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Introduction to Operations Management

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1 Introduction to Operations Management
Chapter 1 Introduction to Operations Management McGraw-Hill/Irwin Copyright © 2012 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

2 Chapter 1: Learning Objectives
You should be able to: Define the term operations management Identify the three major functional areas of organizations and describe how they interrelate Identify similarities and differences between production and service operations Describe the operations function and the nature of the operations manager’s job Summarize the two major aspects of process management Explain the key aspects of operations management decision making Briefly describe the historical evolution of operations management Characterize current trends in business that impact operations management Instructor Slides

3 Operations Management
What is operations? The part of a business organization that is responsible for producing goods or services How can we define operations management? The management of systems or processes that create goods and/or provide services 1-3 Instructor Slides

4 Good or Service? Goods are physical items that include raw materials, parts, subassemblies, and final products. Automobile Computer Oven Shampoo Services are activities that provide some combination of time, location, form or psychological value. Air travel Education Haircut Legal counsel Instructor Slides 1-4

5 Operations Management
For example a bank’s operation activities may include Forecasting Capacity planning (How any tellers? Too few or too many tellers will have a negative impact to profit) Scheduling Inventory management Quality assurance Service design Waiting lines Location of facilities Employee motivation and training Layout Process selection More …

6 Operations Management
PC manufacturer example Forecasting Capacity planning Scheduling Inventory management Quality assurance Product design Waiting lines Location of facilities Employee motivation and training Layout Process selection More …

7 Operations Management
This course is designed to acquaint the students with the area of operations management. This is an overview course in operations management where the students will be exposed to the tools used by decision makers in both the service sector as well the manufacturing sector to improve the decision making process.

8 Supply Chain Supply Chain – a sequence of activities and organizations involved in producing and delivering a good or service Suppliers’ suppliers Direct Producer Distributor Final Customers 1-8 Instructor Slides

9 > < = Supply & Demand Supply Demand 1-9 Operations &
Supply Chains Sales & Marketing Supply Demand > < = Wasteful Costly Opportunity Loss Customer Dissatisfaction Ideal Instructor Slides 1-9

10 Supply Chain for Bread 1-10 Instructor Slides

11 Basic Functions of the Business Organization
Operations Finance Marketing Organization 1-11 Instructor Slides

12 Operations Organization
Operations is concerned with the creation of goods and services Finance Finance is concerned with provision of funds necessary for operation Marketing Marketing is concerned with promoting and/or selling goods or services.

13 Organization - Operations
The operations function consists of all activities that are directly related to producing goods or providing services. It is the core of most business organizations because it is responsible for the creation of an organization's goods or services.

14 Organization - Finance
Budgeting Economic analysis of investment proposal Provision of funds Source Amount Timing

15 Organization - Marketing
Determine customer wants and needs and communicate those to Operations (for short term use) Designers (for long term use) Study the competitors/market and suggest new designs or modify design

16 Business Operations Overlap
Figure 1.5 Operations Marketing Finance

17 Operations Interfaces
Public Relations Accounting Industrial Engineering Operations Maintenance Personnel Purchasing Distribution MIS Legal

18 The Transformation Process
Inputs Land Labor Capital Information Outputs Goods Services Transformation/ Conversion Process Control Measurement and Feedback Value-Added Feedback = measurements taken at various points in the transformation process Control = The comparison of feedback against previously established standards to determine if corrective action is needed. 1-18 Instructor Slides

19 Goods-service Continuum
Products are typically neither purely service- or purely goods-based. Goods Services Surgery, Teaching Songwriting, Software Development Computer Repair, Restaurant Meal Home Remodeling, Retail Sales Automobile Assembly, Steelmaking 1-19 Instructor Slides

20 Manufacturing vs. Service?
Manufacturing and Service Organizations differ chiefly because manufacturing is goods-oriented and service is act-oriented. Tangible Act-Oriented Goods Services Instructor Slides 1-20

21 Manufacturing vs. Service
Degree of customer contact Uniformity of input Labor content of jobs Uniformity of output Measurement of productivity Production and delivery Quality assurance Amount of inventory Evaluation of work Ability to patent design 1-21 Instructor Slides

22 Managing Services is Challenging
Jobs in services are often less structured than in manufacturing Customer contact is generally much higher in services compared to manufacturing In many services, worker skill levels are low compared to those of manufacturing employees Services are adding many new workers in low-skill, entry-level positions Employee turnover is high in services, especially in low-skill jobs Input variability tends to be higher in many service environments than in manufacturing Service performance can be adversely affected by many factors outside of the manager’s control (e.g., employee and customer attitudes) 1-22 Instructor Slides

23 Process Management Three Categories of Business Processes:
Process - one or more actions that transform inputs into outputs Three Categories of Business Processes: Upper-management processes These govern the operation of the entire organization. Operational processes These are core processes that make up the value stream. Supporting processes These support the core processes. 1-23 Instructor Slides

24 Process Variation Four Sources of Variation:
Variety of goods or services being offered The greater the variety of goods and services offered, the greater the variation in production or service requirements. Structural variation in demand These are generally predictable. They are important for capacity planning. Random variation Natural variation that is present in all processes. Generally, it cannot be influenced by managers. Assignable variation Variation that has identifiable sources. This type of variation can be reduced, or eliminated, by analysis and corrective action. Variations can be disruptive to operations and supply chain processes. They may result in additional costs, delays and shortages, poor quality, and inefficient work systems. 1-24 Instructor Slides

25 Scope of Operations Management
The scope of operations management ranges across the organization. The operations function includes many interrelated activities such as: Forecasting Capacity planning Facilities and layout Scheduling Managing inventories Assuring quality Motivating employees Deciding where to locate facilities And more . . . Instructor Slides 1-25

26 Responsibilities of Operations Management
Products & services Planning Capacity Location Make or buy Layout Projects Scheduling Controlling Inventory Quality Organizing Degree of centralization Subcontracting Staffing Hiring/laying off Use of Overtime Directing Incentive plans Issuance of work orders Job assignments

27 Role of the Operations Manager
The Operations Function consists of all activities directly related to producing goods or providing services. A primary function of the operations manager is to guide the system by decision making. System Design Decisions System Operation Decisions 1-27 Instructor Slides

28 System Design Decisions
Capacity Facility location Facility layout Product and service planning Acquisition and placement of equipment These are typically strategic decisions that usually require long-term commitment of resources determine parameters of system operation Instructor Slides 1-28

29 System Operation Decisions
These are generally tactical and operational decisions Management of personnel Inventory management and control Scheduling Project management Quality assurance Operations managers spend more time on system operation decision than any other decision area They still have a vital stake in system design 1-29 Instructor Slides

30 U.S. Manufacturing vs. Service Employment
1-30 Instructor Slides

31 Why Study OM? Every aspect of business affects or is affected by operations Many service jobs are closely related to operations Financial services Marketing services Accounting services Information services There is a significant amount of interaction and collaboration amongst the functional areas It provides an excellent vehicle for understanding the world in which we live 1-31 Instructor Slides

32 Decision Making Most operations decisions involve many alternatives that can have quite different impacts on costs or profits Typical operations decisions include: What: What resources are needed, and in what amounts? When: When will each resource be needed? When should the work be scheduled? When should materials and other supplies be ordered? Where: Where will the work be done? How: How will he product or service be designed? How will the work be done? How will resources be allocated? Who: Who will do the work? Instructor Slides 1-32

33 General Approach to Decision Making
Modeling is a key tool used by all decision makers Model - an abstraction of reality; a simplification of something. Common features of models: They are simplifications of real-life phenomena They omit unimportant details of the real-life systems they mimic so that attention can be focused on the most important aspects of the real-life system 1-33 Instructor Slides

34 Models Types of Models: Physical Models Schematic Models
Look like their real-life counterparts Schematic Models Look less like their real-life counterparts than physical models Mathematical Models Do not look at all like their real-life counterparts 1-34 Instructor Slides

35 Benefits of Models Models are generally easier to use and less expensive than dealing with the real system Require users to organize and sometimes quantify information Increase understanding of the problem Enable managers to analyze “What if?” questions Serve as a consistent tool for evaluation and provide a standardized format for analyzing a problem Enable users to bring the power of mathematics to bear on a problem. 1-35 Instructor Slides

36 Quantitative Methods A decision making approach that frequently seeks to obtain a mathematically optimal solution Linear programming Queuing techniques Inventory models Project models Forecasting techniques Statistical models Instructor Slides 1-36

37 Systems Approach System - a set of interrelated parts that must work together The business organization is a system composed of subsystems marketing subsystem operations subsystem finance subsystem The systems approach Emphasizes interrelationships among subsystems Main theme is that the whole is greater than the sum of its parts The output and objectives of the organization take precedence over those of any one subsystem Instructor Slides 1-37

38 Model Limitations Quantitative information may be emphasized at the expense of qualitative information Models may be incorrectly applied and the results misinterpreted This is a real risk with the widespread availability of sophisticated, computerized models are placed in the hands of uninformed users. The use of models does not guarantee good decisions.

39 Metrics and Trade-Offs
Performance Metrics All managers use metrics to manage and control operations Profits Costs Productivity Forecast accuracy Analysis of Trade-Offs A trade-off is giving up one thing in return for something else Carrying more inventory (an expense) in order to achieve a greater level of customer service

40 Degree of Customization
Relative to other standardized products and services customized products: Tend to be more labor intensive Tend to be more time consuming Tend to require more highly-skilled people Tend to require more flexible equipment Have much lower volume of output Have higher price tags Degree of customization has a significant influence on the entire organization Process selection Job design Affects marketing, sales, accounting, finance, and information systems

41 Historical Evolution of OM
Industrial Revolution Scientific Management Human Relations Movement Decision Models and Management Science Influence of Japanese Manufacturers 1-41 Instructor Slides

42 Historical Evolution of Operations Management
Craft production Industrial revolution (1770’s) Scientific management (1911) Human relations movement ( ) Workers should be treated with dignity Decision models (1915, ’s) Influence of Japanese manufacturers JIT, TQM, …

43 Industrial Revolution
Pre-Industrial Revolution Craft production - System in which highly skilled workers use simple, flexible tools to produce small quantities of customized goods Some key elements of the industrial revolution Began in England in the 1770s Division of labor - Adam Smith, 1776 Application of the “rotative” steam engine, 1780s Cotton Gin and Interchangeable parts - Eli Whitney, 1792 Management theory and practice did not advance appreciably during this period Instructor Slides 1-43

44 Historical Evolution of Operations Management
Post Civil War Labors coming to the cities Increase in capitals by forming joint stock companies Separation of capital from employer Increase in production Improved transportation

45 Scientific Management
Movement was led by efficiency engineer, Frederick Winslow Taylor Believed in a “science of management” based on observation, measurement, analysis and improvement of work methods, and economic incentives Management is responsible for planning, carefully selecting and training workers, finding the best way to perform each job, achieving cooperate between management and workers, and separating management activities from work activities Emphasis was on maximizing output Instructor Slides 1-45

46 Scientific Management - contributors
Frank Gilbreth - father of motion studies Henry Gantt - developed the Gantt chart scheduling system and recognized the value of non-monetary rewards for motivating employees Harrington Emerson - applied Taylor’s ideas to organization structure Henry Ford - employed scientific management techniques to his factories Moving assembly line Mass production 1-46 Instructor Slides

47 Human Relations Movement
The human relations movement emphasized the importance of the human element in job design Lillian Gilbreth Elton Mayo – Hawthorne studies on worker motivation, 1930 Abraham Maslow – motivation theory, 1940s; hierarchy of needs, 1954 Frederick Hertzberg – Two Factor Theory, 1959 Douglas McGregor – Theory X and Theory Y, 1960s William Ouchi – Theory Z, 1981 1-47 Instructor Slides

48 Decision Models & Management Science
F.W. Harris – mathematical model for inventory management, 1915 Dodge, Romig, and Shewart – statistical procedures for sampling and quality control, 1930s Tippett – statistical sampling theory, 1935 Operations Research (OR) Groups – OR applications in warfare George Dantzig – linear programming, 1947 1-48 Instructor Slides

49 Influence of Japanese Manufacturers
Refined and developed management practices that increased productivity Credited with fueling the “quality revolution Just-in-Time production 1-49 Instructor Slides

50 Key Issues for Operations Managers Today
Economic conditions Innovating Quality problems Risk management Competing in a global economy Instructor Slides 1-50

51 Environmental Concerns
Sustainability Using resources in ways that do not harm ecological systems that support human existence Sustainability measures often go beyond traditional environmental and economic measures to include measures that incorporate social criteria in decision making All areas of business will be affected Product and service design Consumer education programs Disaster preparation and response Supply chain waste management Outsourcing decisions 1-51 Instructor Slides

52 Ethical Issues in Operations
Ethical issues arise in many aspects of operations management: Financial statements Worker safety Product safety Quality The environment The community Hiring and firing workers Closing facilities Workers rights Instructor Slides 1-52

53 The Need for Supply Chain Management
In the past, organizations did little to manage the supply chain beyond their own operations and immediate suppliers which led to numerous problems: Oscillating inventory levels Inventory stockouts Late deliveries Quality problems 1-53 Instructor Slides

54 Supply Chain Issues The need to improve operations
Increasing levels of outsourcing Increasing transportation costs Competitive pressures Increasing globalization Increasing importance of e-business The complexity of supply chains The need to manage inventories 1-54 Instructor Slides

55 Elements of Supply Chain Management
Customers – what products/services do customers want Forecasting – predicting timing and volume of customer demand Design – incorporating customer wants, manufacturability, and time to market Capacity planning – matching supply and demand Processing – controlling quality, scheduling work Inventory – meeting demand requirements while managing costs Purchasing – evaluating potential suppliers, supporting the needs of operations on purchased goods and services Suppliers – monitoring supplier quality, on-time delivery, and flexibility; maintaining supplier relations Location – determining the location of facilities Logistics – deciding how to best move information and materials 1-55 Instructor Slides

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