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Wednesday 26 September 2012 Operations and Production Management Professor Robert Shaw School of Management Guangdong University of Foreign Studies.

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Presentation on theme: "Wednesday 26 September 2012 Operations and Production Management Professor Robert Shaw School of Management Guangdong University of Foreign Studies."— Presentation transcript:

1 Wednesday 26 September 2012 Operations and Production Management Professor Robert Shaw School of Management Guangdong University of Foreign Studies

2 1. Course arrangements a.Timetable b.Test c.Any problems? 2. Revision on organisational structures 3. Lecture: The History of Operations Management Theory - completion from the last lecture 4.Skills development: a.Overview of skills that are relevant to OPM b.Approach to enquiry / topic / problem c.Basics of report production Today (Session 4) Wednesday 26 September 2012

3 This is a proposal – it is not certain yet

4

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6 Revision: Organizational structure

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8 Departmental structures also known as Functional structures

9 Revision: Organizational structure More functional structures (departmental) Departmental, process, product, market region

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11 Revision: Organizational structure

12 Matrix structure

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14 Mixed Organization Mixture of functional, matrix, and pure-project organizations Companies with a wide range of projects Project has more than one purpose People are organized on a sub-project basis Advantages/Disadvantages Strengths and weaknesses of matrix organization apply Extreme flexibility in way organization adapts to project work Potential incompatibilities Confusion, conflicts Duplication of effort

15 1. Purpose of this lecture 2. Management theory for operations and production management 3. Evolution of management theory 4. Major schools of thought 5. Some key theorists CONTINUED FROM LAST WEEK Lecture: A history of management theory

16 1.To provide an overview of key ideas in management 2.To place these ideas into a meaningful framework or context 3.To show how and why management theory has evolved 4.To acquaint you with some of the key theorists in the Western traditions of management 5.To ask what is the relevance of Western theory to China 1 Purpose of this lecture

17 2 Management theory for OPM

18 3 Evolution of management theory

19 Maslow

20 Peter Drucker

21 That man who brought “culture” into management Born 1928 Netherlands 1947 trip to Indonesia Followed and English girl to England: “culture shock” 1953 degree in mechanical engineering 1967 PhD in social pyschology IBM management trainer and HR roles Dutch researcher Retired 1993 Geert Hofstede

22 http://www.geert-hofstede.com Geert Hofstede

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24 The five values found by Geert Hofstede are: Power Distance Uncertainty Avoidance Masculinity vs. Femininity Individualism vs. Collectivism Long vs. Short Term Orientation

25 Power Distance In cultures with low power distance, people are likely to expect that power is distributed rather equally, and are furthermore also likely to accept that power is distributed to less powerful individuals. As opposed to this, people in high power distance cultures will likely both expect and accept inequality and steep hierarchies. Uncertainty Avoidance Uncertainty Avoidance is referring to a lack of tolerance for ambiguity and a need for formal rules and policies. This dimension measures the extent to which people feel threatened by ambiguous situations. These uncertainties and ambiguities may e.g. be handled by an introduction of formal rules or policies, or by a general acceptance of ambiguity in the organizational life. The majority of people living in cultures with a high degree of uncertainty avoidance, are likely to feel uncomfortable in uncertain and ambiguous situations. People living in cultures with a low degree of uncertainty avoidance, are likely to thrive in more uncertain and ambiguous situations and environments.

26 Masculinity vs. Femininity These values concern the extent on emphasis on masculine work related goals and assertiveness (earnings, advancement, title, respect et.), as opposed to more personal and humanistic goals (friendly working climate, cooperation, nurturance etc.) The first set of goals is usually described as masculine, whereas the latter is described as feminine. These goals and values can, among other, describe how people are potentially motivated in cultures with e.g. a feminine or a masculine culture. Individualism vs. Collectivism In individualistic cultures people are expected to portray themselves as individuals, who seek to accomplish individual goals and needs. In collectivistic cultures, people have greater emphasis on the welfare of the entire group to which the individual belongs, where individual wants, needs and dreams are often set aside for the common good.

27 Long vs. Short Term Orientation Long-Term Orientation is the fifth dimension, which was added after the original four dimensions. This dimension was identified by Michael Bond and was initially called Confucian dynamism. Geert Hofstede added this dimension to his framework, and labeled this dimension long vs. short term orientation. The consequences for work related values and behavior springing from this dimension are rather hard to describe, but some characteristics are described below. Long term orientation: § Acceptance of that business results may take time to achieve § The employee wishes a long relationship with the company Short term orientation: § Results and achievements are set, and can be reached within timeframe § The employee will potentially change employer very often.

28 Born 1939 Degree in mechanical engineering 1968 PhD Sloan School of Management, MIT, 1968 Still active Henry Mintzberg http://www.mintzberg.org/

29 Henry Mintzberg

30 Born 1947 Degree in aerospace engineering PhD, Sloan, MIT Organisational development The learning organisation and systems thinking Peter Senge

31 1990, The Fifth Discipline: The art and practice of the learning organization 1994, The Fifth Discipline Fieldbook 1999, The Dance of Change 2000, Schools that Learn: A Fifth Discipline Fieldbook for Educators, Parents, and Everyone Who Cares about Education 2004, Presence: Human Purpose and the Field of the Future 2005, Presence: An Exploration of Profound Change in People, Organizations, and Society 2008, The Necessary Revolution: How Individuals and Organizations Are Working Together to Create a Sustainable World Peter Senge

32 Peter Senge: popular ideas

33 End of the lecture Here begins your SKILLS development for the session.

34 Skills developed in this course Basic skills for Operations and Production Management professional (The skills of enquiry / research / problem solving) 1.Identification of an issue / research topic / problem 2.Refinement and definition of the issue / research topic / problem (often formulated as a questions) 3.Recognise the different kinds of questions a)Scientific questions b)Practical questions c)Moral questions 4.Research online a)Come to understand your question b)Gain relevant information 5.Formulate your response to the question 6.Plan your writing 1.Structure (report format) 2.What to include 7.Write, re-write, re-write: writing is how you think 8.Check your spelling, grammar, paragraph structure, referencing

35 1. Study for the test. 2. No email this week unless you want to ask a question(shaw@porirua.net “OPM” in subject line).shaw@porirua.net 3. You can visit me in my office, email for an appointment. Your task for the week Academic papers on Operations and Production Management


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