the desert. I had a fun vacation…

84 Informational Writing

85 Opinion Writing “My favorite book is Do You Want to Be My Friend. …..my favorite part is the horse.”

86 Sample Schedules

87 Insert daily five graphic 100 min.

88 90 min.

89 120 min.

90

91

92

93

94 Closing Thoughts…

95 Assessment and evaluation Assessment of student performance and instructional practices should be done on an ongoing basis. Student progress should be monitored through: running records, miscue analysis anecdotal records skill and strategy checklists reading and writing inventories student work samples audio or videotapes of student performance student self-assessments other formal or informal Assessment of student performance and instructional practices should be done on an ongoing basis. Student progress should be monitored through: running records, miscue analysis anecdotal records skill and strategy checklists reading and writing inventories student work samples audio or videotapes of student performance student self-assessments other formal or informal

96 Literacy instruction should be based on assessment information. It informs good teaching and documents individual learning throughout the year. Literacy lessons are best taught every day during blocks of uninterrupted time. These lessons should include intensive amounts of reading and writing. Instruction should include attention to letters and words and how they work. Phonics and word study is incorporated daily.

97 “A balanced literacy approach focuses on two essential areas: reading and writing. This approach engages children in a variety of authentic reading and writing experiences… It benefits students in many ways: students develop a broad range of reading and writing abilities; both focused instruction and independent work are valued so there is a better chance to meet the needs of a diverse group of students; students learn basic information and skills but they also develop strategies that will help them apply their knowledge in a variety of reading and writing contexts; there is an emphasis on comprehension, which is the goal of all reading.” Pinnell, 2000 “A balanced literacy approach focuses on two essential areas: reading and writing. This approach engages children in a variety of authentic reading and writing experiences… It benefits students in many ways: students develop a broad range of reading and writing abilities; both focused instruction and independent work are valued so there is a better chance to meet the needs of a diverse group of students; students learn basic information and skills but they also develop strategies that will help them apply their knowledge in a variety of reading and writing contexts; there is an emphasis on comprehension, which is the goal of all reading.” Pinnell, 2000

98 Balanced Literacy

99 Resources: Button, K., M. Johnson, & P. Furgerson. Interactive Writing in a Primary Classroom. The Reading Teacher 49, 6: Dorn, Linda; French, Cathy; & Jones, Tammy. Apprenticeship in Literacy: Transitions Across Reading and Writing. York, Maine: Stenhouse Publishers, Fountas, Irene C. Voices on Word Matters. Portsmouth, NH: Heinemann, Fountas, Irene C. & Pinnell, Gay Su. Guided Reading: Good First Teaching for All Children. Portsmouth, NH: Heinemann, McCarrier, Andrea; Pinnell, Gay Su; & Fountas, Irene C. Interactive Writing: How Language and Literacy Come Together, K-2. Portsmouth, NH: Heinemann, 2000.

100 Thank you for participating! Mia Johnson, Curriculum Specialist Murray Elementary, Office Lora Drum, Curriculum Specialist Balls Creek Elementary, Office


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