Presentation on theme: "Balanced Literacy June 20, 2013 Mia Johnson Curriculum Specialist"— Presentation transcript:
1Balanced Literacy June 20, 2013 Mia Johnson Curriculum Specialist Catawba County SchoolsJune 20, 2013
2Times are changing…As we go through today, I want us to be thinking in terms of how things are different in the way we access texts and the way our students access texts. We must not only balance the instructional practices that we use, but we must also balance the modes of texts we offer. We are preparing our students to interact with texts in ways we have yet discovered so we need to make sure they are not only thinker,s, problem solvers, and collaborators, but that they are also flexible and risk takers and we must do that through modeling in our own practice.
3Work at your table and jot one thought at a time on Literacy… What is Literacy?Work at your table and jot one thought at a time on Literacy…What is literacy and why is it important to what we teacher? This is a definition from the common core documents…keeping our standards at the forefront. Have participants point out the words that are most prominent. Ask them how this impacts what we do in our classrooms? Lead them to see we can only accomplish these standards through a balanced literacy approach.
4Effective Reading Instruction... Students should spend the bulk of their time reading continuous text.Students need to read high-quality texts to build a reading process.Students need to read a variety of texts to build a reading process.Students need to read a large quantity of texts to build a reading process.Students need to read different texts for different purposes.
5Effective Reading Instruction... Students need to hear many texts read aloud.Students need different levels of support at different times.“Level” means different things in different instructional contextsThe more students read for authentic purposes, the more likely they are to make a place for reading in their lives.Students need to see themselves as readers with tastes and preferences.
6Balanced Literacy Framework Circular: Cyclical in that we should be using these components throughout the entire instructional day and not just limit us to our literacy block
7I take it you already know Of tough and bough and cough and dough I take it you already know Of tough and bough and cough and dough? Others may stumble but not you, On hiccough, thorough, laugh, and through. Well done! And now you wish, perhaps, To learn of less familiar traps? Beware of heard, a dreadful word That looks like beard and sounds like bird, And dead: it’s said like bed, not bead — For goodness’ sake don’t call it “deed”! Watch out for meat and great and threat (They rhyme with suite and straight and debt.) A moth is not a moth in mother Nor both in bother, broth in brother, And here is not a match for there Nor dear and fear for bear and pear And then there’s dose and rose and lose — Just look them up—and good and choose, And cork and work and card and ward, And font and front and word and sword, And do and go and thwart and cart — Come, come, I’ve hardly made a start! A dreadful language? Man alive. I’d mastered it when I was five.Read aloud to demonstrate the large task that our students have before them and even more so our ELL students. Ask how we became proficient readers….explain hiccough!
8Balanced LiteracyBalanced literacy is a structured framework designed to help all students learn to read and write effectively. Using a balanced literacy structure ensures all students can learn to read and write. This balance between reading and writing allows students to receive the individualized instruction appropriate to their strengths and needs in literacy.
9Balanced Literacy Student-Centered Classroom Daily reading opportunitiesDaily writing opportunitiesVariety of group settings: whole group, small group, individualFocus on different types of readingFocus on different types of writingEmploys the Gradual Release of Responsibility Model
11Turn and TalkDo you agree or disagree with this quote? Think about this in terms of balanced literacy: Read Aloud-giving them a taste “whet their appetite” Independent reading- read and swallow them, guided reading- we spend more time on them…chew and digest. It can also be a good reminder to us that often times as teachers we feel like books are to be read cover to cover, but it acceptable for readers to read excerpts or even abandon books at times depending on the purpose for the read.
12Classroom LibraryLiteracy development is facilitated by rich, organized classroom libraries.Classroom libraries have different sets of books for different purposes.Preparing for a Science Read-Aloud by Michael C. McKenna and Sharon Walpole
13Big books allow teachers to model concepts about print and to engage children in shared reading. Predictable texts provide emergent readers opportunities to learn and apply concepts of print even before they understand the alphabetic principle.Decodable texts provide beginning readers with opportunities to apply their growing understanding of the alphabetic system to texts specially designed for that purpose; they maximize both support and challenge.Sets of leveled readers and trade books allow teachers to gauge and support fluency development.Electronic texts, in the form of Web sites and online resources, allow readers the chance to develop strategies for searching and synthesizing and to access and evaluate new ideas as they are needed.
14Read Aloud Word Study Shared Writing Shared Reading Independent ReadingShared ReadingGuided Reading]pre-assessment with sorting activity, complete sort and leave it on the table as we go through the session. Make any changes you feel necessary as we continue. We will go back and look at the sort at the end of the day.Modeled WritingShared WritingInteractive WritingGuided WritingIndependent Writing
16ReadAloud…is a time when the teacher reads quality text aloud to the whole class and stops at planned points to ask questions that elicit student response. Students learn to think deeply about text, to listen to others, and to grow their own ideas.
17Benefits of a Read Aloud acquaint children with a variety of genres and text structures,foster their comprehension proficiency both by relieving the burden of decoding and by scaffolding their thinking,model prosody,build vocabulary and knowledge, andcreate positive beliefs about and attitudes toward reading.Preparing for a Science Read-Aloud by Michael C. McKenna and Sharon Walpole
18Benefits of a Read Aloud Reading aloud in the classroom can lessen the oral language gap between children who were read to by parents and those who were not.Reading aloud to children increases language and literacy development when teachers are intentional and purposeful about why they read, what they read, and how books are read.Reading aloud includes strengthening cognitive development and instilling a sense of story structure and organization.
19Complex Text Fiction Magazine Articles Biographies Poetry Non-Fiction What can I use for a read aloud:FictionMagazine ArticlesBiographiesPoetryComplex TextNon-FictionNewspaper ArticlesAutobiographiesPrimary Source Documents
20Selecting Read-Aloud Texts selected for their language structures, their content coverage, or their text structures – are the most flexible texts of allfree from many of the constraints, they don’t have to be matched to children’s decoding and fluency skills; complex textthey can be chosen to link and integrate the content areas (bringing math, science, and social studies content into the language arts; linking goals in comprehension with goals in composition) andthey don’t have to be purchased in multiple copiesthey can come from school and public librariesPreparing for a Science Read-Aloud by Michael C. McKenna and Sharon Walpole
21Where do I find appropriate titles to read aloud? Click doc. Screenshot to link to website: Read Aloud suggestions for grades K-3, 4-5 informational text as well as sample performance tasks to determine progress on standards have titles for reading across content areas.
22Important points to consider: Make sure you preview the book before reading it aloud to the students.Select books that are engaging, purposeful and will spark student’s interests.Students shouldn’t be just passive listeners — they should be involved throughout the process as active listeners.Make sure students understand your expectations for behavior during reading time.
23Text Talk, a discussion forum that makes use of open-ended questions during read-alouds with young students. “Engaging students in discussion after smaller segments of text rather than after reading the entire text provides opportunities for students to carefully consider ideas, clarify misconceptions, and grasp subtleties implied in the text.”Beck and McKeown (2001)
24Text Dependent Questions and Academic Vocabulary Text TalksText Dependent Questions and Academic VocabularyDo a text talk lesson with participants: Snowflake Bentley or Stellaluna Lesson
25A Different Point of View… Recently, there has been heightened interest in using informational text with young children (Kletzien & Dreher, 2004; Pappas, 1993; Smolkin & Donovan, 2001). Studies have revealed the educational potential of read-alouds as a vehicle for exposing children to informational text (Duke & Kays, 1998; Smolkin & Donovan, 2001). Teacher-led read-alouds can provide the necessary support as children encounter potentially difficult content, text features, and challenging vocabulary often found in informational trade books. Webster (2009) found that reading informational text aloud to first graders had positive effects on their understanding of scientific ideas. Before-, during-, and after-reading activities promoted active engagement in the read-aloud sessions, resulting in students' deeper understanding of concepts such as hurricanes.Read Aloud this excerpt from Introducing Science Concepts to Primary Students Through Read Alouds by Kucan (Author of Text Talks and Co – author of Bringing Words to Life)Introducing Science Concepts to Primary Students Through Read-Alouds: Interactions and Multiple Texts Make the DifferenceBy: Natalie Heisey and Linda Kucan
26Content AreasThe first step in planning a science/social studies read-aloud is to appraise the book carefully.Start by reading the book from beginning to end for content.Self-assess your own understandingIt is vital that you resolve any difficulties you may have encountered so that you have a thorough understanding of the content.What portions of the book are hard to understand and why?You alone are in the best position to judge whether there is an appropriate match between the book and your students.
27Read Aloud across Content Areas… Once you judge the book to be an appropriate choice and have learned the content, read it again, this time attempting to empathize with your students.What knowledge does the author assume your students have, but that they probably lack?What new technical vocabulary is introduced and how is it linked to your essential standards in science/social studies?How has the author organized the book?Are there text features that represent complex patterns that mightpresent difficult choices about what to read next?What graphics are included and how useful are they?Are the graphics stand-alone or are they referred to in thetext?
28When we prioritize Read Aloud time across grade levels: We are helping our students achieve the following:Learn what fluid and expressive reading sounds like, prosody.Learn how to think aloud.Make connections to other pieces of literature.Think critically and construct knowledge.
29Let’s Talk About It! Choose a story card from your table. Find a partner that has a card from the same story.Discuss how you may use Read Alouds differently in light of the Common Core.
30SharedReading…is a type of focus lesson in which either enlarged print is utilized, or all students have the text to “share” the reading process. The teacher uses this time, explicitly modeling reading strategies and skills that the students need to learn. The responsibility for reading is “shared” between the teacher and the students, although the teacher reads most of the text.
32Strategies taught during Shared Reading K-2 StrategiesDirectionalityOne-to-one matchingLocating known words and lettersApplication of a phonics skillPredict and confirmSelf-correction strategiesVisualizationVocabulary strategiesMaking connectionsSetting a purposeText features3-6 StrategiesFix-up strategiesPredict and confirmSelf-correction strategiesVisualizationVocabulary strategiesMaking connectionsSetting a purposeText featuresAsking questionsDetermining textimportanceGraphic organizers
33Prior to Shared Reading Select a more difficult text than one you would use for guided reading but simpler than one you would read during a teacher read-aloud.Choose text based on relevant criteria such as print features, patterns in the text, and comprehension opportunities.Secure a copy of the text for each student because the heart of shared reading involves all students and the teacher looking at the text while reading together. (Morgan, Wilcox, & Eldredge, 2000).Preread the text, identifying your teaching points. Focus on a comprehension purpose, and direct the experience toward that purpose.Shared reading is highly useful for teaching about print and for illustrating strategies of cross-checking and monitoring. Plan carefully for these teaching moments to identify the lesson’s most important points.
34During Shared ReadingSupport fluent shared reading in which you read the text aloud while students read aloud at the same time, with periodic stops to discuss content. (In kindergarten, shared reading often involves an enlarged text that everyone reads together, while upper grade students engage in shared reading with partners or in small groups).Engage in a think-aloud, modeling the strategies that are your instructional focus for the lesson. Support students in concentrating their energies on that focus. For example, a third-grade class can practice using context clues to determine the meanings of words.Regardless of grade level, shared reading should engage students in a discussion of the text. Support students in thinking deeply about their reading and in discovering things in the text.
35After Reading Revisit the text during other group reading times. SharedReadingRevisit the text during other group reading times.Provide students with their own copies of the text that they can carry into their independent reading/partner reading.If the text remains difficult for some students, let them practice with more teacher support in a small-group, shared reading experience.This may come during your focus lessons if you using daily 5. The text used during shared reading can also be available for student to read during partner reading.
36Shared Reading Across Content Areas Prepare participants to read Inventor of the Cotton Gin. Pre-reading: We are going to biography, this is a true story about a person who impacted our history. During reading: stop and point out reading for meaning using context clues, rapidly, manufacture, litigation, patentTimeline Activity to show extension of shared reading and interactive activity.Timeline Extension!
37Shared Reading Activity Recall with your shoulder partner, the steps of the lesson in which you participated.What process do you think you put into practice?What standards were taught?How could we extend this lesson, using this text?Close Reading of Complex TextSocial Studies, Reading Informational TextPrimary Source Documents: Original Patent, Constitution-Article 8, Compare and Contrast other sources, Historical impact on agriculture (Science)
38Additional Resources: Integrated lesson plansLiteracy, Math, Science, Social Studies
40Reflect…What did you notice in that video? What did you like about it? What questions do you have? Share your thoughts with your table….
41GuidedReading… is the component in which the teacher meets with a small group that needs to work on a specific strategy or that has a similar reading level. Each student has a copy of the text and reads it quietly. The teacher uses this time to explicitly teach and to have students practice the strategy they need to learn while providing immediate feedback.
42Plan for Odd Numbered Lessons Plan for Even Numbered Lessons Lesson DesignPlan for Odd Numbered Lessons3-5 minutesRereading BooksPhonics/Word Work10-15 minutesNew Book (Instructional Level)Plan for Even Numbered Lessons3-5 minutesRereading Books/ AssessmentPhonics/Word Work10 minutesWriting About ReadingNew Book (Independent Level)There are several different models out there for guided reading, however, in order to get the most out of our time with our small group and to ensure we are providing a balanced literacy approach, we chose this model to best fit scheduling in Catawba County. This isn’t to say that it has to be identical to this, but you should include writing into your guided reading time.
43Click graphic to link to website to find full article Click graphic to link to website to find full article. Not going to go into a lot of detail about what happens at the table here, but if we look at this diagram, we can see that several components of balanced literacy could fit into this time. Word Work as well as Writing: Shared, Interactive, Guided and/or Independent
44What are my other students doing? Word Study Practice!Independent Writing opportunity!Give students responsibility for reading text independently!3rd graders must be able to read and understand one million words on their own!
45Independent Reading read text (either self-selected or …is a time when studentsread text (either self-selected orteacher recommended) at their Independent Reading level to practice reading strategies, develop fluency and automaticity. The teacher confers with students one-on-one, prompts the use of the strategies, discusses various aspects of the text, and learns about each student as a reader. Students may respond to the text in meaningful ways through writing, discussing, or sketching.
46Word Study …is the component that allows students work with words through fun and engaging lessons. Through word study, students learn letters and the sounds they make. They then move on to root words, suffixes and prefixes, and how to derive meaning of words.
47Focus on how words work Word Study Word Study Instruction in Reading includes:phonemic awarenessphonicsvocabularyWord Study Instruction in Writing includes:phonics spellinggrammar
48Grammar Vocabulary Phonics and Phonemic Awareness Spelling In regards to balanced literacy, we need to address the importance that these pieces play in daily instruction.Phonics and Phonemic Awareness are part of the five literacy components recognized by the national reading panel. We must provide this foundational instruction for our students, not only because it is expected within our reading foundational standards, but because it is imperative to their development of word knowledge.Louisa Moats reminds us that approximately 84% of the words in the English language are predictable therefore we provide our students with the fundamentals to be able to decode those words.An effective phonics program follows a defined sequence and includes direct teaching of a set of letter-sound relationships. Each instructional set includes sound-spelling relationships of both consonants and vowels. Sequencing helps students to learn the relationship between letters and sounds, and to use that knowledge to blend the sounds in order to read words, and to segregate the sounds in order to write words, even before they have learned all the letter-sound correspondences. Effective programs also include books and stories that contain a lot of words for children to decode using letter-sound relationships, and provide children with opportunities to spell words and write their own stories using letter-sound relationships (Blevins, 1998; Center for the Improvement of Early Reading Achievement [CIERA], 2001; NRP, 2000; Texas Education Agency [TEA], 2000).Phonics instruction provides key knowledge and skills needed for beginning reading. However, phonics should not be the entire reading program, but should be integrated with other elements such as language activities, story time, and small group tutoring, to create a balanced reading programSpelling should be differentiated and not for memorizationVocabulary instruction is very important and must begin early with tier II and tier III wordsGrammar and punctuation should be taught in CONTEXT and not solely in isolation.
49A critical component of balanced reading instruction is direct explicit instruction in: • phonemic and phonological awareness and letter-sound knowledge in kindergarten and first grade;• alphabetic knowledge, and blending and sound/symbol correspondence, structural analysis,contextual clues, and high frequency words; spelling;• comprehension strategies in order to evaluate, synthesize, analyze, connect, infer, and inquire;• vocabulary instruction.
50Stand Up, Hand Up, Pair Up!When the music begins, stand up, walk around the room. When the music stops, put your hand up, pair up with someone closest to you. High five and greet your partner. You will have 1 minute share ways in which you plan to or already use the reading components of balanced literacy in your classroom.
51Modeled Writing active writer. The teacher … is the teacher being anactive writer. The teachermodels the selection of topics;demonstrates the skills of gathering and organizing information; shows the need to clarify meaning; and models the ways in which information can be reordered, reoriented, changed, or deleted. Thinking aloud is critical in this component.
52“It’s much better if teachers of writing do write themselves “It’s much better if teachers of writing do write themselves. At one stroke, it puts you both in the same world.” J. R. Gentry
53What does a modeled writing session look like? The teacher is modeling not only the words that go down on paper or the specific focus of the lesson, but the teacher is also modeling the thoughts that go with the writing. The teacher is “thinking aloud” while writing.Often the teacher is writing slowly and saying the words a few ahead of what he/she is writing. Verbalizing when stuck and rereading what is written.
54How does a teacher model writing? Use chart paper, document camera, dry erase board, or SchoolPad to model writing. Children benefit from this method since they can see the teacher forming letters, words, and sentences on a large scale directly in front of them.
55Topic SelectionTeachers need to model how to select a topic, how to give reasons for topic selection, and how to write on a variety of topics. It is also beneficial for students to see their teacher keeping a topic list.
56Writing in a Variety of Text Types Teachers need to model the usefulness of drawing pictures or diagrams, making graphic organizers, jotting inmargins, and note-taking.
57Writing in a variety of Text Types In order for children to write in a variety of forms, they need to hear and see the variations. Avariety of genres should be read aloud to students. Theteacher should discuss thevariety of genres and then model writing that genre.
58Editing and RevisingTeachers need to model ways that writing can be changed, rearranged, or deleted. At this point, teacher “think aloud” is imperative.
59Shared Writing …is an instructional approach to teach writing by writing with your students.Teaching writing through the writing process allows the teacher to employ a “write aloud” opportunity. The teacher scribes while the students contribute ideas.SharedWriting
60During shared writing, the teacher transcribes the entire text whileengaging students in a rich discussionabout how the text should be composed.Shared writing is taught to small groups or a whole class in briskly paced, 5- to 20-minute lessons.Plan lessons for types of writing that present particular challenges to your students.
61Shared Writing Process Establish a purpose for the writing.Write the entire text yourself in front of studentsModel processes needed by your studentsDemonstrate in-the-moment revisionEstablish a purpose for the writing and an intellectually engaging opportunity for students to apply new learning. Students might write a letter to a local newspaper or write directions for a new game they have developed.Write the entire text yourself in front of students (using chart paper or document viewer) while requesting input from students regarding aspects of the writing where they most need to expand their expertise. Consider, for example, whether your students need to focus attention on paragraph structure, word choice, or sentence expansion.During the writing, model processes needed by your students. Have a small whiteboard available, for example, to demonstrate to students how to say a word slowly and write sounds heard into "sound boxes" (Clay, 2006) before writing a phonetically regular word into the text for them. For older students, begin with a root word and demonstrate how to add prefixes or suffixes to a new word.Demonstrate in-the-moment revision during shared writing as necessary to construct a strong draft. Reread the text to students from time to time to discuss what needs to be written next or to monitor whether or not the text conveys information clearly. Add a word using a caret, for example, or delete unneeded text.Read the completed text to students. Take a few minutes to have students orally summarize what has been learned about writing during this session.Post the text in an accessible spot in the classroom, and provide opportunities for students to read or use the text multiple times over the next several days or weeks
62Shared Writing Process Reread the text to students from time to time.Read the completed text to students.Post the text in an accessible spot in the classroom, and provide opportunities for students to read or use the text multiple times over the next several days or weeksEstablish a purpose for the writing and an intellectually engaging opportunity for students to apply new learning. Students might write a letter to a local newspaper or write directions for a new game they have developed.Write the entire text yourself in front of students (using chart paper or document viewer) while requesting input from students regarding aspects of the writing where they most need to expand their expertise. Consider, for example, whether your students need to focus attention on paragraph structure, word choice, or sentence expansion.During the writing, model processes needed by your students. Have a small whiteboard available, for example, to demonstrate to students how to say a word slowly and write sounds heard into "sound boxes" (Clay, 2006) before writing a phonetically regular word into the text for them. For older students, begin with a root word and demonstrate how to add prefixes or suffixes to a new word.Demonstrate in-the-moment revision during shared writing as necessary to construct a strong draft. Reread the text to students from time to time to discuss what needs to be written next or to monitor whether or not the text conveys information clearly. Add a word using a caret, for example, or delete unneeded text.Read the completed text to students. Take a few minutes to have students orally summarize what has been learned about writing during this session.Post the text in an accessible spot in the classroom, and provide opportunities for students to read or use the text multiple times over the next several days or weeks
63Benefits of Shared Writing Reinforces and supports reading as well as writingMakes is possible for all students to participateEncourages close examination of texts, words, and options of authorsDemonstrates the conventions of writing, spelling, punctuations and grammarFocuses on composing and leaves transcribing to the teacherHelps build motivation and increases confidence in struggling readersStep towards independent writingRegie Routman
64InteractiveWriting… is a collaborative writing experience for beginning writers in which the teacher guides students in the group- writing of a large-print text. Students participate in the composition and construction of the text by sharing the pen, physically and figuratively, with the teacher. The composition is read and reread by the group to make the reading and writing connection.
65“Interactive writing is a dynamic literacy event in which reading and writing come together.” - Andrea McCarrier
66Interactive Writing Process Teacher sets the purpose for the interactive writing lesson.Teacher and students brainstorm ideas together.Teacher elicits students ideas.Teacher and students compose the text by “sharing” the pen.Teacher models the writing process, specific element of writing, and revising with the students.Class reads aloud writing together and revisits the text as it is posted in the room.
67Implement your own informational (science/social studies) writing activity Start by choosing a shared experience and then continue on with the following steps.Do the activity together.Ask questions to elicit responses about the information that the children have learned.For young children, you might simply have them tell you something new that they have learned.For older children, it is appropriate to help them organize what they learned into main ideas.Write the children’s responses.Read the responses with the children to makesure that they say what you all want them to.Work together to make any changes needed.
68“The strength of the interactive writing procedure demands two levels of expertise. First, teachers need to know how to use the technique at a procedural level. Next, teachers need to refine the technique by making on-the-spot teaching decisions that are based on the immediate needs of the students with whom they are working.” Voices on Word Matters, Fountas, 1999, p.26
69When should Interactive Writing be used? Interactive writing is a powerful tool for beginning writers. Emergent Early Writers and Emergent Transitional Writers (generally grades K-1) should experience interactive writing frequently.Students learn concepts of print, spelling, phonics, and strategies for reading and writing. As students become Early Transitional Writers (generally late first-grade and second grade), they become more adept at writing independently.At this time, interactive writing may be used for specific purposes to meet the challenges of more complex writing (i.e., complex punctuation, complex sentence structure, vocabulary).The teacher may also use interactive writing to establish a community of writers (i.e., group thank-you letter).Interactive Writing, McCarrier, 2000, p.73.
70How can I use Interactive Writing? Writers need a purpose for writing and an audience. Use the learning experiences of the students to establish a purpose and audience to create written text collaboratively.Create a shopping list.Compose a group story.Create a sign.Write a letter.Compose a set of directions.Respond to a survey question.Summarize or extend a story read in guided reading.Summarize or extend a story that has been read aloud.Label art or a classroom item.Record information from an experiment.Record information from a class study or research.
71So what’s the difference? Modeled WritingShared WritingInteractive WritingComplete Venn Diagram to compare and contrast the three types of writing.
72Guided Writing …is a time when the teacher is focused tightly on a small groupof learners. During this smallgroup time, the teacher can reteachminilessons shared with the wholeclass and give an opportunity for the writers to engage with the minilesson concepts while the teacher is close by to guide and support. This small group time might be an opportunity to stretch and expand the writing skills of gifted students, to reteach key writing skills for struggling students, or to demonstrate an informational text feature a group of students would find helpful in their content writing. As in guided reading, this time is built upon learner needs. Groups are small, flexible and short term.GuidedWriting
73Getting Started with Guided Writing Prior to beginning guided writing, train your students to form peer critique groups. They can help each other while you work with a small group. Do not allow students to interrupt your lesson unless it is a true emergency.
74Before pulling your group together, formatively assess student understanding and development in the writing process.Select students based on a common need: sentences combining, capitalization, adding details This is your opportunity for a quick mini-lesson with a small, flexible group.Meet with one or two groups during each writing session. *Try to include every student in a guided writing group at least once every couple of weeksYour talented writers need special attention as well. They may benefit from learning a new writing technique the rest of the class isn’t ready to tackle yet.
75Ways to Implement Guided Writing Guided Writing as an extension to Guided ReadingGuided Writing within Writer’s WorkshopGuided Writing in Content Areas
76Guided Writing as an Extension of Guided Reading Guided writing fits naturally as an extension of a guided reading lesson, taking students into the world of the writer in response to their reading. Ask students to revisit their guided reading selection and think with the eyes of an informational author.What do we notice about this author’s word choice, use of bullets in a list, use of captions, or conventions such as bold face headings.How did these help us as readers?How might we use those tools in our own informational writing?The next step would be for students to begin writing or revising their own informational piece.Linda Hoyt
77Guided Writing Within Writers Workshop Guided writing can offer instructional power during writers workshop. Groups could be regularly scheduled where students know they have guided writing with you every Monday or … It could also be much more flexible in that you could use that allocated guided writing time to gather students in flexible needs groups to do some reteaching of a whole class minilesson or to teach an advanced lesson on voice in informational text.Linda Hoyt
78Guided Writing in Content Areas Math, science, and social studies all offer rich opportunities to gather small guided writing groups for explicit instruction and support on writing in the content areas. Even a brief session can heighten learner awareness and bring increased skill to their written communications.Linda Hoyt
79Let’s pull it all together… The Year of the Snake, Time for Kids Guided Reading, Interactive Read Aloud and Writing, Guided Writing, Independent Reading and Writing… Speaking and Listening with questioning!
80…is the component that affords students an opportunity to write about self-selected topics. They apply skills and strategies that are learned during shared writing, interactive writing, guided writing, and word study. The teacher uses this time to confer individually with students to assess their strengths and needs.IndependentWriting
81Independent Writing Independent writing should occur daily! Can be part of your guided reading stations ex. Work on Writing within Daily 5 structureStudents can:Respond to textJournalWork on draftsPublish work
87100 min. Insert daily five graphic Based on Brain research from Dr. Ken Wesson, the age of the child indicates the number of minutes they can maintain stamina in whole class and small group lessons. Take a minute to reflect on your teaching time. Does it reflect this research? What structure changes may be necessary to align your instructional time to the brain research?
95Assessment and evaluation Assessment of student performance and instructional practices should be done on an ongoing basis. Student progress should be monitored through:running records, miscue analysisanecdotal recordsskill and strategy checklistsreading and writing inventoriesstudent work samplesaudio or videotapes of student performancestudent self-assessmentsother formal or informal
96Literacy instruction should be based on assessment information Literacy instruction should be based on assessment information. It informs good teaching and documents individual learning throughout the year. Literacy lessons are best taught every day during blocks of uninterrupted time. These lessons should include intensive amounts of reading and writing. Instruction should include attention to letters and words and how they work. Phonics and word study is incorporated daily.
97“A balanced literacy approach focuses on two essential areas: reading and writing. This approach engages children in a variety of authentic reading and writing experiences… It benefits students in many ways: students develop a broad range of reading and writing abilities; both focused instruction and independent work are valued so there is a better chance to meet the needs of a diverse group of students; students learn basic information and skills but they also develop strategies that will help them apply their knowledge in a variety of reading and writing contexts; there is an emphasis on comprehension, which is the goal of all reading.”Pinnell, 2000
99Resources:Button, K., M. Johnson, & P. Furgerson. Interactive Writing in a Primary Classroom. The Reading Teacher 49, 6:Dorn, Linda; French, Cathy; & Jones, Tammy. Apprenticeship in Literacy: Transitions Across Reading and Writing. York, Maine: Stenhouse Publishers, 1998.Fountas, Irene C. Voices on Word Matters. Portsmouth, NH: Heinemann, 1999.Fountas, Irene C. & Pinnell, Gay Su. Guided Reading: Good First Teaching for All Children. Portsmouth, NH: Heinemann, 1996.McCarrier, Andrea; Pinnell, Gay Su; & Fountas, Irene C. Interactive Writing: How Language and Literacy Come Together, K-2. Portsmouth, NH: Heinemann, 2000.
100Thank you for participating! Mia Johnson, Curriculum Specialist Murray Elementary, Office Lora Drum, Curriculum Specialist Balls Creek Elementary, Office