Presentation on theme: "1.Comprehension – visual supports 2.Motor – Environmental control 3.Expression – low/no tech partner assisted solutions – Voice Output Communication Aides."— Presentation transcript:
1.Comprehension – visual supports 2.Motor – Environmental control 3.Expression – low/no tech partner assisted solutions – Voice Output Communication Aides (VOCA) 4.Social/Participation – Philosophy woven throughout 5. Working Memory
1.Comprehension: visual supports to support attention, comprehension, memory quick and dirty solutions more durable ones that evolve over time
1 Comprehension: Visual Supports Time timer Countdowns
1 Comprehension: Visual Supports Schedules: Developing Visual Schedules: In general, schedules should be arranged from a "top-to-bottom" or "left-to-right" format, including a method for the student to manipulate the schedule to indicate that an activity is finished or "all done".
Visual Schedules Definition: A daily visual schedule is a critical component in a structured environment. A visual schedule will tell the student with autism what activities will occur and in what sequence. Visual schedules are important for people with autism because they: – Help address the person's difficulty with sequential memory and organization of time. – Assist person with language comprehension problems to understand what is expected of them. – Lessen the anxiety level of people with autism, and thus reduce the possible occurrence of challenging behaviors, by providing the structure for the student to organize and predict daily and weekly events. Schedules clarify that activities happen within a specific time period (e.g., understanding that "break time" is coming, but after "work time"), and also alert the student to any changes that might occur. – Assist the student in transitioning independently between activities and environments by telling them where they are to go next. Visual schedules can be used in all environments (e.g., classroom, gym, Occupational Therapy, Speech/Language Therapy, home, Sunday School, etc.).
First Then Are based on a "first-then" strategy; that is, "firstyou do ___, then you do ___", rather than an "if-then" approach (i.e., "if you do ___, then you can do___"). This first- then strategy allows the "first" expectation (whether a task, activity or assignment) to be modified, as needed. The modification is in terms of task completion and amount of prompting, in order to accommodate the student's daily fluctuations in his ability to process in-coming information. Then he can move on to his next visually scheduled task/activity.
A visual schedule for a student with autism must be directly taught and consistently used. Visual schedules should not be considered as "crutches" for students with autism, from which they should gradually be "weaned". Instead, these individual visual schedules should be considered as "prosthetic" or "assistive tech" devices. For the student with autism, the consistent use of a visual schedule is an extremely important skill. It has the potential to increase independent functioning throughout his life - at school, home and community.
Construction options: – taped down “static” – velcro – rings – taped hinges
2 Motor: Environmental control primarily to control objects (toys, blenders...) secondarily for social interaction
2. Motor: Environmental Control Some product’s design is inherently easier and/or motivating Leapfrog ABC ballString FXapple/potato peeler
2. Motor: Environmental Control Basic tools: – Powerlink Control Unit – Switches – Battery adaptors – Switch Latch and Timer battery adapter Powerlink control unitJellybean switch switch latch timer
2. Motor: Environmental Control A - Wall plug-ins
2. Motor: Environmental Control B - battery operated
2. Motor: Environmental Control Fancy options:
2. Motor: Environmental Control Computer: only briefly touch upon computers because: – so many programs/options – of options, computer doesn’t tend to be as socially engaging – tangible solutions (e.g., paper, objects that can be touched and manipulated) tend to encourage communication partners to interact and problem solve more
2. Motor: Environmental Control Computer: Cause effect software (frogger, etc.) Communication software Assistance with writing Art software
3. Expression: Partner assisted solutions strong social interaction component Voice Output Communication Aides (VOCA) primarily for social interaction can also be used to “control” environment via people
3 Expression: partner assisted most communication has elements of partner assistance (e.g., conversations have lots of questions, clarification, guessing... compared to lectures & news casting) How can we provide similar assistance to children with special needs in a way that works for them?
3 Expression: partner assisted choices: – objects – pictures – gestures – written choice communication
3 Expression: partner assisted Topic Boards
3 Expression: partner assisted Topic Boards hints: – Questions and clues for both partners – Include at least one thing that a person not familiar with the topic could comment on (e.g., did you see the eclipse? )
3 Expression: partner assisted Conversation books – “all about me” – Favorite topics: astronomy to favorite sound effects – A student who may not use symbols to request, might for social interaction – random selections are okay if support interaction!
1 BIGmack/LITTLEmack – single message: 1.request help (help please) 2.asking for comments (what do you think?) 3.share a comment (cool!) 4.“my turn” 5.“what’s next” 3 Expression: VOCA
2 Step-by-Step– series of messages: 1.news/reporting (e.g., home-school news) 2.giving directions during projects (read recipe) 3.read aloud during story book time 4.errands/missions (“where’s the stapler?”) 5. leading games (e.g., Simon Says, 500, Mr. Wolf etc.) 6.general chat/participation (“Mom, what are you doing?” particularly for kids with decreased vision or mobility)
3 Expression: VOCA 2 Step-by-Step– series of messages: » Typically if you’re doing it right you’re re-recording all the time » Hint: 1 st messages throwaway messages (e.g., excuse me; I’m looking for flour; What aisle is flour in?; Where’s the flour?;) if you think the person will need the extra time to acquaint him/herself with the sound of the device » Use white out to mark optimal volume on back » Repeat function – 1 click with back button » Purpose –to successfully participate by reducing demands
3 Expression: VOCA 3 Talking boxes with overlays: + can activate messages in any order - or randomly + can easily repeat any message directions (cooking, arts project) books – repeated lines games - (comments, asking for turns, requests...) conversation
3 Expression: VOCA 4 Talking photo album: creating personal stories all about the child social stories recipes/directions social interaction: – fill pages with photos of classmates/friends etc. – Kid can hand book to peer with note asking to record a message on their page
4. Social/Participation: Philosophy woven throughout Making situations easier for kids to communicate by working on new skills in familiar setting or with previously mastered skills Making situations easier for communication partners: increase the number and quality of interactions the child experiences. Using the child’s personal motivation (e.g., a love of sound, lights, social interaction, order, movement, repetition) to drive parts of an interaction
Low tech: communication notebook
Dedicated voice output devices
Personal-computer based voice output systems
Off -the -shelf devices with specialized software