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Chapter 9: The Age of Jackson and Reform (1815—1855)

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1 Chapter 9: The Age of Jackson and Reform (1815—1855)

2 I.The Adams (II) Presidency A.The Controversial Election of 1824 (Outline) * 4 Candidates… Adams, Clay, Jackson… Clay supported Adams in House… “Corrupt Bargain!” B.Adams in Office (1825—1829) (Outline)

3 II.Era of the Common People A.“Old Hickory” * Election of 1828: Reflected sectionalism… Personality of Jackson

4 II.Era of the Common People B.Jacksonian Democracy & Rise of Mass Politics 1.Election of popular Jackson: stimulus for reforms 2.Mid 1820s: states dropped property / tax requirements to vote… ‘28: voting increase 3x… Jackson got support of common man 3.National Nominating Convention (1832): replace party leaders in picking president. 4.“Modern Campaigns”: rallies, slogans, attacks 5.“Secret Ballots” 6.Reforms in democracy… reforms in social causes

5 II.Era of the Common People C.The Spoils System and Civil Service Reform 1.Spoils System & Patronage “To the victor goes the spoils”… Positive & Negative aspects 2.Pendleton Act of 1883 * Party member assassinated Prez Garfield * Exams now required for govt jobs

6 III.Increasing Presidential Powers in Times of Sectionalism Sectionalism: Loyalty to states/section; viewing problems on a sectional/state level Jackson favored states’ rights; believed that the final authority rested w/ the Union A.In Support of States’ Rights 1.Maysville Road Veto (1830) * Road w/in Kentucky: Maysville to Lexington

7 III.Increasing Presidential Powers… Sectionalism A.In Support of States’ Rights 2.Indian Removal Policy *Indian Removal Act (1830) * Worchester v. Georgia (1832) “John Marshall has made his decision…” * Trail of Tears (1838)

8 III.Increasing… A.In Support of States’ Rights 3.Limited Government (?) * Feared power of natl govt… limit liberty * Used veto to restrict federal activity… vetoed more acts than previous 6 prez * But actions increased power of prez… vetoes and actions earned nickname, “King Andrew” * Use of “Kitchen Cabinet”

9 III.Increasing Powers… B.In Support of the Union 1.Calhoun’s Doctrine of Nullification * Tariff of 1828: “Tariff of Abominations” * Reaction: SC’s Exposition & Protest 2.Jackson’s Reaction: Force Bill

10 IV.Jackson Declares War on the Bank *Re: Alexander Hamilton & National Bank *Henry Clay and the American System A.Powers: 1.Federal govt deposited all its revenue there 2.Used the money w/o paying interest 3.Controlled the amount of money in circulation by forcing state banks to maintain a certain level of specie reserves (money in coin) 4.Overall: stabilizing effect on the national economy

11 B.Why did Jackson Hate the BUS? 1.Distrusted banks in general: lost money in state bank 2.Only trusted “hard money”: gold silver (Banks issued bank notes) 3.BUS: symbol of special privilege: seen as monopoly by the rich and the business 4.Too much power: corrupting influence 5.Unconstitutional: Congress had no right to charter a bank (McCullough v. MD: yes!)

12 C.The Big Veto Bank’s charter was up in the year 1836 Henry Clay: pushed renewal earlier (1832) to make it an election issue Jackson: vetoed renewing the bank Legally: be opened until 1836, but Jackson couldn’t wait that long Jackson refused to deposit new funds and started to w/draw money from the bank New funds: deposited into state banks around the country Opponents: “pet banks”

13 D. The Effect on the Presidency Increased presidential power President: had power to do more than execute Congress’ policies Could make and change policy Independent actions set precedents for other presidents to follow Critics: “King Andrew”

14 E.The Effect on the Economy Harmful effect on the economy Pet Banks: lent funds wildly w/o limitations Reckless spending lead to uncontrolled economy growth Western banks: issued bank loans w/o having the proper amount of adequate reserves Jackson: annoy at the spending Issued the “Specie Circular” : govt agents could only accept gold and silver for public lands Land sales dropped; banks cut back on loans Plus bad farm years… Panic of 1837.

15 F.The Significance of the War Against the Bank 1.Sectional victory: West/ South over North W & S: want more money in circulation: easy loans Also resented national bank control over state banks N: want more stability and control that comes w/ national bank 2.Supporters: Victory of democracy: common people over wealthy elite… Democrats over Republicans… 3.Legacy: distrustful of a national bank 4.Increased presidential powers

16 US Senator & VP of Jackson President during depression, Panic of 1837 Defeated in re-election Martin Van Buren

17 William Henry Harrison Nickname: “Old Tippecanoe”: fight against Tecumseh End to Indian resistance Slogan: “Tippecanoe and Tyler, Too” First really modern presidential campaign, w/ songs, slogans, and political rallies Died from pneumonia: April 1841

18 John Tyler First VP to be elevated to presidency by death of the president Was he to be an “acting president” or a true leader? Sectionalism marked his term and the admission of slave states

19 James Polk Endorsed the concept of Manifest Destiny Mexican War and Cession “54’40 or Fight!” Bitter quarrels b/w North and South over expansion of slavery

20 Zachary Taylor Southern plantation owner, soldier, Indian fighter, hero of Mexican War Died after 16 months in office of food poisoning Only son would serve in the Civil War as a general for the Confederate Army

21 Millard Fillmore Born in a log cabin in rural NY Became prez after death of Taylor Signed controversial: Fugitive Slave Act (1850) Marked the end of his political career.

22 Franklin Pierce Two months before taking office, Pierce and his wife saw 11 year old son killed in a train wreck Cast a shadow over the White House during his presidency Signed : Kansas-Nebraska Act; “Bleeding Kansas”

23 VI.Spirit of Reform *Opportunities/ problems of Industrial Revolution/ National economy… Second Great Awakening… Civic virtue: good citizen for common good… Spirit of Age of Jackson A.Temperance Movement 1.Issues Behind the Movement 2.Successes of the Movement

24 VI.Spirit of Reform B.Women’s Rights 1.Restricted Rights *World Anti-Slavery Convention (1840) 2.Gains (1828—1860) *State, not federal: divorce laws, control over property and children *1869: Wyoming Territory: full suffrage

25 VI.Spirit of Reform B.Women’s Rights 3.Seneca Falls Convention (1848) *Elizabeth Cady Stanton, Lucretia Mott *Declaration of Sentiments

26 VI.Spirit of Reform “We hold these truths to be self-evident: that all men and women are created equal… The history of mankind is a history of repeated injuries and usurpations on the part of man toward women… to establish absolute tyranny over her…”-Declaration of Sentiments

27 VI.Spirit of Reform C.Care of the Mentally Ill * Early treatment… Dorothea Dix “If I inflict pain upon you, and move you to horror, it is to acquaint you w/ suffering which you have the power to alleviate… Lincoln: A woman in a cage. Medford: One mentally ill person chained, one in a closed stall for 17 years. Pepperell: One doubly chained, hand and foot; another violent. Granville: One often closely confined; now losing the use of his limbs from want of exercise…”

28 VI.Spirit of Reform D. Public Education * Voting required education… Horace Mann * Wesleyan College: first college for women * Oberlin College: first coed college

29 VI.Spirit of Reform D. Abolition Movement As country expanded, slavery issue more urgent 1.Abolitionist Activities * Spirit of Jacksonian Democracy * Emancipation… w/o compensation * W.Lloyd Garrison: Liberator

30 VI.Spirit of Reform “On this subject, I do not wish to think, or speak, or write, w/ moderation. No! Tell a man whose house is on fire, to give a moderate alarm… to tell the mother to gradually [pull out] her babe from the fire into which it has fallen– but urge me not use moderation in a cause like the present. I am in earnest… I will not retreat a single inch– AND I WILL BE HEARD!” --Garrison, The Liberator

31 VII.Spirit of Reform E.Abolition Movement 2.Leaders * Frederick Douglas * Harriet Tubman * Sojourner Truth * Angelina & Sarah Grimke

32 Underground Railroad Map of Underground Railroad Routes…

33 VII.Spirit of Reform Follow the drinking gourd! For the old man is awaiting to carry you to freedom If you follow the drinking gourd. When the sun comes back, and the first quail calls, Follow the drinking gourd The riverbank makes a very good road, The dead trees will show you the way Left foot, peg foot, traveling on, Follow the drinking gourd.

34 VII.Spirit of Reform E.Abolition Movement 3.Reaction in the North 4.Reaction in the South * Homework Questions: American Colonization Society; Divisions among Abolitionists

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